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Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the

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Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 22:00
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 351, Date : 25-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the medium of landscape appear in the writings of W.J.T. Mitchell and Mike Davis. Mitchell analyzes how European culture was exported to New Zealand by incorporating local imagery into traditional landscape painting. Davis, on the other hand, addresses the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles create landscapes of oppression, focusing on the schisms between different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within a society rather than on cultural imperialism. While each writer deals with the topic of landscapes of power, only Davis truly communicates this issue from the vantage point of traditionally disenfranchised groups. He gives particular consideration to the ostracization of the homeless, which he claims was done through the elimination of public restrooms and the redesign of park benches to prevent them from being used for sleep. Davis contends that these efforts constitute a systematic attempt to wield landscape as a tool of authority. As such, the shaped environment of Los Angeles reflects the will of the dominant culture and ignores the needs of those groups not in positions of power. This emphasis on the stratification of space within the city contrasts significantly with Mitchell’s focus on the practice of cultural assimilation used in New Zealand. While both authors concern themselves with the influence of culture upon the landscape, Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape rather than with the actual spaces that provide the subject for Davis’s writing.

Spoiler: :: OE
This is a primary purpose question, as indicated by the phrase primary purpose. The task of the question is to determine why the author wrote the passage. The subject of the question is the passage as a whole. In order to answer the question, determine why the author wrote the passage, then evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which does not match the author’s primary purpose. According to the passage, Mitchell and Davis both write about the issue of cultural expression through the medium of landscape but use different approaches. The passage concludes that both authors concern themselves with the influence of culture upon the landscape, with Mitchell focusing on representations of the landscape and Davis on the actual spaces themselves.

Choice A: No. The reference to two theories on cultural landscapes may seem appealing, since the passage states that Davis’ emphasis on the stratification of space within the city contrasts significantly with Mitchell’s focus on the practice of cultural assimilation used in New Zealand. However, this choice is a memory trap, as the passage indicates that it is the focus of the authors that contrasts significantly, not theories.

Choice B: No. The phrase cultural imperialism is recycled language from the first paragraph which may make this choice seem tempting. However, the passage focuses on the work of both authors, not just on Mitchell. Davis does not discuss cultural imperialism. Furthermore, the word criticize is an example of extreme language, as the passage is neutral in tone.

Choice C: No. The phrase landscapes of oppression is recycled language from the first paragraph which may make this choice seem tempting. However, the passage focuses on the work of both authors, not just on Davis. While Mitchell does discuss landscapes, he is writing about New Zealand not Los Angeles.

Choice D: Correct. The passage discusses the writings of two authors’ works, namely Mitchell’s and Davis’, on the influence of culture upon the landscape.

Choice E: No. The phrase public spaces in Los Angeles is recycled language and the word accessibility is a memory trap for the reference in the passage of the elimination of public restrooms and the redesign of park benches. However, the author provides these details in order to detail Davis’ work alone. The passage focuses on the work of both Mitchell and Davis.

The correct answer is choice D.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. reconcile two opposing theories on cultural landscapes
B. criticize an author’s interpretation of the motives for cultural imperialism
C. analyze an author’s studies on landscapes of oppression in Los Angeles
D. discuss two authors’ works in reference to cultural landscapes
E. question the accessibility of public spaces in Los Angeles


Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase the author of the passage would most likely agree in the question stem indicates this is an inference question. The task of the question is indicated by the words author…agree. The subject of the question is Davis’s interpretation of the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles serve as landscapes of power. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. While the author makes several points about Davis’s interpretation, the one that most clearly states the author’s opinion is only Davis truly communicates this issue from the vantage point of traditionally disenfranchised groups.

Choice A: No. The word unique is an example of extreme language. While the passage states that only Davis truly communicates this issue, it does so only in comparison to Mitchell. The passage does not state that Davis is the only author ever to have made such an interpretation.

Choice B: Correct. This answer choice properly paraphrases the statement from the passage that only Davis truly communicates this issue from the vantage point of traditionally disenfranchised groups. It can thus be inferred that the author would agree with this statement.


Choice C: This answer choice constitutes a reversal. It is Mitchell who addresses the topic of cultural imperialism, not Davis. The passage states that Davis addresses...the schisms...rather than…cultural imperialism, indicating that cultural imperialism is one factor that differentiates the two authors.

Choice D: This answer choice uses the recycled language landscapes of power. While the passage states that the shaped environment of Los Angeles reflects the will of the dominant culture and ignores the needs of those groups not in positions of power, it does not discuss these needs further.

Choice E: The word fails is an example of extreme language. The passage does not indicate whether Davis considers the implications of making public spaces equally accessible to all. As such, it cannot be reasonably inferred that the author would agree with such a statement.

The correct answer is choice B.

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements regarding Davis’s interpretation of the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles serve as landscapes of power?

A. Davis provides a unique interpretation of the conditions afflicting disenfranchised groups.
B. Davis evaluates the subject from a traditionally underrepresented point of view.
C. Davis explains the current situation of Los Angeles in terms of earlier cultural imperialism.
D. Davis outlines the cultural needs that result in landscapes of power.
E. Davis fails to consider the implications of making public spaces equally accessible to all people.


