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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha

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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 22:02
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Azhr
Antecedent of 'his' is a non-issue. We know there is only male and whom else can 'his' refer to other than Hemingway? Can 'his novels' refer to Irving Wallace's or Sidney Sheldon's novels?
We also want a possessive noun for a possessive pronoun and 'his' and 'Hemingway's' are perfect foils.
Your point that we need non-possessive noun for a possessive pronoun is not clear.
In addition, we should limit the matching between 'his' and 'Hemingway's' I suppose but not extend it to his novels and wives. Otherwise, somebody will ask how one can equate wives with novels.
Azhr, can you please see the real logic?
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2019, 22:55
INSEADIESE wrote:
could someone explain why d is wrong?


It's wrong because the non-underlined portion indicates a plural sv comparison (women)
Words like each, every etc. are singular in nature.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2019, 01:43
The pronoun his in the non underlined part doest not have any noun to which it is pointing.
His points to hemingway. But Hemingway is present as possessive noun.
Help me if my understanding is wrong
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Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2019, 19:16
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Valt wrote:
The pronoun his in the non underlined part doest not have any noun to which it is pointing.
His points to hemingway. But Hemingway is present as possessive noun.
Help me if my understanding is wrong

Hi Valt , belated welcome to GMAT Club. :)

His is a possessive pronoun. Hemingway's is a possessive noun.
Possessive pronouns are allowed to have possessive nouns as antecedents.
Correct: Jerry's frequent absences hurt his grade for the class.

I am not sure whether you are also relying on "possessive poison," which does not apply here.
Under the possessive poison rule, a possessive noun cannot not be the antecedent for a non-possessive pronoun.

What many people believe about possessive poison on the GMAT is not accurate.
In another post, I wrote,
On the GMAT, as long as meaning is clear, both object and subject pronouns may have a possessive noun as an antecedent.

In that post I explained that possessive poison is not a hard-and-fast rule on the GMAT.
I included a few examples of official questions in which the correct answer contained a subject or object pronoun whose antecedent was possessive.

You can find that post here.

I hope that helps.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2019, 02:31
empty_spaces wrote:
Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were



Dear experts,
mikemcgarry IanStewart VeritasKarishma daagh EMPOWERgmatRichC DmitryFarber generis

1. In case of option C, I am unable to understand the placement of "all". Doesn't placement of "all" before strong associate "all" with strong?

2. Option B can be simplified to: Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh were strong and interesting women...
In this option, I do agree that the fact that these women are Hemingway's wives is an essential information. Hence, putting that information between commas is not correct. However, compared to use of "all strong" phrase, we could neglect the "essential information" argument.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2019, 03:39
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@anikhet

C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

This is the main clause of the sentence that is followed by the adjectival modifier (different is an adjective) following it, which modifies the four wives of Hemingway. If you parse it slightly differently, forgetting the appositive names listed between the dashes, you will get the following version.

All Hemingway’s wives were strong and interesting women, very different from the often-pallid women who populate his novels.

In the context, the word 'all' modifies the plural wives. This slightly twisted structure is quite acceptable, kind of a literary academic license given to writers to encourage variety.,I suppose.

Second, the SV error in B namely, "each of Hemingway's wives were strong" is too glaring to ignore. So C. the answer
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2019, 03:46
daagh wrote:
@anikhet

C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

This is the main clause of the sentence that is followed by the adjectival modifier (different is an adjective) following it, which modifies the four wives of Hemingway. If you parse it slightly differently, forgetting the appositive names listed between the dashes, you will get the following version.

All Hemingway’s wives were strong and interesting women, very different from the often-pallid women who populate his novels.

In the context, the word 'all' modifies the plural wives. This slightly twisted structure is quite acceptable, kind of a literary academic license given to writers to encourage variety.,I suppose.

Second, the SV error in B namely, "each of Hemingway's wives were strong" is too glaring to ignore. So C. the answer


Dear daagh,
Thank you for the explanation.

In case of option B, the phrase "each of ..." is between em-dash. So I considered that "were" is as per the 4 wives.
As per my understanding the sentence structure is: "A, B, C and D were ..." --> and "each of them ..." is just a modifier not governing "were".
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2019, 10:00
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aniket16c That's right--the part between em dashes is not part of the sentence core. The list of names is the subject and "were" is the verb. There's no error there. The problem with B is that it matches "each" with "wives." I can say that each of Hemingway's wives was interesting. In that case, "of Hemingway's wives" is just a modifier, and each one is interesting. But "each of them Hemingway's wives" is saying that each ONE of the women was Hemingway's WIVES. This modifier is trying to match a singular noun with a plural. That won't work.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2020, 05:28
Can somebody explain why E is wrong ?

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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2020, 17:43
aarushisingla wrote:
Can somebody explain why E is wrong ?

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Hi aarushisingla,

Focus on the last few words in that option:

every one of Hemingway’s wives were

The subject is every one, which is singular, but the verb were is plural. Because the subject and verb don't agree, we can take E out.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2020, 13:26
AjiteshArun wrote:
aarushisingla wrote:
Can somebody explain why E is wrong ?

