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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen

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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Oct 2017, 07:14
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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recently fish populations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined and the lake' waters have become cleaner. Fears are now being voiced that the planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottom might revive pollution and cause the fish population to decline again. However, a technology for preventing leaks is being installed. Therefore, provided this technology is effective, those fears are groundless.

Which of the following,if true, seriously weakens the argument?

(A) The Pipeline's construction will disturb sediments at the bottom of the lake, dispensing into the water toxic pollutants that have settled there.

(B) Changes in the land use and drainage patterns around the lake mean that the lake's waters are increasingly likely to be affected by agricultural runoff.

(C) The leak-preventing technology has been in use for several years without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks.

(D) A major leak of oil from the pipeline would harm not only the lake's fish but also populations of other aquatic animals and plants.

(E) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, non native species of fish have been introduced into the lake and now make up a considerable proportion of its overall fish population.

A different version of the question premise is here : http://gmatclub.com/forum/early-in-the- ... 78246.html

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Originally posted by kinjiGC on 19 Jun 2015, 21:32.
Last edited by hazelnut on 23 Oct 2017, 07:14, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2015, 21:43
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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recently fish populations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined and the lake' waters have become cleaner. Fears are now being voiced that the planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottom might revive pollution and cause the fish population to decline again. However, a technology for preventing leaks is being installed. Therefore, provided this technology is effective, those fears are groundless.

Which of the following,if true, seriously weakens the argument?

Conclusion : those fears are groundless
Premise 1: a technology for preventing leaks is being installed
Premise 2 : provided this technology is effective

A) The Pipeline's construction will disturb sediments at the bottom of the lake, dispensing into the water toxic pollutants that have settled there.
This option creates doubts that pollution will occur not because of the leakage but because of pipeline construction -> So it follows the premise 2 and finds faults with other things during the construction of the pipeline
This weakener option is attacking the assumption of the argument


B) Changes in the land use and drainage patterns around the lake mean that the lake's waters are increasingly likely to be affected by agricultural runoff.
This option talks about general land use and drainage pattern which is always present. This option has nothing to do with construction of pipelines.
Hence doesn't weaken the argument in scope


C) The leak-preventing technology has been in use for several years without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks.
This is a neutral arguments and provides a general information about the leakage and it is not concerned about the argument

D) A major leak of oil from the pipeline would harm not only the lake's fish but also populations of other aquatic animals and plants.
But we already have a premise 2 which prevents the same point -> leakage

E) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, non native species of fish have been introduced into the lake and now make up a considerable proportion of its overall fish population.
This is a neutral arguments and provides a general information about the population of the lake and it is not concerned about the argument
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 01:34
Quote:
Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recently fish populations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined and the lake' waters have become cleaner. Fears are now being voiced that the planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottom might revive pollution and cause the fish population to decline again. However, a technology for preventing leaks is being installed. Therefore, provided this technology is effective, those fears are groundless.

Which of the following,if true, seriously weakens the argument?

(A) The Pipeline's construction will disturb sediments at the bottom of the lake, dispensing into the water toxic pollutants that have settled there.

(B) Changes in the land use and drainage patterns around the lake mean that the lake's waters are increasingly likely to be affected by agricultural runoff.

(C) The leak-preventing technology has been in use for several years without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks.

(D) A major leak of oil from the pipeline would harm not only the lake's fish but also populations of other aquatic animals and plants.

(E) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, non native species of fish have been introduced into the lake and now make up a considerable proportion of its overall fish population.



HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , SarahPurewal

Here we have to weaken technology is ineffective, there is fear too!!!

How would A weaken?
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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 10:32
1
NandishSS wrote:
Quote:
Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recently fish populations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined and the lake' waters have become cleaner. Fears are now being voiced that the planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottom might revive pollution and cause the fish population to decline again. However, a technology for preventing leaks is being installed. Therefore, provided this technology is effective, those fears are groundless.

Which of the following,if true, seriously weakens the argument?

(A) The Pipeline's construction will disturb sediments at the bottom of the lake, dispensing into the water toxic pollutants that have settled there.

(B) Changes in the land use and drainage patterns around the lake mean that the lake's waters are increasingly likely to be affected by agricultural runoff.

(C) The leak-preventing technology has been in use for several years without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks.

