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Re: Discussions of how hormones influence behavior have generally been lim [#permalink]
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Explanation


3. It can be inferred from the passage that which one of the following is true of vasopressin?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Since vasopressin is inhibited or stimulated depending on whether osmolality is lower or higher, respectively, and since the whole process begins whenever homeostasis is threatened, (B) is readily inferable.

(A), (C), and (D) all mention steroid hormones, which are only mentioned in passing back at line 9. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone (line 41), that we know; whether vasopressin also qualifies as a steroid, or works with a steroid, goes unmentioned in the text, so all three choices should be rejected promptly.

(E) gets a key relationship backward, cf. lines 53-54: “thirst is stimulated only after vasopressin has been released…”

Answer: B
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Re: Discussions of how hormones influence behavior have generally been lim [#permalink]
Expert Reply

Question 3


Aannie wrote:
GMATNinja please give a detailed explanation of Q3

Let's start by considering the question, then take the answer choices one by one:

Quote:
3. It can be inferred from the passage that which one of the following is true of vasopressin?

(A) The amount secreted depends on the level of steroid hormones in the blood.

In the second paragraph, we learn that a "decrease in plasma osmolality" leads to "secretion...of vasopressin, a peptide hormone..." Thus, vasopressin is secreted when there is a "decrease in plasma osmolality." Since the level of steroid hormones in the blood has nothing to do with the secretion of vasopressin, (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) The amount secreted is important for maintaining homeostasis in cases of both increased and decreased osmolality.

We already know that a "decrease in plasma osmolality" leads to secretion of vasopressin. Further on in the second paragraph, we learn that "an increase in plasma osmolality...stimulates the release of vasopressin." So both increased AND decreased osmolality cause vasopressin to be secreted. Let's hold on to (B).

Quote:
(C) It works in conjunction with steroid hormones in increasing plasma volume.

Steroid hormones are mentioned in the first paragraph as an example of a hormone that can affect homeostasis. However, steroid hormones are not mentioned again, so we can't conclude that they work "in conjunction with vasopressin." (C) is out.

Quote:
(D) It works in conjunction with steroid hormones in regulating sodium appetite.

Using the same reasoning as we do for answer choice (C), we can eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) It is secreted after an animal becomes thirsty, as a mechanism for diluting plasma osmolality.

At the end of the second paragraph, we learn that "thirst is stimulated only AFTER vasopressin has been released." So first an animal secretes vasopressin, and then they become thirsty.

But (E) has this backwards -- it claims that vasopressin is secreted AFTER an animal becomes thirsty. So (E) is out, and we're left with (B).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Discussions of how hormones influence behavior have generally been lim [#permalink]
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Re: Discussions of how hormones influence behavior have generally been lim [#permalink]
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