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# During the early years of European settlement on a continent

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During the early years of European settlement on a continent [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2008, 19:09
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue
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21 Jul 2008, 19:44
jallenmorris wrote:
C.

spriya wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
This seems passive. That may not be the right term for it, but I'm certain it isn't correct. I don't like "were a help in the rescuing" This seems wordy and awkward.
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
"this" is a pronoun wihout a clear antecedent.
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
the clause modifies "Native Americans". Take it out and you have "Native Americans helped to resuce" That is clear and concise. No verb-tense disagreement and no orphaned pronouns.
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
The modified noun must come right after the comma for this sentence to make any sense. Because D & E do not have this, neither can be the correct answer.
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

I was concerned with E .Whats wrong with E.And in C moreover with the intimate knowledge made me reject it.That sounded awkward
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21 Jul 2008, 20:01
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

When you use the word "knowing", it is almost always used after a noun. Such as, "Allen, knowing he was about to be hit, closed his eyes and screamed like a girl." If we put E into the sentence, we don't find a noun preceeding "knowing intimately". The noun being modified comes after this phrase, which is rather odd. Also, the OP wasn't underlined, so I wasn't exactly sure where the question started and where the questions stopped. Additionally, a plain infinitive like "to rescue" is not often correct on the GMAT. Here the correct form, instead of "Native Americans helped to rescue" would be "Native Americans helped rescue".

I think "knowing" is one of those trigger words that can mark the start of a modfiying phrase, similar to "which".
"The ball, which he filled with air, bounced up and down."
"The doctor, knowing his patient had cancer, hesitated before he told the bad news."

Does this help?
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21 Jul 2008, 20:02
spriya wrote:
I was concerned with E .Whats wrong with E.And in C moreover with the intimate knowledge made me reject it.That sounded awkward

C definitely sounds best. E has an ambiguous modifier.

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22 Jul 2008, 00:29
C.

jallenmorris wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

When you use the word "knowing", it is almost always used after a noun. Such as, "Allen, knowing he was about to be hit, closed his eyes and screamed like a girl." If we put E into the sentence, we don't find a noun preceeding "knowing intimately". The noun being modified comes after this phrase, which is rather odd. Also, the OP wasn't underlined, so I wasn't exactly sure where the question started and where the questions stopped. Additionally, a plain infinitive like "to rescue" is not often correct on the GMAT. Here the correct form, instead of "Native Americans helped to rescue" would be "Native Americans helped rescue".

I think "knowing" is one of those trigger words that can mark the start of a modfiying phrase, similar to "which".
"The ball, which he filled with air, bounced up and down."
"The doctor, knowing his patient had cancer, hesitated before he told the bad news."

Does this help?

Just to add to what jallenmorris has explained above.

Knowing can come before the noun it modifies. However only if it is a opening modifier.
Something like this :
knowing his patient had cancer,the doctor hesitated before he told the bad news.

However it cannot come before the noun it modifies in the middle of the sentence. As it does in option E above.
Please correct me if i am wrong.

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22 Jul 2008, 01:31

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22 Jul 2008, 06:53
"their" in C is ambigous right?
It can refer to newcommers or Nativeamericans????

Am I missing something.

I chose A.
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22 Jul 2008, 06:58
"Native Americans, with their"

their is used so closely (although not right after its antecedent) that it clearly refers to Native Americans. Something else you can do to view this question in a different way is that everything inside the commas is the modifier, and this phrase follows directly after Native Americans, so the entire phrase clearly modifies Native Americans. Since the entire phrase modifies Native Americans, "their" within that phrase does too.

x2suresh wrote:
"their" in C is ambigous right?
It can refer to newcommers or Nativeamericans????

Am I missing something.

I chose A.

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22 Jul 2008, 08:55
jallenmorris wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

When you use the word "knowing", it is almost always used after a noun. Such as, "Allen, knowing he was about to be hit, closed his eyes and screamed like a girl." If we put E into the sentence, we don't find a noun preceeding "knowing intimately". The noun being modified comes after this phrase, which is rather odd. Also, the OP wasn't underlined, so I wasn't exactly sure where the question started and where the questions stopped. Additionally, a plain infinitive like "to rescue" is not often correct on the GMAT. Here the correct form, instead of "Native Americans helped to rescue" would be "Native Americans helped rescue".

I think "knowing" is one of those trigger words that can mark the start of a modfiying phrase, similar to "which".
"The ball, which he filled with air, bounced up and down."
"The doctor, knowing his patient had cancer, hesitated before he told the bad news."

Does this help?

yes this is a great explanation .Thank you.I agree with mamta too.Knowing can come before modifying phrase but only in the starting of a sentence.

As far as A is concerned passive is always a second choice in GMAT moreover in the rescue is also not good.

OA is (C)
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Re: SC-rescue   [#permalink] 22 Jul 2008, 08:55
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