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# GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 03:22
2
11
Question 1
00:00

Question Stats:

52% (01:53) correct 48% (01:57) wrong based on 494

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Question 2
00:00

Question Stats:

63% (00:45) correct 37% (00:42) wrong based on 484

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Question 3
00:00

Question Stats:

50% (01:04) correct 50% (01:18) wrong based on 465

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Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds
B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds
C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds
D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs
E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

2. In the context of the passage, the phrase "fossils of a predicted kind" most likely refers to which of the following?

A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles
B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils
C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years
D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs
E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?

A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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10 May 2017, 16:16
5
2
Kritesh wrote:
Total time taken 8 mins

1.C
2.B
3.D

mikemcgarry - Could you please explain that for questions 1&2 why the answer is E & C .

Dear Kritesh,

I'm happy to respond.

For #1, think about the flow of the entire passage. Pay close attention to the action of "direction words," words that serve to direct the flow of an argument, either by adding on and amplifying, or by creating a change in direction by a contrast word.

Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced.
Ambiguous opening sentence, typical of academic writing--the author has not yet shown his hand, what he believes.

They [the unconvinced scientists] argue that ....
so far, we don't know what the author really thinks . . .

BUT investigators have now uncovered
Ah ha! That word "but" is HUGE! This is a very classic argument format: "My opponent thinks X, BUT I think Y" This is a very effective strategy in argument, because the implication is that I know & understand my opponent's argument but I know better.

The next sentence "in any case," which is a way of adding on an additional point. This strengthens his response to the first objection.

Now, another round:
Skeptics also argue . . .
Again, the author is stating the opinions of those with whom he disagrees, more objections.

This objection was reasonable when . . . but . . .
Rhetorically very effective: he gives a partial concession to the opponents view--yes, it worked in the past, but it's nonsense to believe it now!

"Finally" = another strong summary word.

Throughout the whole passage, the author was stating the objections to the theory and then was arguing against those objections. He was defending the theory that "birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs." Anything that states the meaning of the paragraph should capture this back-and-forth, objection and then response to objection, which happens a few times. The author is not simply evaluating, which implies a neutral agenda. The author has constructed sophisticated argumentative structures to respond to objections. Thus, the best answer to #1 is
(E) respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

For #2, look at that section of the text:
They [the unconvinced scientists] argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago.
This is objection #1: birds are old, 150M years old, and nonavian maniraptor theropods are not that old.

But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx.
First, specific response to objection #1

In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit.
More general response to the objection.

Let's think about the author. The author is defending the theory that "birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs." Obviously, what would strength his case the most is if scientist found definitive evidence of ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs from the time of the first birds (150 MYA) or older. Short of that, he argues that the current absence of these are simply due to the fact that we haven't discovered them yet. The particular fossils that interest him are "ground-dwelling theropod" as old as birds (150 MYA) or older.

(C) Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2016, 09:54
4min 38 sec

1E 2C 4D

I was confused between 1 A and 1 E but guessed E.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 10:10
Can someone please explain why 1C and 3B is incorrect. ?would really appreciate your help here

Thanks
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GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 06:36
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs,some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit.Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed.Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds
B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds
C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds
D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs
E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

2) In the context of the passage, the phrase “fossils of a predicted kind” most likely refers to which of the following?
A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles
B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils
C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years
D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs
E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

3) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as
an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced
that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs’ lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 09:59
Time Taken: 5 min 52 secs

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

The passage is mainly concerned about the evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs.

2) In the context of the passage, the phrase “fossils of a predicted kind” most likely refers to which of the following?

Refer: They argue that theropods appeared too late ................... maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx

3) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced

Refer: "Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods"

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2016, 22:20
3:47

All correct

Please explain why 2. is not B.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 14:01
5 minutes on the passage
Overall 8 minutes.

All correct

Took nearly 3 minutes on the 3rd question. (As thrice scientists have presented an objection it took lot of time finding those in the passage and cross checking with the options).
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 14:14
ShashankDave wrote:
3:47

All correct

Please explain why 2. is not B.

There was an objection raised by the scientists that there was no record of fossil (theropods) found about 150 M years ago.
But since in new investigations fossils(theropods) were found that dated back 150 M years, the scientists claim was refuted.

On this note, author argues that "Even if there was no fossil found, which dated back 150M years, scientists cannot completely override any future possibility on finding one"

"fossils of a predicted kind" --> referring to the new evidence (theropods fossils dating back 150)
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GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2016, 04:53
1
-The author presents a point of debate
- The author then points out the challenges presented by scientists on a certain topic
- The author then responds to the challenges presented by the scientists

Took 5 mins 40 seconds in total , including 2 mins to read

1. The author clearly states the criticisms of scientists and responds to each one of those criticisms. Hence option (E) is the best answer choice.

2. "noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit."

The fossils dating back to 150 years ago are what are being referred to and hence option (C ) is the right answer.

