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Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.

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Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Sep 2019, 07:58
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 316, Date : 07-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease. Rather than altering the disease phenotype by using agents that interact with gene products, or are themselves gene products, gene therapy can theoretically modify specific genes resulting in disease cure following a single administration. Initially gene therapy was envisioned for the treatment of genetic disorders, but is currently being studied for use with a wide range of diseases, including cancer, peripheral vascular disease, arthritis, Neurodegenerative disorders and other acquired diseases.

Certain key elements are required for a successful gene therapy strategy. The most elementary of these is that the relevant gene be identified and cloned. Upon completion of the Human Genome Project, gene availability will be unlimited. Once identified and cloned, the next consideration must be expression of the gene. Questions pertaining to the efficiency of gene transfer and gene expression remain at the forefront of gene therapy research, with current debates revolving around the transfer of desired genes to appropriate cells, and then to obtaining sufficient levels of expression for disease treatment. With luck, future research on gene transfer and tissue-specific gene expression will resolve these issues for the majority of gene therapy protocols.

Other important considerations for a gene therapy strategy include a sufficient understanding of the pathogenesis of the targeted disorder, potential side effects of the gene therapy treatment, and a more in depth understanding of the target cells which are to receive gene therapy.

Gene transfer vector is the mechanism by which the gene is transferred into a cell. Currently there are at least 150 clinical gene therapy protocols worldwide. Since the approval process for these protocols is not as public outside the U.S. , it is difficult to ascertain the exact number of worldwide protocols. As of December 1995, 1024 patients had been treated with either a gene transfer or gene therapy protocol. Much controversy exists regarding how many of these patients have benefited from their gene therapy, and no one has yet been cured.

Public controversy in the field of human gene therapy is driven by several factors. Ordinary citizens as well as scientists easily understand the enormous potential of gene therapy, but the former may not appreciate all the pitfalls and uncertainly that lie in the immediate future. The financial interests of biotechnology firms and, some have asserted, the career interests of some gene therapists have encouraged extravagant, or at least overly optimistic public statements about contemporary gene therapy. In spite of the proliferation of protocols, the actual number of patients treated remains small, and only one genuinely controlled study of human gene therapy has been published as of this date.


1. In the passage, the author anticipates which of the following as a possible obstacle to the introduction of gene therapy to mainstream medicine?

A. Overly optimistic public statements given by scientists who have a vested interest
B. The general public?s difficulty in grasping gene therapy?s vast potential.
C. Unchecked financial interests of biotechnology firms.
D. The relatively small number of controlled studies of human gene therapy published as of this date.
E. Hazards of which the general public is currently unaware.



2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as elements that are required for a successful gene therapy strategy EXCEPT:

A. Identifying the relevant gene
B. Expressing the relevant gene
C. Determining the side effects of the relevant gene
D. Understanding of the pathogenesis of the targeted disorder
E. Gaining and a more in depth understanding of the target cells which are to receive gene therapy.



3. The author?s attitude toward the gene therapy as a future cure for cancer, peripheral vascular disease, arthritis, Neurodegenerative disorders and other acquired diseases is

A. Indifference
B. Disapproval
C. Amusement
D. Cautious optimism
E. Censure



4. The primary function of the fifth paragraph is to

A. Explain effects
B. Recommend actions
C. Identify problems
D. Evaluate solutions
E. Warn of consequences


Originally posted by gmat1220 on 11 Mar 2011, 20:50.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 07 Sep 2019, 07:58, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (461).
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2018, 18:55
prateek176 wrote:
Can somebody please tell why the answer to Q no 1 is E?