(D) A major leak of oil from the pipeline would harm not only the lake's fish but also populations of other aquatic animals and plants.

(E) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, non native species of fish have been introduced into the lake and now make up a considerable proportion of its overall fish population.



HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , SarahPurewal

Here we have to weaken technology is ineffective, there is fear too!!!

How would A weaken?


hey NandishSS, my friend just would like to share my reasoning :-)


So you have to weaken not the fact that the technology of pipiline is ineffective, but that installation of such pipile is ineffective. when weakening argument you need to find a additional reason that will undermine the argument. Yet, this reason should be relevant to the argument itself. look at aswer choices and pay close attenton to key words mentioned in the argument such as installation, pipilene, pollution So the major concern is the pollution and not the technology.

(A) The Pipeline's construction will disturb sediments at the bottom of the lake, dispensing into the water toxic pollutants that have settled there.
(A option talks about costruction i.e. installation that will cause toxic pollution. this is a reason that can weaken the argument. in other words, it will prove that despite leak preventing technology, the installation will still cause pollution.

(B) Changes in the land use and drainage patterns around the lake mean that the lake's waters are increasingly likely to be affected by agricultural runoff.

now look at this option, nowhere is mentioned agricultral runoff, we arent talking about irrigation, we are concerned about fish :) its out of scope.


(C) The leak-preventing technology has been in use for several years without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks.

Again C doesnt weaken argument cause it simply provides addittional but not contradictory information about leak-preventing techology.

(D) A major leak of oil from the pipeline would harm not only the lake's fish but also populations of other aquatic animals and plants.

D option just gives infirmation, saying that not only fish but other animals will suffer, but doesnt it weaken the installation of pipiline. it simply reiterates the information given in the argument by providing concomitant information (such as other animals)

(E) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, non native species of fish have been introduced into the lake and now make up a considerable proportion of its overall fish population.
this is just out of scope at all and not worth the discussion :) talking about species of fish, who cares. we talk about preventing pollution :)


Now when you have examined all options ask yourself which option would you choose through POE ? :)
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 16:28
NandishSS wrote:
HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , SarahPurewal

Here we have to weaken technology is ineffective, there is fear too!!!

How would A weaken?

Hi NandishSS! :-)

The conclusion here is: "Fears that the fish population will decline with the construction of the new oil pipeline are groundless, because of this new technology which prevents oil leaks in the pipeline". We need to weaken this argument somehow. To weaken an argument, we want to identify the assumptions, and find one of them to refute. Here are a few assumptions that this argument makes:

1. Oil leaks are the sole cause of the fish population decline
2. The new technology will successfully prevent oil leaks

We only need to refute one of them in order to successfully weaken the conclusion; we don't have to address both or all of them (there are many other assumptions that we could consider). Choice A addresses the first assumption -- it tells us that there is another reason that construction of the oil pipeline could harm the fish population. Therefore, the new technology will not change the fact that the fish population will decline, since the new technology can only address oil leaks. So the new technology will be ineffective, and so the argument is invalid.

Does that make sense? :-)
-Carolyn
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 03:31
kinjiGC,

This is GMAT Prep question. I got it correct as option A but I did spend time on option C. Now I really want to understand what option C means exactly ? Part i.e "without any pipeline in which it is installed developing serious leaks " does not make sense to me ? "without any pipeline " is a typo ? Once you help me to understand the meaning with this abstract or half baked sentence then I will be read why C is wrong.
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 09:01
The Department of Homeland Security has proposed new federal requirements for driver???s licenses that would allow them to be used as part of a national identification system. Using licenses for purposes not directly related to operating a motor vehicle is un-American because it would require U.S. citizens to carry the equivalent of ???papers.??? Such a requirement would allow the government to restrict their movements and activities in the manner of totalitarian regimes. In time, this could make other limits on freedom acceptable.

The author assumes which of the following?

(A) The next presidential election will be dishonest, as has happened in eastern European countries.
(B) The government will soon start curtailing the activities of those it considers ???dissidents.???
(C) Blanket restrictions on law-abiding individuals are contrary to the traditions of American culture and law.
(D) The majority of Americans are not willing to give up their right to travel and move about without identification.
(E) Americans should resist all government regulation of their lives.
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Re: Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen &nbs [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 09:01
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Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recen

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