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# Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi

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Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Jan 2018, 20:59
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Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized within relatively narrow ranges of temperatures in amphibians and reptiles, individuals may not maintain activity at the optimum temperatures for performance because of the costs associated with doing so. Alternatively, activity can occur at suboptimal temperatures even when the costs are great. Theoretically, costs of activity at suboptimal temperatures must be balanced by gains of being active. For instance, the leatherback sea turtle will hunt during the time of day in which krill are abundant, even though the water is cooler and thus the turtle’s body temperature requires greater metabolic activity. In general, however, the cost of keeping a suboptimal body temperature, for reptiles and amphibians, is varied and not well understood; they include risk of predation, reduced performance, and reduced foraging success.

One reptile that scientists understand better is the desert lizard, which is active during the morning at relatively low body temperatures (usually 33.0 C), inactive during midday when external temperatures are extreme, and active in the evening at body temperatures of 37.0 C. Although the lizards engage in similar behavior (e.g., in morning and afternoon, social displays, movements, and feeding), metabolic rates and water loss are great and sprint speed is lower in the evening when body temperatures are high. Thus, the highest metabolic and performance costs of activity occur in the evening when lizards have high body temperatures. However, males that are active late in the day apparently have a higher mating success resulting from their prolonged social encounters. The costs of activity at temperatures beyond those optimal for performance are offset by the advantages gained by maximizing social interactions that ultimately impact individual fitness.

1/ The passage mentions the leatherback turtle in order to illustrate that

A activity at suboptimal temperatures may confer specific benefits
B most amphibians are incapable of sustaining activity at suboptimal temperatures
C there is a relationship between a reptile’s body temperature and the activity it engages in
D the cost of an activity at a suboptimal temperature usually outweighs the advantages
E hunting patterns amongst reptiles differ markedly

2/ It can be inferred from the passage that the metabolic costs of an activity during the middle of the day are

A similar to the metabolic costs of activity during the evening
B the same as the cost of metabolic activity at night
C higher than metabolic costs of activity in the morning
D low and constant, regardless of behavior
E typically lower, depending on the activity

3/ The passage details the habits of the desert lizard in order to

A highlight a misconception about sub-optimal body temperatures
B dispute a common claim other scientists make regarding reptiles
C describe the way in which body temperature affects behavior
D show how the lizard's habits can be generalized to all reptiles
E contrast the lizard's behavior with that of the leatherback turtle

4/ The passages suggests that reptiles and amphibians are able to

A perform an activity at suboptimal temperatures
B avoid excessive costs when performing an activity
C limit the costs of an activity by resting frequently
D maintain a body temperature irrespective of the environment
E avoid predation by resting during the night

5/ According to the passage, one reason a reptile may not be able to maintain activity at a suboptimal temperature is

A an increased risk of being preyed upon
B a need for a greater intake of water
C a greater focus on social activities
D the intensity of the sun throughout the day
E the likelihood of wildly fluctuating temperatures

Originally posted by aaba on 30 Jan 2018, 12:52.
Last edited by broall on 30 Jan 2018, 20:59, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted questions
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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2018, 04:23
Post OE for all questions.

aaba wrote:
Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized within relatively narrow ranges of temperatures in amphibians and reptiles, individuals may not maintain activity at the optimum temperatures for performance because of the costs associated with doing so. Alternatively, activity can occur at suboptimal temperatures even when the costs are great. Theoretically, costs of activity at suboptimal temperatures must be balanced by gains of being active. For instance, the leatherback sea turtle will hunt during the time of day in which krill are abundant, even though the water is cooler and thus the turtle’s body temperature requires greater metabolic activity. In general, however, the cost of keeping a suboptimal body temperature, for reptiles and amphibians, is varied and not well understood; they include risk of predation, reduced performance, and reduced foraging success.

One reptile that scientists understand better is the desert lizard, which is active during the morning at relatively low body temperatures (usually 33.0 C), inactive during midday when external temperatures are extreme, and active in the evening at body temperatures of 37.0 C. Although the lizards engage in similar behavior (e.g., in morning and afternoon, social displays, movements, and feeding), metabolic rates and water loss are great and sprint speed is lower in the evening when body temperatures are high. Thus, the highest metabolic and performance costs of activity occur in the evening when lizards have high body temperatures. However, males that are active late in the day apparently have a higher mating success resulting from their prolonged social encounters. The costs of activity at temperatures beyond those optimal for performance are offset by the advantages gained by maximizing social interactions that ultimately impact individual fitness.
1/ The passage mentions the leatherback turtle in order to illustrate that

A activity at suboptimal temperatures may confer specific benefits
B most amphibians are incapable of sustaining activity at suboptimal temperatures
C there is a relationship between a reptile’s body temperature and the activity it engages in
D the cost of an activity at a suboptimal temperature usually outweighs the advantages
E hunting patterns amongst reptiles differ markedly

2/ It can be inferred from the passage that the metabolic costs of an activity during the middle of the day are

A similar to the metabolic costs of activity during the evening
B the same as the cost of metabolic activity at night
C higher than metabolic costs of activity in the morning
D low and constant, regardless of behavior
E typically lower, depending on the activity

