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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha

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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Each choice except the third contains errors of agreement. In both the first and last choice, the singular subject (each in the first choice, every one in the last choice) does not agree with the plural verb were, while in the fourth choice, the plural subject women is mismatched with the singular verb was. In the second choice the subject and verb agree, but the descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical statement because each cannot be wives; each can be only one of the wives, or a wife.

The pronoun constructions in the first, second, fourth, and last choices are wordy. Also, the second, fourth, and last choices are very awkwardly structured and do not convey the point about Hemingway's wives clearly.

The third choice correctly links wives with were, eliminates the unnecessary pronouns, and provides a clearer structure.

Originally posted by empty_spaces on 30 Jul 2007, 21:37.
Last edited by Bunuel on 14 Feb 2019, 00:55, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2012, 19:58
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The most important clue here is that the four wives of Hemingway are collectively grouped under the plural noun women for a proper comparison with the pallid women of his novels. Therefore, we cannot entertain singular noun or pronoun such as each or every one in any of the choices, even though we might assign the right verbs for those nouns that. You may see, Choice A, B, D, and E are all alluding to the singular woman in some part or other. We can dump all of them as irrelevant in one go and choose C as the right choice. C is perfect in SV agreement and comparison
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2007, 02:03
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i am glad you posted this question again.

hypens act as commas.

Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

Hemingway’s wives, Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh, were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh is an appositive clause.

=================

Hemingway’s wives were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

can someone elaborate on the structure of the latter half of the sentence above? it does not seem to be an absolute phrase because it does not modify the entire preceding clause. it modifies wives.






empty_spaces wrote:
270.Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,
each ...are

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were
General Discussion
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2007, 06:53
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empty_spaces wrote:
270.Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were



Please EXPLAIN your answers.

thanks


Each is a singular for eg : "each apple from the basket was tasty and fresh"
or "each one has to face the ordeal called GMAT"
similarly each of his wives was an interesting woman..

So going by this logic . A and B out.
D and E are grammatically ill-formed and awkward.
C is correct..
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2009, 17:25
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Hai Badgerboy

In option B, "Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh" is the subject of the sentence

"--each of them Hemingway's wives-- " could not be the subject of the sentnece becuse it is in hypen, so the subject should be plural.

In option C the subject " Hemingway's wives" is also in plural farm

I couldnt find any error in B &C. please provide your valuable explanation

Thanks in advance
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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2010, 03:27
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I found the following piece of information on one of ManhattanGMAT forums. It was posted by Ron Purewal in response to a query. I am posting it here because I thought it might be helpful.

There are three main reasons for the use of dashes (--)
1) dashes can be used in the place of commas, to express some degree of surprise or irony at the content of the modifier that is being set off.

examples:
John, who is from las vegas, complained that winters in san francisco were cold.
There is no degree of surprise or iron into this modifier, so it is set off with commas as usual.

John -- who is from alaska -- complained that winters in san francisco were cold.
This modifier has a great deal of irony/surprise (for readers from other countries, alaska is much, much colder than san francisco). Therefore, the modifier is set off with dashes, because its content is ironic or unexpected.

(2) dashes may also be used as a substitute for commas to set off a modifier that NAMES people or things, especially if there is a LIST of such people/things.

example:
Three of the players -- john, joe, and sammy -- and their wives were absent from the team banquet.
In this sentence, it's actually imperative that we use the dashes, since the sentence would be ambiguous if you just used commas:
Three of the players, john, joe, and sammy, and their wives were absent from the team banquet.
There are two possible meanings for this version: (a) three unnamed players, john, joe, sammy, and all six of their wives; or (b) the above intended meaning.

3) dashes can be used to replace colons.
As far as i know, a dash can be used in essentially any context in which one would normally use a colon.
I believe that this would normally be done when there is an element of irony or surprise, or perhaps emphasis (much as in example #1 above).
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2018, 00:18
Quick question - what does "he" modify here in C? hemingway's wives? hemingway as a subject is not mentioned separately in the sentence, so what can he modify?

Isn't this a rule?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2018, 04:26
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Quote:
C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


Which "he' is being referred here? Probably you mean 'his'. His and Hemingway's are both possessives and hence isn't it oK?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2019, 14:48
could someone explain why d is wrong?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2019, 20:08
aditliverpoolfc wrote:
could someone explain why d is wrong?
The sentence that option D leads to is:

Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.

