GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 30 Mar 2020, 14:44

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Director
Director
User avatar
Status: Everyone is a leader. Just stop listening to others.
Joined: 22 Mar 2013
Posts: 689
Location: India
GPA: 3.51
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Reviews Badge
The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 25 Sep 2019, 23:30
10
39
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 1587 sessions

53% (02:36) correct 47% (03:03) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 1457 sessions

74% (01:14) correct 26% (01:35) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 1486 sessions

41% (01:09) correct 59% (01:24) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 1429 sessions

70% (01:13) correct 30% (01:24) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 1348 sessions

79% (00:49) correct 21% (00:56) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semi-conductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity. Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined. Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's. This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semi-conductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors' products.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
(B) a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process
(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
(D) reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
(E) certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry



2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?

(A) The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.
(B) A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.
(C) Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.
(D) Firms’ emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
(E) Firms’ attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.



3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980’s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry’s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.



4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

(A) It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
(B) Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
(C) It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
(D) There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s.
(E) Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.



5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits

(A) was rarely successful during the 1980s
(B) became increasingly infrequent in the 1980s
(C) does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system
(D) is a consequence of the decline in patent quality
(E) is discussed increasingly in the semiconductor industry's technical literature



Originally posted by PiyushK on 12 Aug 2014, 02:12.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 25 Sep 2019, 23:30, edited 11 times in total.
Updated complete topic (67).
Most Helpful Expert Reply
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutors
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 3235
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Jun 2018, 19:25
7

Question 1 Answer Choice A, Explained


Nived wrote:
Hi! Have gone through all the responses above, but still not clear why A is not the answer for question 1.

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Because of patent, we would expect patenting activity to be directly related with becoming more innovative.

However, a study (Ziedonis and Hall) yielded results contrary to expectations (unanticipated results). Hence, I thought A is the answer.

Could it be that A is correct, but not the main idea?

An answer choice can be a true statement while still being an incorrect answer choice. That's because the correct answer choice is the one that best answers the specific question being asked. This is a minor distinction in wording, but it's a major difference in how we eliminate answer choices and select the choice that is truly correct for a given question. It's all part of the joy of test-taking in GMAT Land. :)

Quote:
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Like answer choice (E), choice (A) on its own is true. However, is the author primarily concerned with discussing a study and its results?

Nope. Instead, this passage is structured to:

  • Introduce us to the original purpose of granting patents.
  • Present studies on the semi-conductor industry (especially the study by Ziedonis and Hall) to illustrate the point that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity.
  • Analyze the findings of the Z&H study in the context of measuring patent quality.
  • Suggest a possible explanation for why semi-conductor patent quality declined during the 1980s.

Studies, and in particular the Z&H study, make up a crucial piece of this passage. However, the author's overall purpose is to analyze the relationship between patents and innovation.

Quote:
(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992

Choice (C) best expresses this overall purpose.

Question 3, Explained


jayarora wrote:
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

Answering this question is entirely process of elimination, so let's start with A and make our way down the line.

Quote:
(A) It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.

The passage tells us that Ziedonis and Hall studied trends in semi-conductor patenting between 1982 (the early 1980's) and 1992 (a decade later). Then, the author writes:

    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

Between the early 1980's and a decade later, the average quality of firms' semiconductor patents declined. Therefore, patent quality was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later. We'll keep (A) as the best choice for now.

Quote:
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.

Choice (B) is not supported by any statement we can see in the passage. Furthermore, this choice is contradicted by the very same portion of the passage that reinforces choice (A):

    "...as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased...the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

The author links the rise in number of patents granted to a fall in quality, so let's eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.

The author doesn't mention any change in R&D expenditures. In fact, the author suggests that there was little change in these expenditures during the time period being studied:

    "...investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992."

So let's eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.

This is also contradicted in the passage, when the author writes:

    "Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's."

The technical literature seems adequate enough for the author to use as a reference point in this passage. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

The very same portion of the passage we used to rule out choice (D) can be used to rule out choice (E). The author thinks that quality was measured by "a reasonable yardstick" in the technical literature.

Eliminate (E), and we're left with (A) as the best answer choice.


Who's Got GMAT Fever?


jayarora wrote:
On a side note, what does the phrase 'most feverish' mean in this passage? Many thanks :D

When someone does something "feverishly," she is putting a great amount of energy or excitement into it. If I write GMAT explanations feverishly, then you might picture me staying up all night, writing many, many explanations, one after the next, without taking a break.

