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# Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology

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Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Mar 2018, 09:22
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Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology typically has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing later companies to adapt to the standard that has been set, expend large amounts of resources to invest in unproven alternatives, or develop and implement alternative business models that are better received by the end user. In current times, however, the largest payoffs often go to companies that lead in developing new, more optimal business models and approaches for successful mass acceptance and usage of technologies.

The release in 1993 of the National Center for Super-computing Applications (NCSA) Mosaic web browser, one of the first graphical web browsers, initiated an explosive growth in internet use. Operating as a unit of the University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign and one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation's Supercomputer Centers Program, the NCSA is a state-federal partnership that has a mandate to develop and deploy national scale cyber infrastructure that advances science and engineering. The team credited with the development of Mosaic was led by Marc Andreessen, who later left NCSA to start his own company, named Netscape. Netscape released the Netscape Navigator, a web browser that was heavily influenced by Mosaic, in 1994. The Netscape Navigator quickly became the world's most popular browser, accounting for 90% of all internet use at its peak.

Microsoft responded to the tremendous growth of internet use when it released its own web browser in 1995 named Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer, too, was heavily influenced by Mosaic. Although Internet Explorer was initially not necessarily technically better than Netscape Navigator, Microsoft was able to leverage its dominance in the operating system market to take over the web browser market by bundling Internet Explorer with Microsoft Windows, the predominant computer operating system at the time. By 2002, Internet Explorer usage share of overall internet usage peaked at over 95%. Despite the Netscape Navigator's substantial technological head start and near monopoly of internet users at one time, Microsoft's Internet Explorer was able to overtake and eventually eliminate the Netscape Navigator from the market primarily through its use of use of a business model more widely accepted by internet users.

1. According to the passage, it can be inferred that internet users probably shifted their web browser preference from Netscape Navigator to Internet Explorer because of which of the following?

A. Internet Explorer was technically better than Netscape Navigator.

B. The stand-alone cost of Internet Explorer was less expensive than that of Netscape Navigator.

C. Internet Explorer undertook an extensive and popular marketing campaign.

D. Internet Explorer came included with all computers that ran on the Microsoft Windows operating system.

E. Netscape Navigator would soon stop development.

The correct answer to this question is (D). This is a Specific question about the details of the passage, requiring the test taker to locate the pertinent portion of the passage where details related to the question are provided. Answer choice A is refuted directly in the passage, which states, Internet Explorer was initially not necessarily technically better than Netscape Navigator, Answer choice B is incorrect as the passage does not discuss the stand-alone cost of Internet Explorer. Choice C is incorrect as the passage does not discuss any marketing campaign undertaken. Choice D is the correct answer. The third paragraph of the passage states that the bundling of Internet Explorer with Microsoft Windows was the factor that enabled Microsoft to leverage its dominance in the operating system market to take over the web browser market, implying that Internet Explorer overtook Netscape Navigator in large part because it came included with most computers on the market. Choice E is incorrect as the Netscape Navigator's end of development was a result, not a cause, of its loss in market dominance to Internet Explorer.

2. According to the passage, today's successful companies, unlike successful companies in the past, may earn the greatest profits by

A. investing in research to produce cheaper versions of existing technology.

B. being the first to market a competing technology.

C. adapting rapidly to a technological standard already established by a competing company.

D. establishing technological dominance to lead product definition in front of competitors.

E. focusing on business model alternatives that will be more well received by the end user.

3. This passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?

A. Evaluating two competing technologies

B. Tracing the impact of a new technology by narrating a sequence of events

C. Reinterpreting an event from contemporary business history

D. Illustrating a business strategy by means of a case history

E. Proposing an innovative approach to business planning

The correct answer to this question is (D). This is a universal question about the primary purpose of the passage, requiring the test taker to successfully identify STOP in order to efficiently and accurately locate the correct answer. The Scope and Tone of the passage should guide the test taker in selecting the correct answer regarding the passage's primary purpose. Answer choice A is incorrect as the passage does not evaluate the technologies, but is rather concerned with a dominant business strategy. Choice B is incorrect because the passage does not trace the impact of a new technology. Choice C is incorrect as the passage does not reinterpret an event, which would require the presentation of a current interpretation that differs from a prior one. Answer choice D is the correct answer, the only one that conforms to the Scope, Tone and Purpose of the passage. The last sentence in the first paragraph presents the author's main point, In current times, however, the largest payoffs often go to. The second and third paragraphs carry on with a case study that depicts the main point. Answer choice E is incorrect as the passage is not primarily concerned with the proposal of an innovative approach to business planning.

