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Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci

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Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 06:41
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E

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Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capacity for empathy similar to that of humans. They habitually bury their dead by placing sticks and leaves over a member of their herd that has died. They are not known to bury animals other than elephants, but in some cases they have mourned humans with which they had established a relationship, leading to the theory that elephants will bury other animals with which they have had a direct relationship, but only those animals. Surprisingly, however, elephants have been found to visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?


A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know.

B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.

C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.

D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.

E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.

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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 20 Aug 2019, 07:46
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All options (A), (B), (C) and (D) don't help to explain, at least partially, why elephants visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.

Only option (E) most helps to explain the surprising finding on why elephants visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life. As long as the deceased are elephants or any animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence, the elephants will bury or visit the grave of such deceased animals.

Answer is (E)

Originally posted by chondro48 on 20 Aug 2019, 07:30.
Last edited by chondro48 on 20 Aug 2019, 07:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 07:34
1) Elephants have similar intelligence as of humans and empathy as humans have.
2) They show empathy over the death of other elephants by putting a stick over the dead.
3) Sometimes they have mourned humans ( only with those person with whom they have some past relationship)
4) Conclusion- They will mourn over other animals whom they have known by putting stick
5) Surprisingly, People found elephants mourning over the grave of other death elephants whom they have never known.
( things to analogy are- intelligence and empathy capability of humans and elephants, mourn over the death of other even on them whom elephants have not personally known.)
These gaps can be related with only option E.

Will be thankful to get review over my reasoning as my yesterdays Gmat offical exam made me realize my reasoning is weak.
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 07:38
Someone pls explain what is the answer. I marked E but am not convinced by it
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 20 Aug 2019, 22:15
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From the premise we find that:
Elephants will bury and mourn for the animals with which they had a Relationship.
So, having some sort of relationship is the factor that makes the elephants mourn.

Paradox: Elephants visit burial grounds of other elephants they never knew in life.

A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know.
This says there is no relationship. But as seen, a relationship is important for the elephant to mourn. And if this is true, elephants would go and mourn for every dead animal they come across.

B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.
It does not explain the paradox as the elephant is visiting the burial grounds to mourn and not bury.

C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.
Goes against the premise.

D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.
In that case, the elephant never had a direct relationship with the dead elephant, and does have no reason to visit.

E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.
This explains the paradox. Elephants empathize with the dead elephant though it never knew it and thus visit its burial grounds.

Answer E

Originally posted by Sayon on 20 Aug 2019, 07:51.
Last edited by Sayon on 20 Aug 2019, 22:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 08:16
Jot down the points:
Premise: E's bury E's only
Premise: Humans= E's intelligence and capacity for empathy
Premise: E's buried other animals ~ close relationship ones
Concl: E visited other unknown animals burial location.

We gotta resolve the paradox on how elephants could have visited the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.
Prethink: possibility of similar level of intelligence and capacity for empathy of the unknown animals with that of elephants.

(A) The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know. -> a contender but they are talking about empathy and nothing is mentioned about visiting the burial location of unknown or dead animals.

(B) Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.-> hmm alright, but no reason regarding visit to burial location of unknown is mentioned.

(C) Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.-> definitely no! nothing about the relation with living unknown is mentioned in the paragraph.

(D) Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.-> totally out of scope

(E) Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence..............similar to prethink. The sentence clearly shows the relationship and reason as to why they visit the burial location. .......CORRECT
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 08:30
IMO-E

Brief: Elephant - Similar to humans -in terms of intelligence and a capacity for empathy
E.g. Bury dead member (of herd)
However, Elephants bury (only elephants) & sometimes mourn (humans) with which they have relationship.
Finding: Elephants have been found to visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life


Explain the surprising finding

A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know : Incorrect- Partially correct. Elephant will empathize but with one they have relationship. This part is missing. Also this options talk in general about all animals wherein argument limited to animals with which they empathize

B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.: Incorrect-- As per passage, they mourn other animals death but burying other species is out of scope. Neither this help explain why they visit burial location of other elephants.

C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.Incorrect-This statement can be true but this doesn't add to the explanation for the finding.

D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.: Incorrect- This doesn't help explain why they visit the graveyard.