This is related to the idiomatic use of "fever" or "crazy" in a statement showing how much a person is driven to a certain action:

  • My friend's got GMAT fever! He spent seven hours reading and posting on GMAT Club last night.
  • Oh, Peter is crazy about mangoes. Once mango season begins, he'll eat them feverishly, until he's literally sick.

By using the word "feverish," this passage tells us that the period between 1982 and 1992 was the semiconductor industry's most prolific, enthusiastic, energetic period of patenting. For the record, I'm personally much more crazy about reading and mangoes than I'll ever be about patents.


A Closer Read to Answer Question 5


Nived wrote:
Also, while I got question 5 correct (by process of elimination), where does the passage "suggest" that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?
The use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits seems to be just mentioned as a reason for low quality of patents. Does this mean that the passage is implying that the act of using patents does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?

Quote:
5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits

(C) does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system

At the start of the passage, we're told:

    "The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas."

Later, the author writes:

    "rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors' products."

We know that the intended purpose of the patent-granting system was to incent companies to develop new technologies. The author then identifies the use of patents as bargaining chips in order to show that firms turned away from this intended purpose, and towards a different strategic purpose. That's why choice (C) works.

Thanks for the questions, everyone! I hope this helps.
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutors @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: all videos by topic

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Most Helpful Community Reply
Retired Moderator
User avatar
Joined: 06 Jul 2014
Posts: 1208
Location: Ukraine
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Technology
GMAT 1: 660 Q48 V33
GMAT 2: 740 Q50 V40
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jul 2015, 13:08
14
2
ADbhai wrote:
Let's focus on the explanation also. Could any one please answer why 1-E and 3-C are wrong?


For answer to first question we need to have mental structure of passage:

1) Patent was made for innovations.
2) However firms doesn't become more innovative
2a) For example ... (a lot of patents but low investments)
2b) Moreover ... (quality of patents declined)
3) Why this decline happened: ... (firms used patents for strategic purposes)


Let's check answers:
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
Really tempting answer but if we reword this answer we will understand that this is a trap.
"Industry make some actions to achieve some results. But this results wasn't obtained. "
But according to the passage there was two groups:
first - creators of patent system and they wait for innovations
second - firms which used patent system for strategic purposes.
First group really received ununiticipated results but second group received anticipated results (looks like they received it)
Answer A talks about industry approach and its anticipated results so this is wrong answer.

B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
The studies in passage advocate nothing and don't mention any changes in patenting process so this is wrong variant

C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
This answer looks like too wide and like saying nothing specific.
But if we look to structure:
1 point about planned connection (patents should trigger innovations),
2 point about factual coonection (patents don't trigger innovations)
and subpoints 2a, 2b and point 3 are explaining why this situation is happened.
So this is the best answer.

D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
Investment mentions in point 2a. So this is only example of point 2. It can't be the main idea of a passage.

E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry
1 and 2 point show that one of the main parts of passage is a contrast between plans about patents and reality about patents. Increasing in patenting activity is a point 2a. So this is too narrow answer.
_________________
General Discussion
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 27 Jul 2012
Posts: 96
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2014, 20:27
2

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry


2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?
A The declining number of citations per semiconductor patent in the technical literature undermines the notion that patenting activity increased during this period.
B A decline in patent quality forced firms to change the way they managed the patenting process.
C Increased efficiencies allowed firms to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures.
D Firms' emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
E Firms' attempts to derive more patents from existing research and development expenditures may have contributed to a decline in infringement suites.



3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.


5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits
A. was rarely successful during the 1980s
B. became increasingly infrequent in the 1980s
C. does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent- granting system
D. is a consequence of the decline in patent quality
E. is discussed increasingly in the semiconductor industry's technical literature
[

Originally posted by bb61 on 12 Aug 2014, 07:53.
Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 20:27, edited 1 time in total.
Added timer.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 374
Concentration: Technology, Other
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Aug 2014, 20:15
Time Taken:8:10 mins
[Got tricked by Q1]
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992

2. The passage suggests which of the following about patenting in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 ?
D Firms' emphasis on filing patents for strategic purposes may have contributed to a decline in patent quality.
"This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semi-conductor firms managed their patenting process:"

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
"Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.
"Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's. "

5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits
C. does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent- granting system
Retired Moderator
User avatar
Joined: 06 Jul 2014
Posts: 1208
Location: Ukraine
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Technology
GMAT 1: 660 Q48 V33
GMAT 2: 740 Q50 V40
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jul 2015, 13:33
3
ADbhai wrote:
Let's focus on the explanation also. Could any one please answer why 1-E and 3-C are wrong?


