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Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from

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Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.

(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.

(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.

(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.

(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

GMATPrep Code : VCR005704
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2010, 20:31
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fiesta wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.
(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.
(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


Let us read the question stem first. We are looking for an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. We are looking for the option that needs to be true for the conclusion to be true.

Premises:
Frobisher had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content.
Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions.
Neither expedition found any gold there.
Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content.

Tell me, when you read the above premises, what possibilities come to mind? Frobisher had samples examined. High gold content was reported. No gold was actually found. Modern analysis show very low gold content.

The following possibilities come to my mind:
1. Either there was gold and before the expeditions were sent, it was mined (very unlikely!)
2. His methods were inaccurate.
3. Someone had added gold to the soil he tested.

Conclusion:
The methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

If I am concluding that his methods were inaccurate, then I am assuming that no one added gold to his samples and gold was not mined before the expeditions were sent. (Technically, gold could have been added and his methods could have been inaccurate too but lets not mess with that.)
Hence option (E) is an assumption.
Also, use you can use assumption negation technique to see that it is the right answer.
I negate (E) : Gold was added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

I can not conclude now that his methods were inaccurate.
Hence (E) is the correct answer.

Option (C) is not correct. We did not assume in the argument that his methods were different. They could have been the same ones generally used in the 16th century, It is possible that 16th century methods were not accurate.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2008, 11:30
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rafiaiqbal wrote:
why not c?



This is a classic trap in CR. The question asks what is the assumption. An assumption can only lead to the conclusion that is made. The conclusion is that the dude's methods are inaccurate. C talks about the dude was using different methods. If that were the correct assumption, how could one make the conclusion that his methods were inaccurate? The assumption has to solidify the conclusion.

Therefore only E serves this purpose and is correct.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2008, 15:36
1
JCLEONES wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s
Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported,
Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there.
Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods
used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was
in the sixteenth century.
B. The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of
Kodlunarn Island.
C. The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
D. Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for
gold content.
E. Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples
were examined.


E. This is a very tricky one. (seen this before and had same answer by POE) but looking at it again. E makes a lot of sense. If gold were added then the methods were not inaccurate, but the results were not indicative of the actual content. This is different from accuracy. The methods used could still well have been very accurate in determing the amount of gold (or added gold) there was in the sample. So E is the winner.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2008, 03:27
2
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fiesta wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.
B. The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
C. The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
D. Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.
E. Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


Premise shows discrepancy b/w Frobisher's soil sample and the two other data points (mining expeditions and modern soil samples). Correct answer must contain an alternate way for Frobisher's soil sample to test positive while explaining the other two data points.

E
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2008, 04:01
zoinnk wrote:

Premise shows discrepancy b/w Frobisher's soil sample and the two other data points (mining expeditions and modern soil samples). Correct answer must contain an alternate way for Frobisher's soil sample to test positive while explaining the
other two data points.

E


I am extremely confused
conclusion: the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.
evidences:
- Frobisher had soil samples examined for gold content.
- Neither expedition found any gold there
- Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content.

E: Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined. >>>> It clearly weakens the conclusion
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2008, 05:19
fiesta wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

E. Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


For assupmtion questions: one has to find the link b/w the premise and the conclusion and the assumption has to support the conclusion.

Premises: had soil samples examined; found them to contain high gold content; exploration did not yield any gold
Conclusion: the methods to determine gold content were flawed.

Only E. supports the conclusion and makes it logical. If gold was added to the soil samples then the colclusion does not hold, hence only if we rule out the possibility that no gold was added to the soil sample will this conclusion be justifiable.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2010, 22:02
can anyone please explain why C is not a correct option??
i am agree with C.
E doesn't make sense to me.
can any one tell me, where can i find the correct solution of this question apart from this discussion.?
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2010, 11:33
321kumarsushant wrote:
can anyone please explain why C is not a correct option??
i am agree with C.
E doesn't make sense to me.
can any one tell me, where can i find the correct solution of this question apart from this discussion.?


321kumarsushant:
Option C says that when Frobisher examined the soil sample for gold he used a different method than anyone else was using back in the 1500s . Even if this is true, this statement does not affect the conclusion at all.
If choice C said "The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by Frobisher were different from those generally used in the twenty first century.", then it would be a contender for the correct answer.
Hope that helps.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2010, 14:25
Frobisher could have mistakely examined for gold on any other island as well too. In that case D would be a choice. Please explain why this option is out.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2010, 18:05
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chelliyil wrote:
Frobisher could have mistakely examined for gold on any other island as well too. In that case D would be a choice. Please explain why this option is out.


The argument says that he got soil from Kodlunarn island examined. The Queen sent two expeditions there. The argument does not have anything to do with the other islands. It does not assume that he did not get soil of any other island examined. Perhaps he did and found no gold there or perhaps he did find gold there. We do not know and do not care as far as this argument goes. Here we are only concerned with Kodlunarn.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2012, 03:28
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Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported,Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there.
Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Conclusion: Methods used by F to find gold content were inaccurate.

A. The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century. This says that gold content was high in the 16th century. Weakens the argument. Hence, cannot be the assumption.
B. The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
Irrelevant. Same part or different part not mentioned anywhere in the stimulus.
C. The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century. The difference in methods does not matter. What the conclusion says is the method, in fact, was inaccurate.
D. Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.Again, irrelevant.
E. Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined. Negating, Gold WAS added to the soil samples before they were examined. If this were true, then F's methods may have been accurate, and measured HIGH GOLD CONTENT. Hence, the conclusion that F's methods were inaccurate falls apart.

Hope this helps
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2014, 00:41
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
fiesta wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.
(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.
(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


Let us read the question stem first. We are looking for an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. We are looking for the option that needs to be true for the conclusion to be true.

