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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world

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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days.

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Originally posted by daagh on 21 Oct 2010, 04:06.
Last edited by daagh on 22 Oct 2010, 03:44, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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Let us just get hold of the gist.

1. A book first - published - in 1946 – a past participle is rightly used.
2. A book is -comparing - something ( even as of today) so a present participle – comparing – is rightly used.
3. Comparison is between the way world appears in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible. Comparison is not between the whole books of Odyssey and Bible.
4. The book laid the foundation for something beginning from early times to his days. - To his days - is the key here, restricting the foundation as something of a past and not applicable at the moment. So the correct expression for this will be a simple past – laid -.

It may be seen that only A fits in

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach – laid - the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days –
Right choice

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible.
Wrong because, comparison should come first and then the laying the foundation

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
wrong

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
wrong

(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
E – Compares Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible which alters the intent.
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Originally posted by daagh on 22 Oct 2010, 03:35.
Last edited by daagh on 02 Nov 2010, 03:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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Kudos Daagh.

I originally answered C, but 'lays' is obviously wrong.

(c) *lays* the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning *from the very early times to his days*

It's frustrating how I make these same mistakes over and over again.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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You are right and between A and E which use ‘laid’, E is out because of altered intent
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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C is the best answer in my opinion.

For all the other options "first published in" modifies Mimesis, which it needs to touch. Furthermore "and" after a comma is only used to connect two main clauses and "first published in" obviously isn't a main clause since there's no subject.

However, the tenses in C should be past, so I don't really see a clear correct answer, I'd just say that C is the best.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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BN1989 wrote:
C is the best answer in my opinion.

For all the other options "first published in" modifies Mimesis, which it needs to touch. Furthermore "and" after a comma is only used to connect two main clauses and "first published in" obviously isn't a main clause since there's no subject.

However, the tenses in C should be past, so I don't really see a clear correct answer, I'd just say that C is the best.

"first published in" past participle phrase and " and comparing the ways the world appears ..." present participle phrase both are modifying the same noun "Mimesis" so the modifiers are not misplaced actually,
for ex "tired, but still practicing hard, Nadal is far tenacious than his other opponents"'
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2011, 03:21
who laid the foundation? Mimesis or Auerbach? Confused, if OA is A.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2011, 08:13
alex39 wrote:
BN1989 wrote:
C is the best answer in my opinion.

For all the other options "first published in" modifies Mimesis, which it needs to touch. Furthermore "and" after a comma is only used to connect two main clauses and "first published in" obviously isn't a main clause since there's no subject.

However, the tenses in C should be past, so I don't really see a clear correct answer, I'd just say that C is the best.

"first published in" past participle phrase and " and comparing the ways the world appears ..." present participle phrase both are modifying the same noun "Mimesis" so the modifiers are not misplaced actually,
for ex "tired, but still practicing hard, Nadal is far tenacious than his other opponents"'

You're right, "Mimesis" is modified by two phrases, which are seperated by a comma and "and". Although I think this is a little wordy, it's perfectly correct grammatically.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2011, 08:15
BDSunDevil wrote:
who laid the foundation? Mimesis or Auerbach? Confused, if OA is A.

Mimesis is the subject of the sentence and hence "laid the foundation".
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible.

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days



(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible.
laying it compared !! Wrong.
(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
compares and lays!! wrong.
(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
it is not laying now!! Wrong
(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
Change in meaning!!

IMO: A is the answer. What is OA?
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

a) first published in 1946, and comparing the way... Modifiers modifying Mimesis.
b) Mimesis laid the foundation beginning from very early time to his days - Past tense is appropriately used here as a time frame is given.


(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days - Looks good. Correct

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible. - Changes the placement of modifiers and hence the meaning

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days - Incorrect tense.

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days - Incorrect tense

(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days - Incorrect comparison
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2015, 13:43
BN1989 wrote:
C is the best answer in my opinion.

For all the other options "first published in" modifies Mimesis, which it needs to touch. Furthermore "and" after a comma is only used to connect two main clauses and "first published in" obviously isn't a main clause since there's no subject.

However, the tenses in C should be past, so I don't really see a clear correct answer, I'd just say that C is the best.



You should recognize that C is a trap (given that this the 3rd MOST challenging GMAT Club SC question). The modifier issue is too obvious to be the core problem. Upon closer observation, you realize that there are essentially two modifiers ('First published' participial phrase...and the 'comparing' participial phrase) and both modify Mimesis, which is acceptable. The major problem with answer choice C that eliminates it is the use of the word 'lays', which is the past tense of 'lie'. If we were talking about the present, then Mimesis would 'lay' the foundation and not 'lie' the foundation. Since we are now referring to a past event, what we need is 'laid', which is the past tense of 'lay'.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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IMHO,

Choice A is the right answer.
I think there is a little typo error in Choice A.