Answer on third question:

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
The passage says that number of times a patents cited in tech literature declined during 1980's and that this number is a measure of quality of patent so we can infer that quality of patnets was higher in the early 1980's

B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
From the passage we see that there is present such sequence:
1. Firms trying to pursue their strategic purposes
2. Firms makes more patents by "simply squeezed more patents out of existing research"
3. Quality of patents decline

So according to the passage there is present a link between number of patents and quality of patents.

C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
According to passage there is was a correlation between decline in research and development and decline in quality of patents. But correlation is not a causality. The real cause of decline of patents' quality is a strategic goals of firms and not the economy in research and department.

D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
We know that number of times a patent cited in tech literature is a measure of quality of patent but passage says nothing about what exactly discussed in tech literature.

E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.
The passage says that number of times a patent cited in tech literature is a "reasonable yardstick"
_________________
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 26 Mar 2016
Posts: 1
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Mar 2016, 02:39
Got 4/5 correct (15 min)
Why is 3-B incorrect

3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?
A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Yet studies of the most patent-conscious business of all—the semi-conductor industry—suggest that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity-this statement clearly shows that patent quality is not dependent on number of patents

As far as answer A is concerned , though in early 1980's (1981, 1982) patent quality was higher than it was a decade later(is it implying years 1991 92 specifically? because for successive years we are not sure of relative quality)
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 07 Sep 2014
Posts: 333
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Aug 2016, 07:42
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?


A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined.

so A is true.

But B is also true that It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.quality and quantity was not correlated in the case we are discussing above.
Board of Directors
User avatar
V
Status: Stepping into my 10 years long dream
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Posts: 3560
Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Aug 2016, 06:19
abrakadabra21 wrote:
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?


A. It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.
B. It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
C. It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
D. It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.
E. It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.


Ziedonis and Hall, for example, found that investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992, the industry's most feverish period of patenting. Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined.

so A is true.

But B is also true that It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.quality and quantity was not correlated in the case we are discussing above.


There is no such information/relation given in the passage for the quality of patent and its number. So, we cannot conclude this. Hence, B is incorrect.
_________________
My LinkedIn abhimahna.
My GMAT Story: From V21 to V40 | My MBA Journey: My 10 years long MBA Dream
My Secret Hacks: Best way to use GMATClub | Importance of an Error Log!
Verbal Resources: All SC Resources at one place | All CR Resources at one place
Blog: Subscribe to Question of the Day Blog
GMAT Club Inbuilt Error Log Functionality - View More.
New Visa Forum - Ask all your Visa Related Questions - here.
Have OPT questions? - Post them here.
Best Reply Functionality on GMAT Club!
Find a bug in the new email templates and get rewarded with 2 weeks of GMATClub Tests for free
Check our new About Us Page here.
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2454
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Aug 2016, 00:28
2
Took 8 mins 30 seconds , including 2 mins to read .
-The passage talks about patent granting and about innovation
- The author mentions a study conducted to show that patenting and innovation are not necessarily connected.
- The author also provides possible reasons on why this might have been the case

1. Answer C
Option (A) and Option (B) are incorrect because the author uses the study as an example but is not primarily concerned with the study .
Option (D) is completely irrelevant and Option (E) is not the author s main point but just an additional point to the Passage

2.
"Instead, semiconductor firms simply squeezed more patents out of existing research and development expenditures. Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980’s, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms’ patents declined."
"rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes"
The excerpt above suggests that since firms emphasized on filing patents for strategic purposes, it contributed to a decline in patent quality.
Answer D

3.
Answer A

4. "the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick"
The author's claim would be weakened if both low quality patents ate high quality patents are discussed with the same frequency.
Answer E

5.
Answer C
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 28 Apr 2016
Posts: 81
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jul 2017, 03:10
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutors
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 3235
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jul 2017, 15:57
2
ameyaprabhu wrote:
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

Choice (A) might explain why there are fewer articles per semiconductor patent COMPARED to articles per patent in most other industries, but this does NOT explain why citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's.