3. "Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods"

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2016, 13:42
Hi, I did not understand how come the ans of qstn 3 is D. will the sentence 'Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods' imply that 'Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.'? It might also be possible that Theropod dinosaurs have both fused and unfused clavicles but here the comparison is drawn only with unfused clavicles for some reason.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 10:09
6 min 2 seconds
My answers - 1- D (incorrect - why the answer is E not D ??)
2- C
3- D
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2017, 02:34
Lucky2783 wrote:
Lucky2783 wrote:
Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to findfossils of a predicted kinddoes not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds
B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds
C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds
D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs
E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

In the context of the passage, the phrase "fossils of a predicted kind" most likely refers to which of the following?
A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles
B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils
C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years
D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs
E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

time taken : 5.54
1.) : E respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs (the word "but" after the initial lines indicates the tone of the author)

2.) C : this one is straight forward ....read the first couple of lines and answer is right there ..

3.) D : This is the second criticism by the critics and the answer is right after the highlighted portion ...verbatim as it is ..almost...
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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10 May 2017, 04:19
Total time taken 8 mins

1.C
2.B
3.D

mikemcgarry - Could you please explain that for questions 1&2 why the answer is E & C .
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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11 May 2017, 11:10
Hi mikemcgarry ,

Thanks a lot for the wonderful explanation .

Now i clearly understood the passage as well as the answers.

Warm regards,
Kritesh Singh
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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29 May 2017, 00:57
took 5 minutes to solve this one. I feel this passage could have been somewhat difficult, but if u understand the crux of the passage with reasonable accuracy, u are pretty sure to get all of them correct.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2017, 11:34
Lucky2783 wrote:
Lucky2783 wrote:
Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds
B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds
C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds
D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs
E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

In the context of the passage, the phrase "fossils of a predicted kind" most likely refers to which of the following?
A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles
B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils
C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years
D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs
E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

Dear Charls (GMATNinja), would you please be so kind to explain why 1Q not D?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2017, 20:20
Hi mikemcgarry

Can you please explain question 3.I chose option B..I dont know why the answer is D.

Thanks

mikemcgarry wrote:
Kritesh wrote:
Total time taken 8 mins

1.C
2.B
3.D

mikemcgarry - Could you please explain that for questions 1&2 why the answer is E & C .

Dear Kritesh,

I'm happy to respond.

For #1, think about the flow of the entire passage. Pay close attention to the action of "direction words," words that serve to direct the flow of an argument, either by adding on and amplifying, or by creating a change in direction by a contrast word.

Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced.
Ambiguous opening sentence, typical of academic writing--the author has not yet shown his hand, what he believes.

They [the unconvinced scientists] argue that ....
so far, we don't know what the author really thinks . . .

BUT investigators have now uncovered
Ah ha! That word "but" is HUGE! This is a very classic argument format: "My opponent thinks X, BUT I think Y" This is a very effective strategy in argument, because the implication is that I know & understand my opponent's argument but I know better.

The next sentence "in any case," which is a way of adding on an additional point. This strengthens his response to the first objection.

Now, another round:
Skeptics also argue . . .
Again, the author is stating the opinions of those with whom he disagrees, more objections.

This objection was reasonable when . . . but . . .
Rhetorically very effective: he gives a partial concession to the opponents view--yes, it worked in the past, but it's nonsense to believe it now!

"Finally" = another strong summary word.

Throughout the whole passage, the author was stating the objections to the theory and then was arguing against those objections. He was defending the theory that "birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs." Anything that states the meaning of the paragraph should capture this back-and-forth, objection and then response to objection, which happens a few times. The author is not simply evaluating, which implies a neutral agenda. The author has constructed sophisticated argumentative structures to respond to objections. Thus, the best answer to #1 is
(E) respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

For #2, look at that section of the text:
They [the unconvinced scientists] argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago.
This is objection #1: birds are old, 150M years old, and nonavian maniraptor theropods are not that old.

But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx.
First, specific response to objection #1

In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit.
More general response to the objection.

Let's think about the author. The author is defending the theory that "birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs." Obviously, what would strength his case the most is if scientist found definitive evidence of ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs from the time of the first birds (150 MYA) or older. Short of that, he argues that the current absence of these are simply due to the fact that we haven't discovered them yet. The particular fossils that interest him are "ground-dwelling theropod" as old as birds (150 MYA) or older.

(C) Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years

Does all this make sense?
Mike

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2017, 11:53
gamerguy0074 wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Can you please explain question 3.I chose option B..I dont know why the answer is D.

Thanks

Dear gamerguy0074,

I'm happy to respond.

Here's Q#3:
3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?

A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

Since you ask about (B) and (D), I'll just discuss those two.

B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
This is a very sophisticated trap answer. Here's the relevant part of the passage:
Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.
These skeptic scientists do have an argument about lungs, but the fact that "no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs" does not in any way constitute part of these skeptics' argument. Quite to the contrary, this is the reason that their argument can be neither supported nor falsified. This fact comments on the possible evaluation of their argument, not on the content of their argument. Does this distinction make sense?

D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
Very clear proof text:
Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods.
This is, quite directly, something that the skeptics argue.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2017, 10:37
Nightmare007 wrote:
6 min 2 seconds
My answers - 1- D (incorrect - why the answer is E not D ??)
2- C
3- D

Hi If you observe a particular pattern in this passage is, every time scientists raise concern or cite any evidence to argue that dino is not bird author provide another evidence or fact that smoothly counter scientist point. here 2 confronting parties are scientist and author... that indicate option E

And for D ..challenge is made by scientists to theory that dino is bird not by author so purpose of passage should be the purpose of Author.
Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate &nbs [#permalink] 11 Aug 2017, 10:37

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