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

There must be a COMMA after AUERBACH.
If there is no COMMA, the Choice A will be option with MODIFIER error and can be elimated straigth away.

Most people are confused with Choice C.
Though C is gramatically correct, it alters the meanig of the sentence.
Original sentence says : BY COMAPARING, MIMESIS LAID FOUNDATION
Where as C states : MIMESIS COMPARES AND LAYS FOUNDATION

Put everything aside, In GMAT "conveying the intended meaning" takes first place, ahead of any other Grammar rule.

CHOICE D: LAYS is wrong. because action ended in the past (beginning from the very early times to his days ). so LAID.

Hope doubts are clear.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2015, 21:22
souravjhalani wrote:
First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible.

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days


If you chose C, you are too quick in reacting to the lead noun modifier (First published in 1946). We all think, ah ok after the comma, we need a book/article or whatever that can be published, and we tend to miss out on the other important clue (from the very early times to his days).

This phrase indicates that this happened in the past, so instead of using the present tense verb LAY, we should be using LAID. Go through the choices again and you will realise A is the correct answer, where First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible is one big modifier
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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If A is the answer, I do not think there should be a "," after First published in 1946.

The question is wrong?
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May be it is true that one does not have to use a comma when two short phrases are involved. But when a long modifier is involved, then it might be okay to use a comma. And the point to note here is that, the GMAC isn’t fastidious about comma in general, unless the intended meaning gets distorted. Does the meaning here get distorted because a comma has been used? I am willing to learn f, if my understanding of GMAT is deficient-- the original poster
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2015, 05:29
daagh wrote:
May be it is true that one does not have to use a comma when two short phrases are involved. But when a long modifier is involved, then it might be okay to use a comma. And the point to note here is that, the GMAC isn’t fastidious about comma in general, unless the intended meaning gets distorted. Does the meaning here get distorted because a comma has been used? I am willing to learn f, if my understanding of GMAT is deficient-- the original poster


I tend to agree with you. But problems with A do not just stop there. Parallelism is lost between Published and Comparing. Published is what happened to the book and comparing is what it does. I am not too sure, but the sentence means that act of publishing of the book happened when the book was comparing something. Unless, I am completely muddled up I have reasonable confidence to believe there is something wrong with the option A.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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anilisanil,
Hi
If that is your problem, then please look at these solid examples from OG.
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

This has two modifiers namely ‘spawned’ and ‘extending’. The ‘spawned’ refers to how the filigree originated and extending refers to how far the filigree extends, two different contexts altogether. According to your reasoning, the correct OA “A” must be wrong, because the modifiers are referring to two different actions. Is that so?
Look at another solid case from OG;

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier's pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.

A. 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become
B. 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become
C. 22, and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being
D. 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was
E. 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

The OA is A for a different set of reasons. But the modifiers at the start of the sentence “Dressed as a man’ and ‘using the name Robert’” are not even underlined. ‘Dressed’ is how she appeared and ‘using’ is what she did. Is this example incorrect according to you?
You may get plenty of such examples in the Official guide and the GMAT Prep data, if you search more. I know for sure that this basic confusion is what drives many away from the correct choice and GMAT would like exploit it to the hilt.
Please tell me if the given question is still wrong?
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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souvik101990 wrote:
First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days


Let's understand the meaning first:
Mimesis - published in 1946 & comparing the ways the world appears both in X and Y
Mimesis is a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach

Mimesis laid the foundation for Unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his day.

Choice A looks good. Introductory noun modifiers are parallel thus published and comparing is correct. Both X and Y idiom correctly used. The verb laid correctly states that the foundation happened in the past.
Beginning from X to Y - correct idiom.

No meaning errors, no grammatical errors. The sentence is correct as is.

(A) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days

(B and laying the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach compared the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible.
this one changes the meaning. It switches the focus from laying the foundation to comparing the worlds. Incorrect.

(C) Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, compares the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, and lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
First, comparison of the world is no longer a modifier, and thus has the same importance as the laying the foundation. This is incorrect. Lays - is incorrect, as the foundation happened in the past

(D) and comparing the ways the world appears both in Homer’s Odyssey and in the Bible, Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach, lays the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
this might be tricky. The verb lays is incorrect. the rest looks good.


(E) and comparing Homer’s Odyssey with the Bible and the ways the world appears in both , Mimesis, a philosophical treatise written by Auerbach laid the foundation for a unified theory of western literature beginning from the very early times to his days
the comparison is between world in Odyssey and the world in Bible - thus incorrect.
Comparing X with Y - I don't think this is a correct idiom. Though, I might be mistaken.


By PoE, we are convinced that A is truly the correct answer.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2016, 07:38
That the past tense in A is the only element that differentiates the answer choice to D is debatable. I chose D because the book still exists and still lays out the foundation of a unified theory today. So the tense doesn't have to match the past "published”.
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Re: First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world   [#permalink] 03 May 2016, 07:38

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First published in 1946, and comparing the ways the world

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