3/ The passage details the habits of the desert lizard in order to

A highlight a misconception about sub-optimal body temperatures
B dispute a common claim other scientists make regarding reptiles
C describe the way in which body temperature affects behavior
D show how the lizard's habits can be generalized to all reptiles
E contrast the lizard's behavior with that of the leatherback turtle

4/ The passages suggests that reptiles and amphibians are able to

A perform an activity at suboptimal temperatures
B avoid excessive costs when performing an activity
C limit the costs of an activity by resting frequently
D maintain a body temperature irrespective of the environment
E avoid predation by resting during the night

5/ According to the passage, one reason a reptile may not be able to maintain activity at a suboptimal temperature is

A an increased risk of being preyed upon
B a need for a greater intake of water
C a greater focus on social activities
D the intensity of the sun throughout the day
E the likelihood of wildly fluctuating temperatures

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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 10:35
Adi93" Post OE for all questions.

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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 20:27
Hi All,
Can someone please post the analysis for question 3. Thanks in advance.

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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2018, 00:17
I couldn't understand the answer for q3

The paragraph 2 is talking about a lizard for which the scientists understand its behavior in sub optimal temperatures. But how can we use this example to generalize about the entire reptile family?

mikemcgarry - I would request your thoughts on the same
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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2018, 02:40
1) Principle: amphibians and reptiles don't perform on optimum tempratures, but may
perform on suboptimal tempratures. Some benefits can explain this (e.g. turtle), but the
observation is not entirely understood.

2) Tries to explains the phenomenom through an example of the desert lizard. The lizards
are active in the evening. But this happens at the same time when metabolic rate and
temprature are high. Nevertheless, they manage to improve their mating success.

1/ The passage mentions the leatherback turtle in order to illustrate that
Relevant text: Theoretically, costs of activity at suboptimal temperatures must be balanced by gains of being active. For instance, the leatherback
A activity at suboptimal temperatures may confer specific benefits correct
B most amphibians are incapable of sustaining activity at suboptimal temperatures while it may be true (most), this seems to contradict the given information
C there is a relationship between a reptile’s body temperature and the activity it engages in so an activity determines the body temprature - not given
D the cost of an activity at a suboptimal temperature usually outweighs the advantages
E hunting patterns amongst reptiles differ markedly we're talking about the turtle

2/ It can be inferred from the passage that the metabolic costs of an activity during the middle of the day are
Relevant text: <...>, metabolic rates and water loss are great and sprint speed is lower in the evening when body temperatures are high.
A similar to the metabolic costs of activity during the evening the rate is at its high in evening
B the same as the cost of metabolic activity at night not sure, but would expect lower
C higher than metabolic costs of activity in the morning
D low and constant, regardless of behavior not given
E typically lower, depending on the activity not given

3/ The passage details the habits of the desert lizard in order to
A highlight a misconception about sub-optimal body temperatures
B dispute a common claim other scientists make regarding reptiles
C describe the way in which body temperature affects behavior misread that part: it isn't provided how a body temperature influences behaviour, which stated in this way is so broad, including people, animals, etc.
D show how the lizard's habits can be generalized to all reptiles first the author says that the costs and the benefits aren't very well understood, he or she goes on to speak about something that is fairly understood and basically can be applied to explain the bahaviour of other reptiles. That last sentence of the second para is the conclusion drawn from the discussion on the lizard's behaviour
E contrast the lizard's behavior with that of the leatherback turtle

4/ The passages suggests that reptiles and amphibians are able to
Relevant text: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized within relatively narrow ranges of temperatures in amphibians and reptiles, individuals may not maintain activity at the optimum temperatures for performance because of the costs associated with doing so.
A perform an activity at suboptimal temperatures correct
B avoid excessive costs when performing an activity cost avoidance is not given
C limit the costs of an activity by resting frequently not given
D maintain a body temperature irrespective of the environment unlikely, since the lizard's body temperature is higher in evening
E avoid predation by resting during the night not given

5/ According to the passage, one reason a reptile may not be able to maintain activity at a suboptimal temperature is
Relevant text: In general, however, the cost of keeping a sub-optimal body temperature, for reptiles and amphibians, is varied and not well understood; they include risk of predation, reduced performance, and reduced foraging success.
A an increased risk of being preyed upon correct
B a need for a greater intake of water not given
C a greater focus on social activities that's a factor that encourages to maintain activity
D the intensity of the sun throughout the day not given
E the likelihood of wildly fluctuating temperatures that doesn't stop the lizards from mating in the evening
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Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2018, 23:00

isnt question two ambiguos ?? or less accurate??
"It can be inferred from the passage that the metabolic costs of an activity during the middle of the day are"
now the middle of the day according to the conventional wisdom is " any time between early morning to late evening " or more like midday (12 PM noon)... so what i thot is that the question is asking me about noon and not evening and so i answered according... that morining and noon have the same behaviour and hence the costs.
now the marked OA is for costs in the evening compared to the costs in the morning..

is this ambiguous or am i wrong somwhere?? mikemcgarry your input would be appreciated as this is apparently a magoosh passage.

regards,
Re: Even though physiological and behavioral processes are maximized withi   [#permalink] 31 Oct 2018, 23:00
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