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The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for

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Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 08:30
GMATNinja wrote:
ameyaprabhu wrote:
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

Choice (A) might explain why there are fewer articles per semiconductor patent COMPARED to articles per patent in most other industries, but this does NOT explain why citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's.

For example, say that in the early 1980's, on average, 50 articles were published per semiconductor patent and 100 articles were published per patent in most other industries. In the late 1980's, only 10 articles were published per semiconductor patent while the number per patent in most other industries remained roughly the same. This is consistent with choice (A) because it suggests that it is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry. However, choice (A) does NOT explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's. Thus, the citations evidence could still support the idea that patent quality declined during the 1980's, and (A) must be eliminated.

However, what if the number of LOW quality semiconductor patents decreased while the number of HIGH quality semiconductor patents remained the same? If "low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents" (choice (E)), this would explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent would have declined EVEN IF patent quality did not decline. Thus, choice (E) weakens the author's argument and is the correct answer.



Hello GMAT NINJA,

Can you please explain why option B is incorrect. And also please elaborate your explaination for the above if possible.

Many thanks in advance.
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Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 19:50
Sandeep2212 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
ameyaprabhu wrote:
Can someone please explain why option A is wrong for Question 4

Conclusion: the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's

As per option A = IF It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries. THEN it would explain why the number of citations were less.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author's claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?
A. It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
B. Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
C. It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
D. There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970's than in the 1980's.
E. Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

Choice (A) might explain why there are fewer articles per semiconductor patent COMPARED to articles per patent in most other industries, but this does NOT explain why citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's.

For example, say that in the early 1980's, on average, 50 articles were published per semiconductor patent and 100 articles were published per patent in most other industries. In the late 1980's, only 10 articles were published per semiconductor patent while the number per patent in most other industries remained roughly the same. This is consistent with choice (A) because it suggests that it is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry. However, choice (A) does NOT explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent declined during the 1980's. Thus, the citations evidence could still support the idea that patent quality declined during the 1980's, and (A) must be eliminated.

However, what if the number of LOW quality semiconductor patents decreased while the number of HIGH quality semiconductor patents remained the same? If "low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents" (choice (E)), this would explain why the number of citations per semiconductor patent would have declined EVEN IF patent quality did not decline. Thus, choice (E) weakens the author's argument and is the correct answer.



Hello GMAT NINJA,

Can you please explain why option B is incorrect. And also please elaborate your explaination for the above if possible.

Many thanks in advance.

The author writes:

    Though patent quality is a difficult notion to measure, the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature is a reasonable yardstick, and citations per semiconductor patent did decline during the 1980's.

According to this logic, if the number of times a patent is cited in the technical literature increases, it's reasonable to claim that this patent is of higher quality than a patent which is not cited as many times in the technical literature.

Remember, we're asked which choice most weakens this claim. Any information that makes us doubt the correlation between a higher number of citations and the quality of the patent being cited would do the trick.

However, choice (B) says:

    Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.

This actually strengthens the claim, by confirming the link between highest-quality patents and a high number of citations.

That's why we eliminate (B) and keep going.
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Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 23:19
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
(B) a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process
(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
(D) reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
(E) certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

Fallen for A. Wasn't t unanticipated results.

4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly serve to weaken the author’s claim about what constitutes a reasonable yardstick for measuring patent quality?

(A) It is more difficult to have an article accepted for publication in the technical literature of the semiconductor industry than it is in the technical literature of most other industries.
(B) Many of the highest-quality semiconductor patents are cited numerous times in the technical literature.
(C) It is difficult for someone not familiar with the technical literature to recognize what constitutes an innovative semiconductor patent.
(D) There were more citations made per semiconductor patent in the technical literature in the 1970’s than in the 1980’s.
(E) Low-quality patents tend to be discussed in the technical literature as frequently as high-quality patents.

Fell for the trap answer B. E it is since it weakens the quality aspect.
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The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Nov 2019, 09:29
GMATNinja wrote:
jayarora wrote:
The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

Answering this question is entirely process of elimination, so let's start with A and make our way down the line.

Quote:
(A) It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.

The passage tells us that Ziedonis and Hall studied trends in semi-conductor patenting between 1982 (the early 1980's) and 1992 (a decade later). Then, the author writes:

    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

Between the early 1980's and a decade later, the average quality of firms' semiconductor patents declined. Therefore, patent quality was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later. We'll keep (A) as the best choice for now.



hi GMATNinja or other experts, SajjadAhmad, u1983, GMATNinjaTwo, workout, Gnpth

I didn't picked up A because of my interpretation.
    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

because in 1980's, the activity increased, and the average quality of patent also declined in 1980, then I can infer that the quality is lower in 1980's than pre 1980's, but have no idea about the later evade. that's why I picked up D

Originally posted by zoezhuyan on 08 Nov 2019, 07:33.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 08 Nov 2019, 09:29, edited 1 time in total.
fixed quote formatting
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Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 08:31
zoezhuyan wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
jayarora wrote:
The passage makes which of the following claims about patent quality in the semiconductor industry?

(A) It was higher in the early 1980???s than it was a decade later.
(B) It is largely independent of the number of patents granted.
(C) It changed between 1982 and 1992 in ways that were linked to changes in research and development expenditures.
(D) It is not adequately discussed in the industry???s technical literature.
(E) It was measured by inappropriate means during the period from 1982 to 1992.

Hi, Could someone explain the answer to the above question? If the citations per semiconductor(alias for quality according to the passage) declined during the 1980s, how can we infer that the quality was higher than that in 1990? or am I missing out something here?

Answering this question is entirely process of elimination, so let's start with A and make our way down the line.

Quote:
(A) It was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later.

The passage tells us that Ziedonis and Hall studied trends in semi-conductor patenting between 1982 (the early 1980's) and 1992 (a decade later). Then, the author writes:

    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

Between the early 1980's and a decade later, the average quality of firms' semiconductor patents declined. Therefore, patent quality was higher in the early 1980's than it was a decade later. We'll keep (A) as the best choice for now.



hi GMATNinja or other experts, SajjadAhmad, u1983, GMATNinjaTwo, workout, Gnpth

I didn't picked up A because of my interpretation.
    "Moreover, Ziedonis and Hall found that as patenting activity at semiconductor firms increased in the 1980's, the consensus among industry employees was that the average quality of their firms' patents declined."

because in 1980's, the activity increased, and the average quality of patent also declined in 1980, then I can infer that the quality is lower in 1980's than pre 1980's, but have no idea about the later evade. that's why I picked up D

Remember that Ziedonis and Hall studied the period from 1982 to 1992, "the industry's most feverish period of patenting." And once the author has set up this 10-year-span as the the period being studied, the author tells us that average patent quality declined during the 1980's. So according to the author, quality was higher in early 1980s than it was when the early 1990s began.

Now, did quality suddenly make a huge turnaround in 1990 and 1991, even as patent activity continued to increase? I suppose that's possible, since we aren't explicitly told anything about the years 1990-1992. But it would be a huge stretch, and would go against the reason the author's reason for discussing the quality of patents during the 1980's in the first place.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The system of patent-granting, which confers temporary monopolies for   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2019, 08:31

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