For example, say that in the early 1980's, on average, 50 articles were published per semiconductor patent and 100 articles were published per patent in most other industries. In the late 1980's, only 10 articles were published per semiconductor patent while the number per patent in most other industries remained roughly the same. This is consistent with choice (A) because it suggests that it is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry. However, choice (A) does NOT explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's. Thus, the citations evidence could still support the idea that patent quality declined during the 1980's, and (A) must be eliminated.

However, what if the number of LOW quality semiconductor patents decreased while the number of HIGH quality semiconductor patents remained the same? If "low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents" (choice (E)), this would explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent would have declined EVEN IF patent quality did not decline. Thus, choice (E) weakens the author's argument and is the correct answer.
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutors @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: all videos by topic

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
BSchool Forum Moderator
avatar
P
Joined: 05 Jul 2017
Posts: 499
Location: India
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V36
GPA: 4
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Aug 2017, 08:27
Hi GMATNinja and GMATNinja Two

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

Can you help to answer why option E in Q1 is wrong?
I chose E over C because
- In the last line of the passage, the author explicitly calls out "factors" that caused the decline in patent quality
- The passage activiely also talks about the increase in "Patenting ACtivity" ; The "Patenting Activity" increased due to the factors mentioned in the last line of the passage

Can you let me know where I went wrong?
_________________
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutors
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 3235
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Aug 2017, 06:55
3
pikolo2510 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja and GMATNinja Two

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

Can you help to answer why option E in Q1 is wrong?
I chose E over C because
- In the last line of the passage, the author explicitly calls out "factors" that caused the decline in patent quality
- The passage activiely also talks about the increase in "Patenting ACtivity" ; The "Patenting Activity" increased due to the factors mentioned in the last line of the passage

Can you let me know where I went wrong?

Choice (E) might be a true statement, but remember that we are looking for an answer choice that describes what the passage is PRIMARILY concerned with. Does the passage cite factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry? Yes, but the author cites those factors in order to strengthen the argument that the increase in patenting activity was not a result of an increase in innovation.

As stated in choice (C), "the passage is primarily concerned with discussing the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992." The factors mentioned in choice (E) simply contribute to that discussion.

I hope that helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutors @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: all videos by topic

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 30 Nov 2017
Posts: 22
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 May 2018, 23:33
Hi! Have gone through all the responses above, but still not clear why A is not the answer for question 1.

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Because of patent, we would expect patenting activity to be directly related with becoming more innovative.

However, a study (Ziedonis and Hall) yielded results contrary to expectations (unanticipated results). Hence, I thought A is the answer.

Could it be that A is correct, but not the main idea?
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 30 Nov 2017
Posts: 22
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 May 2018, 23:40
Also, while I got question 5 correct (by process of elimination), where does the passage "suggest" that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?

The use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits seems to be just mentioned as a reason for low quality of patents. Does this mean that the passage is implying that the act of using patents does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 24 Oct 2016
Posts: 67
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
GPA: 3.61
CAT Tests
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Jun 2018, 15:12
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

On a side note, what does the phrase 'most feverish' mean in this passage? Many thanks :D
Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 15 Nov 2016
Posts: 137
Concentration: General Management, Leadership
GMAT 1: 480 Q34 V22
Reviews Badge
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Sep 2018, 22:45
4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

(A) It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
(B) Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
(C) It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
(D) There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s.
(E) Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

“Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980’s”

Reasonable yardstick is the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature. That means higher the no of citation in the literature higher the quality of the patent. To weaken this we need an answer that says low citations --> higher quality or High citations --> low quality or citation is not equal to quality. E says the last one.

This is my reasoning. Please feel free to correct if I am wrong.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 18 Aug 2017
Posts: 4
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 03 Nov 2018, 05:28
Why is option D incorrect in question 5?
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutors
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 3235
Location: United States (CO)
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Nov 2018, 19:54
Anvi10 wrote:
Why is option D incorrect in question 5?

Let's consider the entire statement:

Quote:
5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits... (D) ...is a consequence of the decline in patent quality

If we pick (D), we're saying that the use of patents as bargaining chips is a consequence of the decline in patent quality.

But the passage definitely doesn't say that the decline in patent quality led to the use of patents as bargaining chips.

If anything, the passage lightly suggests that the opposite may be true:

Quote:
This decline in quality may be related to changes in the way semi-conductor firms managed their patenting process: rather than patenting to win exclusive rights...patents were filed...to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits or as a means to block competitor's products.

I hope this, along with my previous look at question #5, helps to clarify!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutors @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: all videos by topic

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for   [#permalink] 04 Nov 2018, 19:54

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 25 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne