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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2014, 03:12
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The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semi-conductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semi-conductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors' products.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?

A The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.
B A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.
C Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.
D Firms' emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
E Firms' attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits

(A) was rarely successful during the 1980s
(B) became increasingly infrequent in the 1980s
(C) does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system
(D) is a consequence of the decline in patent quality
(E) is discussed increasingly in the semiconductor industry's technical literature

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Oct 2017, 04:32, edited 7 times in total.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry


2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?
A The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.
B A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.
C Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.
D Firms' emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
E Firms' attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.



3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.


5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits
A. was rarely successful during the 1980s
B. became increasingly infrequent in the 1980s
C. does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent- granting system
D. is a consequence of the decline in patent quality
E. is discussed increasingly in the semiconductor industry's technical literature
[

Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 21:27, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2014, 21:11
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I took exact 11min on this passage. I spent more time on 2nd and 3rd question. Further I think one should not take more than 9min on this.
C D A E C
(all correct)
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2014, 21:15
Time Taken:8:10 mins
[Got tricked by Q1]
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992

2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?
D Firms' emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
"This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semi-conductor firms managed their patenting process:"

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
"Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.
"Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's. "

5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits
C. does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent- granting system
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2014, 12:12
My answers
1.B (got this incorrect)
2.D
3.A
4.E
5.C

Time taken - under 8 mins

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2014, 02:23
time taken 10:15
Got all correct but the last 1(silly mistake)
A medium difficulty passage in my opinion
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New post 05 Feb 2015, 08:20
I infer from the passage that decline in the quality of the patents were driven by the way management started squeezing out the patents.
Could someone please explain me why 1-E and 3-C are wrong answers.
Where I went wrong, please help.
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New post 25 Jun 2015, 07:55
1c 2D 3A 4E 5C (All correct ) 4 minutes 57 seconds

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New post 26 Jun 2015, 05:17
Let's focus on the explanation also. Could any one please answer why 1-E and 3-C are wrong?
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New post 27 Jun 2015, 08:37
PiyushK what's wrong with 1B.
Para did discussed that patenting process changed from innovation to strategic purposes.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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ADbhai wrote:
Let's focus on the explanation also. Could any one please answer why 1-E and 3-C are wrong?


For answer to first question we need to have mental structure of passage:

1) Patent was made for innovations.
2) However firms doesn't become more innovative
2a) For example ... (a lot of patents but low investments)
2b) Moreover ... (quality of patents declined)
3) Why this decline happened: ... (firms used patents for strategic purposes)


Let's check answers:
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
Really tempting answer but if we reword this answer we will understand that this is a trap.
"Industry make some actions to achieve some results. But this results wasn't obtained. "
But according to the passage there was two groups:
first - creators of patent system and they wait for innovations
second - firms which used patent system for strategic purposes.
First group really received ununiticipated results but second group received anticipated results (looks like they received it)
Answer A talks about industry approach and its anticipated results so this is wrong answer.

B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
The studies in passage advocate nothing and don't mention any changes in patenting process so this is wrong variant

C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
This answer looks like too wide and like saying nothing specific.
But if we look to structure:
1 point about planned connection (patents should trigger innovations),
2 point about factual coonection (patents don't trigger innovations)
and subpoints 2a, 2b and point 3 are explaining why this situation is happened.
So this is the best answer.

D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
Investment mentions in point 2a. So this is only example of point 2. It can't be the main idea of a passage.

E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry
1 and 2 point show that one of the main parts of passage is a contrast between plans about patents and reality about patents. Increasing in patenting activity is a point 2a. So this is too narrow answer.
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New post 20 Jul 2015, 14:33
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ADbhai wrote:
Let's focus on the explanation also. Could any one please answer why 1-E and 3-C are wrong?