Spoiler: :: OE
This is a retrieval question, as indicated by the phrase according to the passage. The subject of the question is Davis’s work and Mitchell’s work. The task of the question is to determine how Davis’s work can be distinguished from Mitchell’s work. In order to answer the question, determine what Davis’s work does that Mitchell’s work dose not, and then evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, there are a few distinctions. First, Mitchell analyzes how European culture was exported while Davis, on the other hand, addresses the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles create landscapes of oppression. Second, only Davis truly communicates this issue from the vantage point of traditionally disenfranchised groups and discusses landscape as a tool of authority, which This emphasis on the stratification of space within the city contrasts significantly with Mitchell’s focus on the practice of cultural assimilation used in New Zealand. Finally, Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape rather than with the actual spaces that provide the subject for Davis’s writing. Evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice which does not match one of the distinction of Davis’s work.

Choice A: No. Addresses the issue of cultural imperialism is a reversal. This is a characteristic of Mitchell’s work, not Davis’s. The passage states, Mitchell analyzes how European culture was exported…Davis, on the other hand, addresses the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles create landscapes of oppression…rather than on cultural imperialism. Eliminate choice A.

Choice B: No. The recycled language representations of landscape may make the choice seem tempting, but the phrase disregards is too extreme. The passage does state that Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape rather than with the actual spaces that provide the subject for Davis’s writing, but this does not mean that Davis disregards them. Eliminate choice B.

Choice C: No. The phrase landscape as a tool for the manifestation of authoritative power is a memory trap. The passage does state that Davis contends that these efforts constitute a systematic attempt to wield landscape as a tool of authority. However, the passage indicates that Mitchell also holds this believe when it states Mitchell’s focus on the practice of cultural assimilation used in New Zealand. Eliminate choice C.

Choice D: Correct. The intent of landscape design is a focus of Davis’s work but not Mitchell’s. Davis contends that these efforts constitute a systematic attempt to wield landscape as a tool of authority, which indicates a purpose and intent to the design. Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape rather than with the actual spaces that provide the subject for Davis’s writing, which indicates that, unlike Davis, Mitchell does not focus on the intent of the design. Keep choice D.

Choice E: No. The phrase superior study is extreme language. The author discusses the focus of each writer’s work, but never states an opinion, so there is no such comparison in the passage. Eliminate choice E.

The correct answer is choice D.

3. According to the passage, Davis’s work can be distinguished from Mitchell’s work in that Davis’s

A. addresses the issue of cultural imperialism
B. disregards the role of representations of landscape
C. considers the landscape as a tool for the manifestation of authoritative power
D. ites the intent of landscape design
E. provides a superior study of the landscapes of power


Originally posted by srij13 on 24 Sep 2019, 09:53.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 22:00, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (810).
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Re: Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2019, 11:15
3
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. reconcile two opposing theories on cultural landscapes - passage describes the interpretation of two writers. It doesn't reconcile.
B. criticize an author’s interpretation of the motives for cultural imperialism - passage doesn't criticize
C. analyze an author’s studies on landscapes of oppression in Los Angeles - author explains the interpretation of the two writers on the landscape. Also, Los Angles is only related to a specific area in the passage. The passage doesn't revolve around it.
D. discuss two authors’ works in reference to cultural landscapes - Correct
E. question the accessibility of public spaces in Los Angeles - passage doesn't question/ doubt anything. Also, Los Angles is only related to a specific area in the passage. The passage doesn't revolve around it.

Correct Answer (D)
------------------------------------------------

2. The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements regarding Davis’s interpretation of the ways in which public spaces in Los Angeles serve as landscapes of power?

Type of question: Author's opinion
Approach:
a)Understand the question clearly.
b)Re-Read the location. Look at the words which shows author's opinion.
c)Try to predict the answer - approximately not the exact answer.
d)Scan the answer options.
e) Eliminate

Location in the passage:
"While each writer deals with the topic of landscapes of power, only Davis truly communicates this issue from the vantage point of traditionally disenfranchised groups. He gives particular consideration to the ostracization of the homeless, which he claims was done through the elimination of public restrooms and the redesign of park benches to prevent them from being used for sleep. Davis contends that these efforts constitute a systematic attempt to wield landscape as a tool of authority. As such, the shaped environment of Los Angeles reflects the will of the dominant culture and ignores the needs of those groups not in positions of power."

A. Davis provides a unique interpretation of the conditions afflicting disenfranchised groups. - author mentions that the opinion is from vantage point but doesn't say if it's unique.
B. Davis evaluates the subject from a traditionally underrepresented point of view. - disenfranchised means deprive (someone) of a right or privilege; So, from the first line in the above excerpt, this is the correct answer.
C. Davis explains the current situation of Los Angeles in terms of earlier cultural imperialism. - the author compares the will of the dominant culture and the group not in power, not the current situation and earlier power.
D. Davis outlines the cultural needs that result in landscapes of power. - Location Mismatch
E. Davis fails to consider the implications of making public spaces equally accessible to all people. - Irrelevant

Correct Answer (B)
-------------------------------------------------

3. According to the passage, Davis’s work can be distinguished from Mitchell’s work in that Davis’s
Location Based:last line of the passage.
Approach:
a)Understand the question clearly.
b)Re-Read the location.
c)Try to predict the answer - approximately not the exact answer.
d)Scan the answer options.
e) Eliminate

Last Line of the passage:
While both authors concern themselves with the influence of culture upon the landscape, Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape rather than with the actual spaces that provide the subject for Davis’s writing.

Predict the Answer: Mitchell deals with representations of the landscape while Davis deals with the actual spaces.

A. addresses the issue of cultural imperialism - out of scope
B. disregards the role of representations of landscape - Eliminate
C. considers the landscape as a tool for the manifestation of authoritative power - Location mismatch
D. sites the intent of landscape design - in line with 'deals with the actual spaces'
E. provides a superior study of the landscapes of power - Eliminate

Correct Answer (D)
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2019, 11:15

Different approaches to the issue of cultural expression through the

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