GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 24 Jan 2019, 04:52

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in January
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
303112345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
272829303112
Open Detailed Calendar
  • Key Strategies to Master GMAT SC

     January 26, 2019

     January 26, 2019

     07:00 AM PST

     09:00 AM PST

    Attend this webinar to learn how to leverage Meaning and Logic to solve the most challenging Sentence Correction Questions.
  • Free GMAT Number Properties Webinar

     January 27, 2019

     January 27, 2019

     07:00 AM PST

     09:00 AM PST

    Attend this webinar to learn a structured approach to solve 700+ Number Properties question in less than 2 minutes.

Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

 
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 21 Aug 2012
Posts: 145
Concentration: General Management, Operations
Schools: HBS '19 (S)
GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V42
Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Feb 2013, 04:26
4
17
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 688 sessions

47% (02:34) correct 53% (02:53) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 570 sessions

41% (01:21) correct 59% (01:30) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 617 sessions

62% (01:14) correct 38% (01:31) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 566 sessions

85% (01:12) correct 15% (01:24) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 25 sessions

92% (00:58) correct 8% (01:12) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare: very rich kimberlite pipes, the routes through which diamonds rise, may contain only three carats of diamonds per ton of kimberlite. Kimberlite begins as magma in Earth’s mantle (the layer between the crust and the core). As the magma smashes through layers of rock, it rips out debris, creating a mix of liquid and solid material. Some of the solid material it brings up may come from a so-called diamond-stability field, where conditions of pressure and temperature are conducive to the formation of diamonds. If diamonds are to survive, though, they must shoot toward Earth’s surface quickly. Otherwise, they revert to graphite or burn. Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites. One can spend years searching for indicators and tracing them back to the pipes that are their source; however, 90 percent of kimberlite pipes found this way are barren of diamonds, and the rest are usually too sparse to mine.

In the 1970’s the process of locating profitable pipes was refined by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals found in diamond-rich pipes as opposed to those found in barren pipes. For example, G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes. Geochemists John Gurney showed that garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle. Gurney also found that though ilmenites did not form in the diamond-stability field, there was a link useful for prospectors: when the iron in ilmenite was highly oxidized, its source pipe rarely contained any diamonds. He reasoned that iron took on more or less oxygen in response to conditions in the kimberlitic magma itself—mainly in response to heat and the available oxygen. When iron became highly oxidized, so did diamonds; that is, they vaporized into carbon dioxide.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B) explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C) analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D) define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E) explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds



2.Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT

(A) level of oxidation
(B) commonness of occurrence
(C) chemical signature
(D) place of formation
(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond



3.The passage suggests that the presence of G10 garnet in a kimberlite pipe indicates that

(A) the pipe in which the garnet is found has a 90% chance of containing diamonds
(B) the levels of calcium and chrome in the pipe are conducive to diamond formation
(C) the pipe passed through a diamond-stability field and thus may contain diamonds
(D) any diamonds the pipe contains would not have come from the diamond-stability field
(E) the pipe's temperature was so high that it oxidized any diamonds the pipe might have contained



4.According to the passage, Gurney refined the use of ilmenites in prospecting for diamonds in which of the following ways?

(A) He found that ilmenites are brought up from the mantle by kimberlite pipes and erode out into the surrounding land in greater quantities than diamonds.
(B) He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.
(C) He showed that highly oxidized iron content in ilmenites indicates a low survival rate for diamonds.
(D) He found that when the iron in ilmenites is highly oxidized, conditions in the magma were probably conducive to the formation of diamonds.
(E) He showed that ilmenites take on more or less oxygen in the kimberlite pipe depending on the concentration of diamonds



5.Which of the following best describes the primary purpose of the second paragraph of the passage?

(A)It describes a method of diamond formation different from the one described in the first paragraph.
(B)It gives examples of the ways in which a method for locating diamonds may be applied to other gems.
(C)It gives examples of exceptions to the natural phenomenon of diamond formation as described in the first paragraph.
(D)It discusses an improvement to the process of diamond prospecting described in the first paragraph.
(E)It challenges the scientific foundation of the method of diamond prospecting described in the first paragraph.


