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Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au

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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 07:43
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SidKaria wrote:
Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled automobile companies’ common stocks to new highs, several industry analysts expect automakers, in order to conserve cash, to set dividends more conservatively that they were.



to set dividends more conservatively than they were
to set dividends more conservatively than they have been
to be more conservative than they have been in setting dividends
that they will be more conservative than they were in setting dividends
that they will be more conservative than they have been to set dividends





A) incorrect.

First, i thought that they is ambiguous, but it is not.Here they is referring to dividends. "analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than dividends were set".

if they would refer to automakers than the sentence would be" analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than automakers have been setting".

neither setting can be assumed nor have been is used.

b) incorrect.

they refers to dividends.

it can not refer to automakers because we need setting at the end. but we can only assume set,as setting is not used anywhere in the sentence.

C) correct.

they can only refer to automakers.

D) were is incorrect verb.They is not ambiguous.

e) in setting should be used. they is not ambiguous.



please correct me if i am wrong and also let me know if i missed anything.


Hi Sid,

Thanks for posting your question here. :-)

Well, this sentence compares the automakers' two states in that they were conservative in the past and now they will have to be more conservative. Hence, the pronoun "they" in the original sentence refers to "automakers".

Now lets do the PoE:

Choice A - It is incorrect because in the clause " they were setting", the word "setting" is missing because this word is not mentioned anywhere.

Choice B - The same missing word "setting" makes this choice incorrect as well as we need the verb "have been setting".

Choice C - This is the correct answer as it conveys the comparison c;early.

Choice D - Your reasoning is correct.

Choice E - Your reasoning is correct.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2014, 05:57
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There is no pronoun issue with B; but there is a ellipsis issue in this option. Remember, in order to a ellipsis to occur, we need 2 alternative meanings in the same sentence.
In B, the comparison is between the level of conservationism in the past (it is not specified that this conservationism is regarding the setting of dividends) and the level of conservationism that the analysts expect now (with regard to the setting of dividends). But without specifing that the conservationism in the past was related to the setting of dividends, the comparison is ambiguous. And this is the reason why I think B is wrong.
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2017, 19:42
I read all the explanation, but I still could not understand why choice B is incorrect? Ellipses are not preferred when we have another correct choice that seems to be wordy?
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 10:34
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AR15J wrote:
I read all the explanation, but I still could not understand why choice B is incorrect? Ellipses are not preferred when we have another correct choice that seems to be wordy?



In option A and B, the pronoun "they" refers to "automakers" (NOT "dividends") by virtue of parallelism*. Thus option A and B do not make sense: "...than automakers were" / "..than automakers have been" are both wrong because there isn't a possible word that is omitted (after "were"/"have been") occurring already in the sentence. The correct word that could follow is "setting", but this word does not occur in the sentence. Omission is not allowed from the second element of a parallel structure if the word does not already occur in the first element. Here the first element has the word "set", not "setting". Thus both options A and B are wrong.

[*If there are two antecedents of a pronoun which is the subject of a clause, then the subject pronoun refers to subject noun in another clause in the sentence (rather than a non-subject noun).]
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 22:39
Thanks RD and Sayantanc2k,

The below OG question confused me.



Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as the current one.

A. equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as
B. equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are
C. equally likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
D. as likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
E. as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are.

Correct answer is E. When we exapand choice E

Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are exceeding the current one.

here "to exceed" is replaced by "exceeding" in the later part of the sentence. Please help !
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 22:56
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AR15J wrote:
Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as the current one.

A. equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as
B. equally likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are
C. equally likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
D. as likely that they will exceed the proposed speed limit as
E. as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are.

Correct answer is E. When we exapand choice E

Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are exceeding the current one.

here "to exceed" is replaced by "exceeding" in the later part of the sentence. Please help !
Keep in mind that there is no full stop at the end of the last option.

Option E does not give us Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are exceeding the current one.

Instead, option E says
Traffic safety officials predict that drivers will be as likely to exceed the proposed speed limit as they are likely to exceed the current one.

Why did you go for the first one?
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 22:06
Hi Experts,
I do understand the role that ellipsis is playing in this question. However, I am not able to understand what is required to repair option A.
I did select option C, but I want to understand ellipsis in more detail; hence I would like to understand why do we need action verb to repair option A.
One of the post specifies that we require action verb - did/have done (refer to below)

several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively that they were. Were can not work, it has to be do, have done or did because first part of comparision has action so we need [action not linking] verb.

Can you please resolve the doubt?

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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 20:11
nikhilbhide wrote:
I am not able to understand what is required to repair option A.

Hi nikhilbhide, the core part of option A is:

Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than they were.

Since this involves Ellipsis, the most logical way to complete option A would be:

Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than they (automakers) were (conservative in setting dividends).

Now, the issue becomes clear. The above sentence is comparing:

i) How the automakers will set dividends (in future) Vs

ii) How conservative the automakers were in the past

This is not an apples-to apples comparison. An apples-to apples comparison would be:

i) How the automakers will set dividends (in future) Vs How the automakers set dividends in the past

Or

ii) How conservative the automakers will be (in future) Vs How conservative the automakers were in the past

In other words, we can’t have a mix-n-match.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Comparisons, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2018, 02:57
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manimgoindowndown wrote:
Could someone please explain how the they, in choice A and B are ambiguous? To me they are right next to a the noun they are referring to, and automakers is seperated by a comma.

Many comparisons employ ELLIPSIS: the omission of words whose presence is implied.
When words are omitted, the intended meaning must be crystal clear.
An ellipsis that allows for more than one logical interpretation is not viable.
A and B are incorrect because each allows for more than one logical interpretation.

Case 1: they = the automakers
A) Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than the automakers were [setting dividends].
B) Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than the automakers have been [setting dividends].

Case 2: they = the dividends
A) Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than the dividends were [set].
B) Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than the dividends have been [set].

Since Cases 1 and 2 are both logical interpretations, eliminate A and B.

Quote:
The only doubt in retrospect I have about B is I feel like the sentence leaves at an incomplete thought (missing 'setting' as the last word)

RULE:
A participle (VERBed or VERBing) may be omitted only if appears IN THE SAME FORM earlier in the sentence.
Answer choice B, Case 1:
Several industry analysts expect automakers to set dividends more conservatively than the automakers have been [setting dividends].
In Case 1, the participle in brackets -- setting -- is omitted but implied.
Because this participle does not appear earlier in the sentence, it may not be omitted in the clause in red -- another reason to eliminate B.

Quote:
I am not understanding how the 'they' in C is any less ambiguous than in A or B

In A and B, they is preceded by two viable antecedents (automakers and dividends).
As a result, A and B each allow for more than one logical interpretation.
C: Several industry analysts expect automakers to be more conservative than they have been in setting dividends.
Here, they is preceded by only ONE logical antecedent -- automakers -- so the intended referent for they is crystal clear.
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Re: Despite recent increases in sales and cash flow that have propelled au &nbs [#permalink] 17 Jun 2018, 02:57

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