1. In the passage, the author anticipates which of the following as a possible obstacle to the introduction of gene therapy to mainstream medicine?
First step - Pre-think answer before looking at the answer choices. in last para, "Public controversy in the field of human gene therapy is driven by several factors." rest para is all about identify these controversy. mark that author said "controversy" and not problems. means somehow public is not fully educated(aware will be better word) around this topic as of now.
A. Overly optimistic public statements given by scientists who have a vested interest - no such statement given.
B. The general public?s difficulty in grasping gene therapy?s vast potential. - close to what we thought but dont overlook "vast potential". wrong
C. Unchecked financial interests of biotechnology firms. - wrong
D. The relatively small number of controlled studies of human gene therapy published as of this date. - wrong
E. Hazards of which the general public is currently unaware. - on the line.
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2019, 22:49
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Javierbc wrote:
I don´t understand why Choice D is incorrect in the question 1. Could someone explain please?



I think choice D is just an explanation of why choice E happened, but it is too far of a stretch to answer question 1. Besides, the author doesn't seem to mention choice D as an obstacle but just throwing it out as a fact that there's only one controlled study. When the author says "but the former may not appreciate"--that is a thought, not a fact, so that sentence contains author's attitude and it makes E a better match to answer what "the author anticipates" (what the author thinks). As for choice D, it is just a plain fact, not a thought or opinion.

That's how I interpret this question.
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2019, 20:38
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Hi, I am sorry if my understanding is incorrect, but as per the last passage "Ordinary citizens as well as scientists easily understand the enormous potential of gene therapy, but the former may not appreciate all the pitfalls and uncertainty that lie in the immediate future."; From the underlined portion what I understood is that general public may not be able to understand the disadvantages and the unpredictable cure pattern of gene therapy.
However, the correct choice of Q1 is option E which says "Hazards of which the general public is currently unaware". Isn't word Hazard a way too off track to express what is given in the passage. Also how do we infer that because of this reason gene therapy can't get its place in mainstream medicine??? According to me, this is an assumption which is not implicit via any word or phrase in the passage.
Can some expert throw light on this?
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2019, 01:25
can someone please explain me how to approach Q3.
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2019, 02:05
Explanation


3. The author?s attitude toward the gene therapy as a future cure for cancer, peripheral vascular disease, arthritis, Neurodegenerative disorders and other acquired diseases is

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

The statement of the question #3 suggests that only para 1 would be enough to answer the question but when we read on the answer choice we come to know that we must read complete passage to answer the question.

A. Indifference - It means that gene therapy can not cure the disease while the whole passage discussed how gene therapy can cure the disease. So this option is rather opposite.

B. Disapproval - Author never, at any point in passage, disprove that gene therapy cannot cure the disease rather he mentioned a few limitation of its wide level use.

C. Amusement - No such discussion happened in the passage which leads to any type of amusement.

D. Cautious optimism - First para produces topic and introduction second and third para produces considerations for using gene therapy to control the disease and 4th para give us some limitation that why we cannot use it on a wide scale and how its use is limited and so is the caution. This is Correct.

E. Censure - It is also working some how opposite than what is discussed in the passage. Out.

Answer: D


Hope it helps

pzgupta wrote:
can someone please explain me how to approach Q3.

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New post 11 Sep 2019, 21:10
hi
SajjadAhmad
please post the explanation of the question 1 . in my point of view hazard isn't an appropriate word , the author mentions that people are not confident due to the uncertainty . to me most appropriate is 1 d option although not even one option is perfect
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New post 12 Sep 2019, 06:57
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Remember one thing on the GMAT we are not looking for perfection rather we are looking for best among available options. I am agree with you that the word "hazard" is a bit extreme with reference to the passage but we have to pick an option which is best among available and that is E, other 4 options are not even near to the answer.

The text in the passage

potential side effects of the gene therapy treatment in second paragraph

Ordinary citizens as well as scientists easily understand the enormous potential of gene therapy, but the former may not appreciate all the pitfalls and uncertainly that lie in the immediate future. in third paragraph leads to the E as best option though not perfect.

Hope it helps

Kanvi wrote:
hi
SajjadAhmad
please post the explanation of the question 1 . in my point of view hazard isn't an appropriate word , the author mentions that people are not confident due to the uncertainty . to me most appropriate is 1 d option although not even one option is perfect

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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 22:41
What is the level of this passage?
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Re: Gene therapy offers a new treatment paradigm for curing human disease.   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2019, 22:41
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