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GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 07:55
1
pikolo2510 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja and GMATNinja Two

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing ____
A. a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
B. a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry's management of the patenting process
C. the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
D. reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
E. certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

Can you help to answer why option E in Q1 is wrong?
I chose E over C because
- In the last line of the passage, the author explicitly calls out "factors" that caused the decline in patent quality
- The passage activiely also talks about the increase in "Patenting ACtivity" ; The "Patenting Activity" increased due to the factors mentioned in the last line of the passage

Can you let me know where I went wrong?

Choice (E) might be a true statement, but remember that we are looking for an answer choice that describes what the passage is PRIMARILY concerned with. Does the passage cite factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry? Yes, but the author cites those factors in order to strengthen the argument that the increase in patenting activity was not a result of an increase in innovation.

As stated in choice (C), "the passage is primarily concerned with discussing the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992." The factors mentioned in choice (E) simply contribute to that discussion.

I hope that helps!
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2018, 15:01
Good Passage !
Missed 1st and 3rd questions
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 00:33
Hi! Have gone through all the responses above, but still not clear why A is not the answer for question 1.

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Because of patent, we would expect patenting activity to be directly related with becoming more innovative.

However, a study (Ziedonis and Hall) yielded results contrary to expectations (unanticipated results). Hence, I thought A is the answer.

Could it be that A is correct, but not the main idea?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 00:40
Also, while I got question 5 correct (by process of elimination), where does the passage "suggest" that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?

The use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits seems to be just mentioned as a reason for low quality of patents. Does this mean that the passage is implying that the act of using patents does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 16:12
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

On a side note, what does the phrase 'most feverish' mean in this passage? Many thanks :D
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 20:25

Question 1 Answer Choice A, Explained


Nived wrote:
Hi! Have gone through all the responses above, but still not clear why A is not the answer for question 1.

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Because of patent, we would expect patenting activity to be directly related with becoming more innovative.

However, a study (Ziedonis and Hall) yielded results contrary to expectations (unanticipated results). Hence, I thought A is the answer.

Could it be that A is correct, but not the main idea?

An answer choice can be a true statement while still being an incorrect answer choice. That's because the correct answer choice is the one that best answers the specific question being asked. This is a minor distinction in wording, but it's a major difference in how we eliminate answer choices and select the choice that is truly correct for a given question. It's all part of the joy of test-taking in GMAT Land. :)

Quote:
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry's approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results

Like answer choice (E), choice (A) on its own is true. However, is the author primarily concerned with discussing a study and its results?

Nope. Instead, this passage is structured to:

  • Introduce us to the original purpose of granting patents.
  • Present studies on the semi-conductor industry (especially the study by Ziedonis and Hall) to illustrate the point that firms do not necessarily become more innovative as they increase their patenting activity.
  • Analyze the findings of the Z&H study in the context of measuring patent quality.
  • Suggest a possible explanation for why semi-conductor patent quality declined during the 1980s.

Studies, and in particular the Z&H study, make up a crucial piece of this passage. However, the author's overall purpose is to analyze the relationship between patents and innovation.

Quote:
(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992

Choice (C) best expresses this overall purpose.

Question 3, Explained


jayarora wrote:
3. The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

Answering this question is entirely process of elimination, so let's start with A and make our way down the line.

Quote:
(A) It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.

The passage tells us that Ziedonis and Hall studied trends in semi-conductor patenting between 1982 (the early 1980's) and 1992 (a decade later). Then, the author writes:

    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

Between the early 1980's and a decade later, the average quality of firms' semiconductor patents declined. Therefore, patent quality was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later. We'll keep (A) as the best choice for now.

Quote:
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.

Choice (B) is not supported by any statement we can see in the passage. Furthermore, this choice is contradicted by the very same portion of the passage that reinforces choice (A):

    "...as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased...the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

The author links the rise in number of patents granted to a fall in quality, so let's eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.

The author doesn't mention any change in R&D expenditures. In fact, the author suggests that there was little change in these expenditures during the time period being studied:

    "...investment in research and development (a reasonable proxy for innovation) did not substantially increase between 1982 and 1992."

So let's eliminate (C), too.

Quote:
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry's technical literature.

This is also contradicted in the passage, when the author writes:

    "Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's."

The technical literature seems adequate enough for the author to use as a reference point in this passage. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

The very same portion of the passage we used to rule out choice (D) can be used to rule out choice (E). The author thinks that quality was measured by "a reasonable yardstick" in the technical literature.

Eliminate (E), and we're left with (A) as the best answer choice.


Who's Got GMAT Fever?


jayarora wrote:
On a side note, what does the phrase 'most feverish' mean in this passage? Many thanks :D

When someone does something "feverishly," she is putting a great amount of energy or excitement into it. If I write GMAT explanations feverishly, then you might picture me staying up all night, writing many, many explanations, one after the next, without taking a break.

This is related to the idiomatic use of "fever" or "crazy" in a statement showing how much a person is driven to a certain action:

  • My friend's got GMAT fever! He spent seven hours reading and posting on GMAT Club last night.
  • Oh, Peter is crazy about mangoes. Once mango season begins, he'll eat them feverishly, until he's literally sick.

By using the word "feverish," this passage tells us that the period between 1982 and 1992 was the semiconductor industry's most prolific, enthusiastic, energetic period of patenting. For the record, I'm personally much more crazy about reading and mangoes than I'll ever be about patents.


A Closer Read to Answer Question 5


Nived wrote:
Also, while I got question 5 correct (by process of elimination), where does the passage "suggest" that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?
The use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits seems to be just mentioned as a reason for low quality of patents. Does this mean that the passage is implying that the act of using patents does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system?

Quote:
5. The passage suggests that the use of patents as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suits

(C) does not fulfill the intended purpose of the patent-granting system

At the start of the passage, we're told:

    "The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for the exploitation of new technologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas."

Later, the author writes:

    "rather than patenting to win exclusive rights to a valuable new technology, patents were filed more for strategic purposes, to be used as bargaining chips to ward off infringement suites or as a means to block competitors' products."

We know that the intended purpose of the patent-granting system was to incent companies to develop new technologies. The author then identifies the use of patents as bargaining chips in order to show that firms turned away from this intended purpose, and towards a different strategic purpose. That's why choice (C) works.

Thanks for the questions, everyone! I hope this helps.
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Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2018, 10:26
Thank you a lot GMATNinja for the very detailed explanation.

It is very clear now.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 23:45
4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

(A) It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
(B) Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
(C) It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
(D) There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s.
(E) Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

“Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980’s”

Reasonable yardstick is the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature. That means higher the no of citation in the literature higher the quality of the patent. To weaken this we need an answer that says low citations --> higher quality or High citations --> low quality or citation is not equal to quality. E says the last one.

This is my reasoning. Please feel free to correct if I am wrong.
Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ-The system of patent-granting, which confers tempo &nbs [#permalink] 19 Sep 2018, 23:45

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