Most Helpful Community Reply
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 08 Jul 2015
Posts: 56
GPA: 3.8
WE: Project Management (Energy and Utilities)
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 May 2016, 02:35
7
PrakharGMAT, smartguy595, RDhin - may I offer my understanding on these issues?

Q1- The primary purpose of the passage is to

Before going to answer the question, my quick summary to the passage:

Diamonds are rare & hard to detect --> only through "kimberlite pipes" can have diamond --> prev: several ineffective ways to decide which kimberlite pipes have good potential of containing diamond --> later: Gurney's method is more effective.

So now to the answer:

(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals - incorrect, if any the passage actual supports Gurney's method
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity - a little bit on the formation of diamond in the first passage, but the rest are all about how to identify rich diamond "kimberlite pipes". Moreover, passage only said diamon are rare - doesn't say anything about why they're rare --> incorrect!
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds -> very little discuss if any, the important of something at best should be compare with some other similar things, here, I don't see any of other similar thing, diamond is only through "kimberlite pipes" --> so, incorrect!
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions --> nope
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds --> yep, this could be one, 1st passage does talk about Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” and then elaborates more about it, the 2nd passage explore another more effective way to seek diamond in kimberlite pipes --> Correct!

Q2. Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT

(A)level of oxidation
(B)commonness of occurrence
(C)chemical signature
(D)place of formation
(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond

This is a tough & tricky one, I need to infer some of the information from the passage:

First, take a look at the 1st passage

“indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites.

--> so, I can infer that standard characteristic of a possible diamond mine must include garnets
Therefore, there is a conjunction (or good probability of appear together) between garnets & diamond
--> Hence, (E) is out

Second, take a look at the 2nd passage again:

focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals. --> so (C) is out

garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field - it talked about a place of formation (diamond-stability field) --> so (D) is out

G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes.
- there is an occurrence of garnets in difference pipes but some are more of Ca & Cr than other, could we hence infer that it's talking about how often you can find a type of garnets in different pipes --> so it does talk about commonness of occurrence, however, not too clear --> leave it to 50/50 chance.

So, we only left with A & B!

Read further, the rest of the passage only talk about iron and oxidation, nothing mention about garnets.

So, in all, (A) is more persuasive than B --> choose correct answer A
_________________

[4.33] In the end, what would you gain from everlasting remembrance? Absolutely nothing. So what is left worth living for?
This alone: justice in thought, goodness in action, speech that cannot deceive, and a disposition glad of whatever comes, welcoming it as necessary, as familiar, as flowing from the same source and fountain as yourself. (Marcus Aurelius)

General Discussion
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 21 Aug 2012
Posts: 145
Concentration: General Management, Operations
Schools: HBS '19 (S)
GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V42
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Feb 2013, 04:26
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 29 Nov 2012
Posts: 4
WE: Consulting (Commercial Banking)
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Feb 2013, 07:34
2
roopika2990 wrote:
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?

I just selected sentences that can help to detect the differences between the 2 types of garnet.

(A)level of oxidation : the passage mentioned the level of occidation as a peculiarity of iron solely.

(B)commonness of occurrence -> Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare ... garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(C)chemical signature -> by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures .... For example, G10 garnets, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes

(D)place of formation -> more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field

Hope it helps !
_________________

"We must do that which we think we cannot."

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 14 Dec 2012
Posts: 4
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Feb 2013, 15:23
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds


Why answer is E and not B ?
Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 31 Aug 2011
Posts: 161
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Feb 2013, 22:38
1
Even have doubts regarding first question. I elminated E because of a method, there are more than one methods discussed, I found B better because formation and reason for scarcity is discussed but thats not central idea so eliminated that too. at last I marked D because the first 3 lines introduce indicator minerals discussed later and second para is all about their characteristics. more thoughts plz
_________________

If you found my contribution helpful, please click the +1 Kudos button on the left, I kinda need some =)

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 21 Aug 2012
Posts: 145
Concentration: General Management, Operations
Schools: HBS '19 (S)
GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V42
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Feb 2013, 04:41
Alpach wrote:
roopika2990 wrote:
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?