E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.: Correct- - This help explain why they visited the graveyard of elephants because they emphasize with animals they recognise (elephants) and animals with similar intelligence (Humans)
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 08:38
Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capacity for empathy similar to that of humans. They habitually bury their dead by placing sticks and leaves over a member of their herd that has died. They are not known to bury animals other than elephants, but in some cases they have mourned humans with which they had established a relationship, leading to the theory that elephants will bury other animals with which they have had a direct relationship, but only those animals. Surprisingly, however, elephants have been found to visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?


A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know.

B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.

C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.

D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.

E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.

IMO E:

Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.
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Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2019, 09:00
Quote:
Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capacity for empathy similar to that of humans. They habitually bury their dead by placing sticks and leaves over a member of their herd that has died. They are not known to bury animals other than elephants, but in some cases they have mourned humans with which they had established a relationship, leading to the theory that elephants will bury other animals with which they have had a direct relationship, but only those animals. Surprisingly, however, elephants have been found to visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?

A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know.
B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.
C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.
D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.
E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.


ARGUMENT
elephants habitually bury their dead and other animals that they have had a direct relationship;
however, elephants have been found to visit the burials of other elephants they never knew.
why do elephants visit burials of others they never knew before?

(A) doesnt explain y they visit unknown burials;
(B) doesnt explain y they visit unknown burials;
(C) doesnt explain y they visit unknown burials;
(D) this talks about "known" elephants in the herd, we are looking for the unknown;

Answer (E): why do they visit the unknown? because they can empathize which such graves they "recognize" (this doesn't mean that the elephants knew each other)

Originally posted by exc4libur on 20 Aug 2019, 09:51.
Last edited by exc4libur on 21 Aug 2019, 09:00, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 08:39
Bunuel wrote:

Competition Mode Question



Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capacity for empathy similar to that of humans. They habitually bury their dead by placing sticks and leaves over a member of their herd that has died. They are not known to bury animals other than elephants, but in some cases they have mourned humans with which they had established a relationship, leading to the theory that elephants will bury other animals with which they have had a direct relationship, but only those animals. Surprisingly, however, elephants have been found to visit the burial locations of other elephants they never knew in life.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the surprising finding?


A. The capacity of elephants to empathize extends to animals they did not personally know.

B. Elephants' rituals have the natural purpose of burying other elephants, but elephants will use them to bury other species.

C. Elephants have had regular direct relationships in life with animals that they have not been known to bury, such as birds.

D. Elephants who were previously members of a herd and known to that herd, especially males, may leave that herd and never return.

E. Elephants will bury and visit the graves of animals with which they can empathize, including animals they recognize as elephants and animals demonstrating a similar level of intelligence.


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



Reading the question: This prompt starts off in a friendly manner but starts to get complicated near the end of the prompt. We can parse the prompt at the word "surprisingly." The surprise has two portions: before and after that word. The latter part is shorter, so we can start there. 2) Elephants visit the graves of stranger elephants. Why is that surprising? Because of everything before "surprisingly." Namely, because there is a theory that 1) they observe burials only of animals with which they've had a direct relationship--i.e., not stranger elephants. Point 1) involves burial of friends, while point 2) involves burial of strangers. A good explanation will connect to both points without contradicting them.

Applying the filter: Choice (A) touches on both 1) and 2), in that it may imply that strangers could be friends. However, Choice (A) introduces the idea of empathy without connecting it to burial. It's missing a critical phrase like, "and empathy is what motivates elephants to observe burial rituals." Another problem with (A) is that it doesn't explain why elephants bury some non-elephants, but not others. So (A) is out. Choices (B), (C), and (D) fail to touch on both points 1) and 2). Choice (B) essentially restates the mystery without adding any information. Choice (C) discusses animals that elephants do not bury, so it's not comparing points 1) and 2), which both involve burial. Choice (D) may be tempting, but it doesn't address the fact that elephants visited the graves elephants "they never knew in life," since (D) discusses elephants who were "previously members of a herd and known to that herd." It doesn't hit on any point of 2), stranger burials. Choice (E) connects to 1) and 2) and resolves the friend or stranger burial question. Namely, the true determinant of burial isn't friend or stranger; it's the ability to empathize, which can extend to known humans or unknown elephants. Comparing (E) with (A), we can see that it is much more explanatory. Unlike (A), (E) specifically connects empathy to the act of burial, and it also explains why elephants can empathize with some non-elephants but not others.

The correct answer is (E).
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Re: Elephants are one of few animal species with intelligence and a capaci   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2019, 08:39
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