Premises:
Frobisher had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content.
Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions.
Neither expedition found any gold there.
Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content.

Tell me, when you read the above premises, what possibilities come to mind? Frobisher had samples examined. High gold content was reported. No gold was actually found. Modern analysis show very low gold content.

The following possibilities come to my mind:
1. Either there was gold and before the expeditions were sent, it was mined (very unlikely!)
2. His methods were inaccurate.
3. Someone had added gold to the soil he tested.

Conclusion:
The methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

If I am concluding that his methods were inaccurate, then I am assuming that no one added gold to his samples and gold was not mined before the expeditions were sent. (Technically, gold could have been added and his methods could have been inaccurate too but lets not mess with that.)
Hence option (E) is an assumption.
Also, use you can use assumption negation technique to see that it is the right answer.
I negate (E) : Gold was added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

I can not conclude now that his methods were inaccurate.
Hence (E) is the correct answer.

Option (C) is not correct. We did not assume in the argument that his methods were different. They could have been the same ones generally used in the 16th century, It is possible that 16th century methods were not accurate.



Karishma , can I paraphrase the above highlighted explanation as

Negative E - Gold was added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

Now that if gold was added before examination and the examination rightly pointed this out - it clearly shows that the technical method to determine the gold content was not in-accurate ( though the step of fudging sample was morally wrong but that is altogether a different matter)

So negating assumption , destroys the conclusion , hence E it is
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2014, 02:02
himanshujovi wrote:


Karishma , can I paraphrase the above highlighted explanation as

Negative E - Gold was added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

Now that if gold was added before examination and the examination rightly pointed this out - it clearly shows that the technical method to determine the gold content was not in-accurate ( though the step of fudging sample was morally wrong but that is altogether a different matter)

So negating assumption , destroys the conclusion , hence E it is


Yes, that's correct. If Gold was added, we don't know who did it so we cannot blame Frobisher or his methods. All we know is that his methods to determine gold content could have been accurate.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2015, 23:24
(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.

can someone help me why ( A) is wrong? we assume F's method was correct so, it can possible gold amount today is much lower than sixteenth century.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2015, 22:40
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eiffel wrote:
(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.

can someone help me why ( A) is wrong? we assume F's method was correct so, it can possible gold amount today is much lower than sixteenth century.


No gold was found in the 16th century either. The soil sent for analysis showed gold. It could have been because it was tampered with or the one analysing the soil messed up etc.
So we are not assuming that the gold content today is lower. Anyway, the comparison of gold content of today with 16th century has nothing to do with the conclusion. The conclusion is only about 16th century gold content.
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2017, 08:48
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.
(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.
(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


This sentence has Causal pattern, and to strengthen the causal pattern we eliminate any alternate cause.In the given argument it is clearly provided tht the technique used by frobisher to find gold was flawed becuase the samples had gold but there was no actual gold on the island.With this we can say that ther was no other reason to find gold other than that the technique was flawed..
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2017, 07:52
option E is the correct answer.

i found it silly initially, but after spending some more time, i realized that this is the correct answer.

all the other 4 options deviate from the main issue.

A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century. ( if this is the reason, then we can't blame the method. negating this option does not affect the conclusion)

(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.( out of scope, we can't compare the two methods then if this is the case)

(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.( i found it little tempting, but it does not destroy the conclusion on negation)

(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.( out of scope, we are talking about methods)

(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.(yes, correct option. if gold were added to the sample, then the result would have been positive n we can't say method was faulty. so it destroys the conclusion)
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Re: Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 23:27
VeritasKarishma wrote:
fiesta wrote:
Frobisher, a sixteenth-century English explorer, had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content. Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions. Neither expedition found any gold there. Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content. Thus the methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gold content of the soil on Kodlunarn Island is much lower today than it was in the sixteenth century.
(B) The two mining expeditions funded by Elizabeth I did not mine the same part of Kodlunarn Island.
(C) The methods used to assess gold content of the soil samples provided by
Frobisher were different from those generally used in the sixteenth century.
(D) Frobisher did not have soil samples from any other Canadian island examined for gold content.
(E) Gold was not added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.


Let us read the question stem first. We are looking for an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. We are looking for the option that needs to be true for the conclusion to be true.

Premises:
Frobisher had soil samples from Canada’s Kodlunarn Island examined for gold content.
Because high gold content was reported, Elizabeth I funded two mining expeditions.
Neither expedition found any gold there.
Modern analysis of the island’s soil indicates a very low gold content.

Tell me, when you read the above premises, what possibilities come to mind? Frobisher had samples examined. High gold content was reported. No gold was actually found. Modern analysis show very low gold content.

The following possibilities come to my mind:
1. Either there was gold and before the expeditions were sent, it was mined (very unlikely!)
2. His methods were inaccurate.
3. Someone had added gold to the soil he tested.

Conclusion:
The methods used to determine the gold content of Frobisher’s samples must have been inaccurate.

If I am concluding that his methods were inaccurate, then I am assuming that no one added gold to his samples and gold was not mined before the expeditions were sent. (Technically, gold could have been added and his methods could have been inaccurate too but lets not mess with that.)
Hence option (E) is an assumption.
Also, use you can use assumption negation technique to see that it is the right answer.
I negate (E) : Gold was added to the soil samples collected by Frobisher before the samples were examined.

I can not conclude now that his methods were inaccurate.
Hence (E) is the correct answer.

Option (C) is not correct. We did not assume in the argument that his methods were different. They could have been the same ones generally used in the 16th century, It is possible that 16th century methods were not accurate.



It took me around 10 Min to understand ans, superb question and nice explanation. Thanks for this explanation.
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