I just selected sentences that can help to detect the differences between the 2 types of garnet.

(A)level of oxidation : the passage mentioned the level of occidation as a peculiarity of iron solely.

(B)commonness of occurrence -> Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare ... garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(C)chemical signature -> by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures .... For example, G10 garnets, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes

(D)place of formation -> more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field

Hope it helps !


Thanks for explanation, Alpach .. :-D
VP
VP
User avatar
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1106
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Oct 2013, 00:07
4
1
pankajjindal25 wrote:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds


Why answer is E and not B ?


There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.
B covers everything in the passage, but what it not covers is the intention of the author as to why he/she wrote the passage. Thereby B is the scope and e is the primary purpose of the passage.
_________________

Prepositional Phrases Clarified|Elimination of BEING| Absolute Phrases Clarified
Rules For Posting
www.Univ-Scholarships.com

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 01 Dec 2014
Posts: 2
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Apr 2015, 12:41
Can someone please explain why B is wrong on the fourth question?
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 28 Jul 2013
Posts: 59
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 May 2015, 20:33
1
pankajjindal25 wrote:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds


Why answer is E and not B ?

B says: "explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity".

There is actually no where in the passage that "formation of diamonds" has been explored. The only reference of diamond formation is in regards to "diamond-stability field" (where conditions of pressure and temperature are conducive to the formation of diamonds).

The passage is about kimberlite pipes, how most of them are barren and how some techniques (differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals in kimberlite pipes) can help to increase the "hit ratio".
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 28 Jul 2013
Posts: 59
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 May 2015, 20:42
nick2014 wrote:
Can someone please explain why B is wrong on the fourth question?

I believe you are referring to the following: He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.

"ilmenites" is actually an "indicator mineral" so the presence "ilmenites" cannot mean absence of diamonds. As per the passage, the presence of "oxidized" ilmenites would most probably mean absence of diamonds. Look at the following sentence from the passage:

when the iron in ilmenite was highly oxidized, its source pipe rarely contained any diamonds.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 443
Concentration: Technology, Other
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jul 2015, 20:26
Total time 8 min, all correct.
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2015
Posts: 198
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Feb 2016, 13:02
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE... :roll:

Please assist

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.
_________________

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Status: Always try to face your worst fear because nothing GOOD comes easy. You must be UNCOMFORTABLE to get to your COMFORT ZONE
Joined: 15 Aug 2014
Posts: 286
Concentration: Marketing, Technology
GMAT 1: 570 Q44 V25
GMAT 2: 600 Q48 V25
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Mar 2016, 05:31
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE... :roll:

Please assist

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.


Dear Experts,

Please advise on above query
_________________

"When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe, then you’ll be successful.” - Eric Thomas

I need to work on timing badly!!

Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 26 Nov 2015
Posts: 30
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 May 2016, 08:24
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE... :roll:

Please assist

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.


I do share the same point as pointed out by PrakharGMAT, we can still somehow try to map Level of Oxidation in regards to G10 & other versions, but i am unable to find anything in relation with APPEARANCE IN CONJUCTION WITH DIAMOND
_________________

PS : I do mind kudos :)

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 08 Jul 2015
Posts: 56
GPA: 3.8
WE: Project Management (Energy and Utilities)
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 May 2016, 02:01
Took me 8'15'' to complete, all are fine.
_________________

[4.33] In the end, what would you gain from everlasting remembrance? Absolutely nothing. So what is left worth living for?
This alone: justice in thought, goodness in action, speech that cannot deceive, and a disposition glad of whatever comes, welcoming it as necessary, as familiar, as flowing from the same source and fountain as yourself. (Marcus Aurelius)

Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 26 Nov 2015
Posts: 30
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Jun 2016, 03:41
Linhbiz wrote:
PrakharGMAT, smartguy595, RDhin - may I offer my understanding on these issues?

Q1- The primary purpose of the passage is to

Before going to answer the question, my quick summary to the passage:

Diamonds are rare & hard to detect --> only through "kimberlite pipes" can have diamond --> prev: several ineffective ways to decide which kimberlite pipes have good potential of containing diamond --> later: Gurney's method is more effective.