4. Which of the following best describes the relation of the first paragraph to the passage as a whole?

A. It makes a general observation that is then exemplified.

B. It outlines a process that is then analyzed.

C. It poses a question that is then answered.

D. It advances an argument that is then supported.

E. It introduces several conflicting arguments that are then reconciled.

The correct answer to this question is (A). This is a Function question about the role in which the first paragraph plays in relation to the passage in its entirety. Answering such questions efficiently and accurately depends upon the test taker's understanding of the Organization of the passage. Answer choice A is the correct answer, as it correctly notes that the first paragraph makes an observation (regarding the change from first-mover advantage to business-strategy advantage), allowing the rest of the passage to demonstrate that observation through an example. Choices B and C are incorrect as the passage neither outlines a process nor poses a question. Similarly, answer choice D is incorrect as the first paragraph introduces the observation, and does not advance an existing argument. Choice E is incorrect as only one argument is posited.

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Originally posted by shyind on 04 Nov 2015, 23:13.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 11 Mar 2018, 09:22, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2018, 09:28
2
All correct in 7 mins, including almost 3 mins 45 seconds to read

1. According to the passage, it can be inferred that internet users probably shifted their web browser preference from Netscape Navigator to Internet Explorer because of which of the following?
D. Internet Explorer came included with all computers that ran on the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Although Internet Explorer was initially not necessarily technically better than Netscape Navigator, Microsoft was able to leverage its dominance in the operating system market to take over the web browser market by bundling Internet Explorer with Microsoft Windows, the predominant computer operating system at the time.

2. According to the passage, today's successful companies, unlike successful companies in the past, may earn the greatest profits by
E. focusing on business model alternatives that will be more well received by the end user.

In current times, however, the largest payoffs often go to companies that lead in developing new, more optimal business models and approaches for successful mass acceptance and usage of technologies.

3. This passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?

A. Evaluating two competing technologies -- no evaluation is done here

B. Tracing the impact of a new technology by narrating a sequence of events - irrelevant

C. Reinterpreting an event from contemporary business history - not the main purpose -- it was just an example

D. Illustrating a business strategy by means of a case history - Correct

E. Proposing an innovative approach to business planning -- no approach was proposed

4. Which of the following best describes the relation of the first paragraph to the passage as a whole?

A. It makes a general observation that is then exemplified. - Correct
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2018, 08:09
2
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 7 mins, including almost 3 mins 45 seconds to read

1. According to the passage, it can be inferred that internet users probably shifted their web browser preference from Netscape Navigator to Internet Explorer because of which of the following?
D. Internet Explorer came included with all computers that ran on the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Although Internet Explorer was initially not necessarily technically better than Netscape Navigator, Microsoft was able to leverage its dominance in the operating system market to take over the web browser market by bundling Internet Explorer with Microsoft Windows, the predominant computer operating system at the time.

2. According to the passage, today's successful companies, unlike successful companies in the past, may earn the greatest profits by
E. focusing on business model alternatives that will be more well received by the end user.

In current times, however, the largest payoffs often go to companies that lead in developing new, more optimal business models and approaches for successful mass acceptance and usage of technologies.

3. This passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?

A. Evaluating two competing technologies -- no evaluation is done here

B. Tracing the impact of a new technology by narrating a sequence of events - irrelevant

C. Reinterpreting an event from contemporary business history - not the main purpose -- it was just an example

D. Illustrating a business strategy by means of a case history - Correct

E. Proposing an innovative approach to business planning -- no approach was proposed

4. Which of the following best describes the relation of the first paragraph to the passage as a whole?

A. It makes a general observation that is then exemplified. - Correct

Skywalker18

What is wrong with option D for Q4??
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Joined: 03 Feb 2018
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2018, 14:21
prateek176 wrote:

What is wrong with option D for Q4??