Answer on third question:

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
The passage says that number of times a patents cited in tech literature declined during 1980's and that this number is a measure of quality of patent so we can infer that quality of patnets was higher in the early 1980's

B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
From the passage we see that there is present such sequence:
1. Firms trying to pursue their strategic purposes
2. Firms makes more patents by "simply squeezed more patents out of existing research"
3. Quality of patents decline

So according to the passage there is present a link between number of patents and quality of patents.

C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
According to passage there is was a correlation between decline in research and development and decline in quality of patents. But correlation is not a causality. The real cause of decline of patents' quality is a strategic goals of firms and not the economy in research and department.

D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
We know that number of times a patent cited in tech literature is a measure of quality of patent but passage says nothing about what exactly discussed in tech literature.

E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.
The passage says that number of times a patent cited in tech literature is a "reasonable yardstick"
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Why is 3-B incorrect

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semi-conductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity-this statement clearly shows that patent quality is not dependent on number of patents

As far as answer A is concerned , though in early 1980's (1981, 1982) patent quality was higher than it was a decade later(is it implying years 1991 92 specifically? because for successive years we are not sure of relative quality)

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New post 15 Aug 2016, 08:42
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?


A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined.

so A is true.

But B is also true that It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.quality and quantity was not correlated in the case we are discussing above.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 07:19
abrakadabra21 wrote:
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?


A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined.

so A is true.

But B is also true that It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.quality and quantity was not correlated in the case we are discussing above.


There is no such information/relation given in the passage for the quality of patent and its number. So, we cannot conclude this. Hence, B is incorrect.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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Took 8 mins 30 seconds , including 2 mins to read .
-The passage talks about patent granting and about innovation
- The author mentions a study conducted to show that patenting and innovation are not necessarily connected.
- The author also provides possible reasons on why this might have been the case

1. Answer C
Option (A) and Option (B) are incorrect because the author uses the study as an example but is not primarily concerned with the study .
Option (D) is completely irrelevant and Option (E) is not the author s main point but just an additional point to the Passage

2.
"Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980’s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms’ patents declined."
"rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes"
The excerpt above suggests that since firms emphasized on filing patents for strategic purposes, it contributed to a decline in patent quality.
Answer D

3.
Answer A

4. "the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick"
The author's claim would be weakened if both low quality patents ate high quality patents are discussed with the same frequency.
Answer E

5.
Answer C
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New post 17 Nov 2016, 14:05
Time: 6mins 25seconds; All correct but 1st question; I felt E and C and were really close; but C wins as E is more specific to Semi conductor industries and C cites general trend which is mentioned at the start of the passage. Oversight on analysis part!
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New post 21 Jul 2017, 04:10
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 16:57
ameyaprabhu wrote:
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

Choice (A) might explain why there are fewer articles per semiconductor patent COMPARED to articles per patent in most other industries, but this does NOT explain why citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's.

For example, say that in the early 1980's, on average, 50 articles were published per semiconductor patent and 100 articles were published per patent in most other industries. In the late 1980's, only 10 articles were published per semiconductor patent while the number per patent in most other industries remained roughly the same. This is consistent with choice (A) because it suggests that it is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry. However, choice (A) does NOT explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's. Thus, the citations evidence could still support the idea that patent quality declined during the 1980's, and (A) must be eliminated.

However, what if the number of LOW quality semiconductor patents decreased while the number of HIGH quality semiconductor patents remained the same? If "low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents" (choice (E)), this would explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent would have declined EVEN IF patent quality did not decline. Thus, choice (E) weakens the author's argument and is the correct answer.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 09:27
Hi GMATNinja and GMATNinja Two

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

Can you help to answer why option E in Q1 is wrong?
I chose E over C because
- In the last line of the passage, the author explicitly calls out "factors" that caused the decline in patent quality
- The passage activiely also talks about the increase in "Patenting ACtivity" ; The "Patenting Activity" increased due to the factors mentioned in the last line of the passage

Can you let me know where I went wrong?

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The system of patent-granting, which   [#permalink] 08 Aug 2017, 09:27

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