So now to the answer:

(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals - incorrect, if any the passage actual supports Gurney's method
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity - a little bit on the formation of diamond in the first passage, but the rest are all about how to identify rich diamond "kimberlite pipes". Moreover, passage only said diamon are rare - doesn't say anything about why they're rare --> incorrect!
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds -> very little discuss if any, the important of something at best should be compare with some other similar things, here, I don't see any of other similar thing, diamond is only through "kimberlite pipes" --> so, incorrect!
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions --> nope
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds --> yep, this could be one, 1st passage does talk about Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” and then elaborates more about it, the 2nd passage explore another more effective way to seek diamond in kimberlite pipes --> Correct!

Q2. Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT

(A)level of oxidation
(B)commonness of occurrence
(C)chemical signature
(D)place of formation
(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond

This is a tough & tricky one, I need to infer some of the information from the passage:

First, take a look at the 1st passage

“indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites.

--> so, I can infer that standard characteristic of a possible diamond mine must include garnets
Therefore, there is a conjunction (or good probability of appear together) between garnets & diamond
--> Hence, (E) is out

Second, take a look at the 2nd passage again:

focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals. --> so (C) is out

garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field - it talked about a place of formation (diamond-stability field) --> so (D) is out

G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes.
- there is an occurrence of garnets in difference pipes but some are more of Ca & Cr than other, could we hence infer that it's talking about how often you can find a type of garnets in different pipes --> so it does talk about commonness of occurrence, however, not too clear --> leave it to 50/50 chance.

So, we only left with A & B!

Read further, the rest of the passage only talk about iron and oxidation, nothing mention about garnets.

So, in all, (A) is more persuasive than B --> choose correct answer A


Thanks Linhbiz for the explanation
_________________

PS : I do mind kudos :)

Current Student
User avatar
V
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 4354
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
GMAT Prep RC: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2016, 09:58
2
4
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.


Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare: very rich kimberlite pipes, the routes through which diamonds rise, may contain only three carats of diamonds per ton of kimberlite. Kimberlite begins as magma in Earth’s mantle (the layer between the crust and the core). As the magma smashes through layers of rock, it rips out debris, creating a mix of liquid and solid material. Some of the solid material it brings up may come from a so-called diamond-stability field, where conditions of pressure and temperature are conducive to the formation of diamonds. If diamonds are to survive, though, they must shoot toward Earth’s surface quickly. Otherwise,they revert to graphite or burn. Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites. One can spend years searching for indicators and tracing them back to the pipes that are their source; however, 90 percent of kimberlite pipes found this way are barren of diamonds, and the rest are usually too sparse to mine. In the 1970’s the process of locating profitable pipes was refined by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals found in diamond-rich pipes as opposed to those found in barren pipes. For example, G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes. Geochemists John Gurney showed that garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle. Gurney also found that though ilmenites did not form in the diamond-stability field, there was a link useful for prospectors: when the iron in ilmenite was highly oxidized, its source pipe rarely contained any diamonds. He reasoned that iron took on more or less oxygen in response to conditions in the kimberlitic magma itself—mainly in response to heat and the available oxygen. When iron became highly oxidized, so did diamonds; that is, they vaporized into carbon dioxide.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. discuss an objection to Gurney’s theories about the uses of indicator minerals
B. explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
C. analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
D. define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
E. explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds



2) Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT
A. level of oxidation
B. commonness of occurrence
C. chemical signature
D. place of formation
E. appearance in conjunction with diamonds



3) The passage suggests that the presence of G10 garnet in a kimberlite pipe indicates that
A. the pipe in which the garnet is found has a 90% chance of containing diamonds
B. the levels of calcium and chrome in the pipe are conducive to diamond formation
C. the pipe passed through a diamond-stability field and thus may contain diamonds
D. any diamonds the pipe contains would not have come from the diamond-stability field
E. the pipe’s temperature was so high that it oxidized any diamonds the pipe might have contained



4) According to the passage, Gurney refined the use of ilmenites in prospecting for diamonds in which of the following ways?
A. He found that ilmenites are brought up from the mantle by kimberlite pipes and erode out into the surrounding land in greater quantities than diamonds.
B. He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.
C. He showed that highly oxidized iron content in ilmenites indicates a low survival rate for diamonds.
D. He found that when the iron in ilmenites is highly oxidized, conditions in the magma were probably conducive to the formation of diamonds.
E. He showed that ilmenites take on more or less oxygen in the kimberlite pipe depending on the concentration of diamonds.