Yeah - I got that wrong too although I am not exactly sure why. Here is my thinking:
A - "states a general observation then exemplifies.."
D - "advances an argument then supports it.."

Re-reading the passage, it STILL DOES sound like the author's tone is rather prescritive (making a case for a strategy to achieve customer adoption and success as a company) than just "general observations". The author then does go out to support this argument through the examples or Netscape and Internet Explorer. Experts?
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2018, 14:22
Requesting expert reply for question # 4. I marked D for reasons stated in my post on the question thread which I'm shown is incorrect.
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2018, 11:56
3
1
sidvarma wrote:
Requesting expert reply for question # 4. I marked D for reasons stated in my post on the question thread which I'm shown is incorrect.

The author is making a statement. A fact. Something which is known. "Historically"... "In current times"... (a phenomenon which has changed over time)

Exemplified - illustrate or clarify by giving an example.
Argument - a reason or set of reasons given in support of an idea, action or theory.

So the author is simply making a statement, and giving an example. He is not necessarily supporting/opposing anything. He might like how things have changed, but not really putting an argument.

Had there been some sort of opposing view later in the passage. For Example had the RC been sort of: 1. Global Warming has disturbed the ecosystem with temp and seasonal changes. 2. Examples - Temperatures in XYZ has dropped, inc, Seasons around equatorial regions start late/early etc. 3. (and somewhere in between)BUT, it is also believed that there are other reasons as per... This sort of RC might have been argumentative in nature.
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 14:39
2
sidvarma wrote:
Requesting expert reply for question # 4. I marked D for reasons stated in my post on the question thread which I'm shown is incorrect.

See the bold words..
Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology typically has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape product definitions, forcing later companies to adapt to the standard that has been set, expend large amounts of resources to invest in unproven alternatives, or develop and implement alternative business models that are better received by the end user. In current times, however, the largest payoffs often go to companies that lead in developing new, more optimal business models and approache

At first Author provides a review about the history,
then shows generalize (see word often) the current status
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Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 20:44
The word that strikes me in option D is ARGUMENT. This kinda digresses from what actually has been stated in the first para. Option A is a better one among 5, if not completely justifiable.

sidvarma wrote:
prateek176 wrote:

What is wrong with option D for Q4??

Yeah - I got that wrong too although I am not exactly sure why. Here is my thinking:
A - "states a general observation then exemplifies.."
D - "advances an argument then supports it.."

Re-reading the passage, it STILL DOES sound like the author's tone is rather prescritive (making a case for a strategy to achieve customer adoption and success as a company) than just "general observations". The author then does go out to support this argument through the examples or Netscape and Internet Explorer. Experts?
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 23:58
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2018, 08:35
I believe the words- TYPICALLY and OFTEN state a generalization.- And a specific example is given to validate the same.

As far as D is concerned, D is a close contender. However, the glitch is the first paragraph cannot be an argument. - There is only a premise and counter-premise. No Inference/ Conclusion. The author isn't saying that this business strategy is preferable because it is working now. Hence he is not advancing anything- he is just stating two facts and proving it with a case study.
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2018, 11:00
Q4 what is the difference between analyse(option B)and example(option A)? author has used figures in percentage, cant we say it as analysis?
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2018, 11:11
2
GDX786 wrote:
Q4 what is the difference between analyse(option B)and example(option A)? author has used figures in percentage, cant we say it as analysis?

The mistake lies in first part of option B - it is a process.....
Passage starts with two fact sets as indicated by the words - Historically, X used to happen ...In current times, however, Y happens....
Ask yourself: Is it describing a step by step way of doing something, a process? Or, is it states an observation/ generalization that has happened in a particular area?

That's why, B is incorrect
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Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2018, 02:20
6 min 3 correct 1 wrong , silly mistake
Re: Historically, the first company to commercialize a new technology &nbs [#permalink] 31 Jul 2018, 02:20
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