Posted from my mobile device
Hi aarushisingla,

Focus on the last few words in that option:

every one of Hemingway’s wives were

The subject is every one, which is singular, but the verb were is plural. Because the subject and verb don't agree, we can take E out.


Thankyou for your response.
But isn’t the subject strong and interesting women just like in D.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2020, 17:17
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aarushisingla wrote:
Thankyou for your response.
But isn’t the subject strong and interesting women just like in D.
Hi aarushisingla,

Here are the three options C-E:

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were

In this question, the dashes are just like commas. We can remove them to check the structure of the rest of the sentence.

(D1) Strong and interesting women, each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E1) Strong and interesting women, every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Here are two ways to check what each a wife of Hemingway is:
1. Each a wife of Hemingway can be only a modifier. It cannot be a subject. That is, we cannot combine it with a verb.

Each a wife of Hemingway was... ← Can we say each a wife was? No, and therefore this is incorrect.

But every one of Hemingway's wives can be a subject. That is, we can combine it with a verb.

Every one of Hemingway's wives was... ← Can we say every one was? Yes, we can, and therefore this is fine.

2. Do you see the comma there after Hemingway in option D (in between each a wife of Hemingway and was)? That is another way to recognize that each a wife of Hemingway is a modifier. That is why option D can be read as:

(D2) Strong and interesting women, each a wife of Hemingway, was

In option E, however, there is no comma in between every one of Hemingway's wives and were. This leaves us with something that (a) is capable of acting as a subject and (b) is not surrounded by commas the way a modifier in that position should be.

(E2) Strong and interesting women, every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Here it is strong and interesting women that is the modifier.
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 02:07
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AjiteshArun wrote:
aarushisingla wrote:
Thankyou for your response.
But isn’t the subject strong and interesting women just like in D.
Hi aarushisingla,

Here are the three options C-E:

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were

In this question, the dashes are just like commas. We can remove them to check the structure of the rest of the sentence.

(D1) Strong and interesting women, each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E1) Strong and interesting women, every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Here are two ways to check what each a wife of Hemingway is:
1. Each a wife of Hemingway can be only a modifier. It cannot be a subject. That is, we cannot combine it with a verb.

Each a wife of Hemingway was... ← Can we say each a wife was? No, and therefore this is incorrect.

But every one of Hemingway's wives can be a subject. That is, we can combine it with a verb.

Every one of Hemingway's wives was... ← Can we say every one was? Yes, we can, and therefore this is fine.

2. Do you see the comma there after Hemingway in option D (in between each a wife of Hemingway and was)? That is another way to recognize that each a wife of Hemingway is a modifier. That is why option D can be read as:

(D2) Strong and interesting women, each a wife of Hemingway, was

In option E, however, there is no comma in between every one of Hemingway's wives and were. This leaves us with something that (a) is capable of acting as a subject and (b) is not surrounded by commas the way a modifier in that position should be.

(E2) Strong and interesting women, every one of Hemingway’s wives were

Here it is strong and interesting women that is the modifier.


Yes i got it.
Thankyou so much :)

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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2020, 05:36
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

empty_spaces wrote:
Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.


(A) Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were strong and interesting women,

(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each of them Hemingway’s wives—were strong and interesting women,

(C) Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—were all strong and interesting women,

(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—each a wife of Hemingway, was

(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh—every one of Hemingway’s wives were



Choice A: This answer choice features a subject-verb disagreement between the subject "Each of Hemmingway's wives" and the verb "were"; remember, the subject here is not "wives" rather it is "Each" which is singular. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice B: This answer choice features a disagreement between the pronoun "each" and the noun "wives"; "each" must refer to a singular noun, among a multitude, while "wives" is plural. The appropriate construction is "each of them one of Hemmingway's wives". This answer choice also presents vital information between two hyphens, which in this case function as commas; if the phrase "each of them Hemingway’s wives" was removed from the sentence, the pronoun "his" would have no antecedent. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice C: This answer choice maintains proper subject-verb agreement and pronoun use throughout the sentence and avoids the error of presenting vital information between two commas. Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Choice D: This answer choice features a subject-verb disagreement between "women" and "was"; remember, in this answer choice the subject is "Strong and interesting women" and the following two clauses modify this subject by naming the concerned women and informing us that each was a wife of Hemmingway. Therefore, the subject will remain in the plural form. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice E: This answer choice features a disagreement between the pronoun phrase "every one of Hemmingway's wives" and the verb "was", as the former is singular and the latter is plural. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Hence, C is the best answer choice.

One important thing to note here is that the use of the possessive pronoun "his" in this sentence is perfectly correct; here, the possessive noun "Hemmingway's" serves are the antecedent for "his".

To understand the concept of "Possessive Pronoun can be Used with Possessive Noun on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):



To understand the concept of "Extra Information Between two Commas on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):



All the best!
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Re: Each of Hemingway’s wives—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2020, 05:36

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