_________________

Have an MBA application Question? ASK ME ANYTHING!

My Stuff: Four Years to 760 | MBA Trends for Indian Applicants

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
How I got into five schools from zero - Applicant Lab Review
Veritas Prep Live Online

Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Status: In the realms of Chaos & Night
Joined: 13 Sep 2015
Posts: 152
Re: GMAT Prep RC: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2016, 11:06
3
Timer : 10min 43sec

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. discuss an objection to Gurney’s theories about the uses of indicator minerals
Incorrect, as Gurney's theories are discussed only in the last 10-15 lines of the Paragraph.

B. explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
Incorrect, no details regarding formation of diamonds is given.

C. analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
Incorrect, the passage describes relation between the kimberlite pipes and the diamond. It does state the importance anywhere.

D. define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
Incorrect, Indicator minerals surface only in the second half of the passage. Also the characteristics of Indicator mineral are not discussed in "Differing Conditions"

E. explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds
Correct, the passage starts with the discussion of Kimberlite pipe, their formation, their characteristics and their relation with "Indicator Minerals".

2) Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT
A. level of oxidation - Correct, used to describe properties of ilmenites
B. commonness of occurrence - Incorrect, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes
C. chemical signature - Incorrect, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes.
D. place of formation - Incorrect, Geochemists John Gurney showed that garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
E. appearance in conjunction with diamonds - Incorrect, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes

3) The passage suggests that the presence of G10 garnet in a kimberlite pipe indicates that
A. the pipe in which the garnet is found has a 90% chance of containing diamonds- Incorrect, One can spend years searching for indicators and tracing them back to the pipes that are their source; however, 90 percent of kimberlite pipes found this way are barren of diamonds, and the rest are usually too sparse to mine.No reference of G10 w.r.t. 90%.

B. the levels of calcium and chrome in the pipe are conducive to diamond formation - Incorrect, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes. Passage and Choice B mean different.

C. the pipe passed through a diamond-stability field and thus may contain diamonds. Correct, Geochemists John Gurney showed that garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field;

D. any diamonds the pipe contains would not have come from the diamond-stability field. Incorrect

E. the pipe’s temperature was so high that it oxidized any diamonds the pipe might have contained. Incorrect, the oxidation is referred to Ilemnite and not Garnet.


4) According to the passage, Gurney refined the use of ilmenites in prospecting for diamonds in which of the following ways?
A. He found that ilmenites are brought up from the mantle by kimberlite pipes and erode out into the surrounding land in greater quantities than diamonds.
B. He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.
C. He showed that highly oxidized iron content in ilmenites indicates a low survival rate for diamonds. Correct, When iron became highly oxidized, so did diamonds; that is, they vaporized into carbon dioxide.
D. He found that when the iron in ilmenites is highly oxidized, conditions in the magma were probably conducive to the formation of diamonds.
E. He showed that ilmenites take on more or less oxygen in the kimberlite pipe depending on the concentration of diamonds.

Goodluck
=========================================================================================
"If a street performer makes you stop walking, you owe him a buck"
"If this post helps you on your GMAT journey, drop a +1 Kudo "

_________________

Good luck
=========================================================================================
"If a street performer makes you stop walking, you owe him a buck"
"If this post helps you on your GMAT journey, drop a +1 Kudo "


"Thursdays with Ron - Consolidated Verbal Master List - Updated"

Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2190
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: GMAT Prep RC: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jun 2016, 06:42
1
Interesting passage :) , all correct in 7 mins 40 seconds . Took 2 mins and 30 seconds to read the passage .
_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

GMAT Club Bot
Re: GMAT Prep RC: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect &nbs [#permalink] 23 Jun 2016, 06:42

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 35 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.