Here the subject is strong and interesting women (plural), but the verb is was (singular). This is probably the fastest way to take this option out.
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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 19:56
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AjiteshArun
can you elaborate on the structure of the latter half of the sentence above? it does not seem to be an absolute phrase because it does not modify the entire preceding clause. it modifies wives.

Hemingway’s wives were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 20:18
empty_spaces wrote:
Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Each choice except the third contains errors of agreement. In both the first and last choice, the singular subject (each in the first choice, every one in the last choice) does not agree with the plural verb were, while in the fourth choice, the plural subject women is mismatched with the singular verb was. In the second choice the subject and verb agree, but the descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical statement because each cannot be wives; each can be only one of the wives, or a wife.

The pronoun constructions in the first, second, fourth, and last choices are wordy. Also, the second, fourth, and last choices are very awkwardly structured and do not convey the point about Hemingway's wives clearly.

The third choice correctly links wives with were, eliminates the unnecessary pronouns, and provides a clearer structure.


This question is a pain for me... can any of the experts help on what this question is testing and share an easier POE

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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2019, 03:03
sayiurway wrote:
AjiteshArun
can you elaborate on the structure of the latter half of the sentence above? it does not seem to be an absolute phrase because it does not modify the entire preceding clause. it modifies wives.

Hemingway’s wives were all strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


Hello AjiteshArun,
I hope that you are doing well.

Can you please elaborate on the above construction (i.e, the correct answer choice).
IMO,
the second part of the sentence is like a contrast to the kind of women he emphasised in his novels, but what's confusing is that there isn't any conjunction to connect the later idea to the sentence.
But I also think that using "and were" after the comma would also be incorrect because pallid already describes the opposite :
Quote:
Hemingway’s wives were all strong and interesting women, and were very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


What will we call such a construction?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2019, 19:48
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aalekhoza wrote:
Hello AjiteshArun,
I hope that you are doing well.

Can you please elaborate on the above construction (i.e, the correct answer choice).
IMO,
the second part of the sentence is like a contrast to the kind of women he emphasised in his novels, but what's confusing is that there isn't any conjunction to connect the later idea to the sentence.
But I also think that using "and were" after the comma would also be incorrect because pallid already describes the opposite :
Quote:
Hemingway’s wives were all strong and interesting women, and were very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


What will we call such a construction?
Hi aalekhoza,

The very different from... is an adjective phrase. The usage we see in the correct option (which sets the phrase off with a comma) is not something we'd normally encounter in speech, but it is perfectly acceptable in writing (it is more common in formal writing). It's a good way to add emphasis to the idea mentioned previously. That is something that an and is not very good at on its own (an and would make it seem as if there are two parts to what we are saying).
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2019, 08:40
In the second choice the subject and verb agree, but the descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical statement because each cannot be wives; each can be only one of the wives, or a wife.

Can someone explain above!!!

How does "each of them Hemingway's wives" different from "each of Hemingway's wives"?

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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2019, 13:52
GMATNinja I eliminated C because "his" cant refer back to possessive. Can you point out what I am missing here?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2019, 23:57
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You may be thinking of the "possessive poison" rule, but the GMAT no longer seems to follow this rule, and in any case, it would never have applied here. The objection (when it existed) was to using non-possessive pronouns to refer back to possessive nouns. The idea was presumably that since possessives act as modifiers, the noun in question didn't directly occur in the sentence. It was always fine to use possessive pronouns such as "his" to refer back to possessive pronouns such as "Hemingway's."
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2019, 20:17
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can u plz explain why B is wrong?

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,
here subject is
Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh
so agrees with verb were

i know eah of them doesnot sound correct but can u plz explain
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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2019, 21:33
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vanam,

The subject is each and not the four ladies; the name of each wife is an appositive modifier for the subject 'each'. : of them" is a prepositional modifier that has no say in the number of the verb. therefore 'was' is the correct verb. "were" is wrong. That is the reason B is wrong.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 21:26
daagh wrote:
The most important clue here is that the four wives of Hemingway are collectively grouped under the plural noun women for a proper comparison with the pallid women of his novels. Therefore, we cannot entertain singular noun or pronoun such as each or every one in any of the choices, even though we might assign the right verbs for those nouns that. You may see, Choice A, B, D, and E are all alluding to the singular woman in some part or other. We can dump all of them as irrelevant in one go and choose C as the right choice. C is perfect in SV agreement and comparison


What is the antecedent to the pronoun "his" in this case (mentioned in non underlined portion) ? There is no mention of hemingway himself but only of hemingway's wives.
That's a classic gmat logical error i suppose.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha   [#permalink] 16 Sep 2019, 21:26

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