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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 08:44
2
15
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

63% (01:43) correct 37% (01:50) wrong based on 754 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,


NOTE: BEST or EXCELLENT answers must include the meaning of this sentence.
The meaning of the sentence should be stated in your own words. Merely repeating what you think is the correct answer
does not constitute "the meaning in your own words." :)


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.

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New post 26 Nov 2018, 13:54
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)



If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

• Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent.

• Nor are there logical referents in choice B for as is and it.

• Choice C entails a false appositive: the sentence now says that the single strain of plant
is itself a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, not that the use of a
single strain is such a practice.

• Choice D reverses the order of the constructions, but the appositive remains illogical.

• Choice E is the best answer: use is the proper subject for the verb increases
and [is also] a governing noun for the appositive practice.

COMMENTS on the OE
This OE is both correct and hard to understand.

Typically, if parts of official explanations are obscure, I address and try to clarify them.
I have decided that we should all take advantage of this forum and this topic.

Understanding when to ignore parts of OEs is important, for example, the word "wordy" without explanation or comparison.
It is just as important to be able to interpret a correct but tersely written OE.

I see an opportunity to address increasingly common subjects in SC, to "unpack" the OE, and to give kudos.

I will post followup challenge questions on this thread
"challenge" in the sense of "more in depth," though not necessarily in the sense of "really difficult."

COMMENTS on the topic thread
Welcome to GMAT Club, Username8 ! :)

None of these answers is as complete as I would like.

Here is a detail that I like because its author understands how the sentence works:
Wonderwoman31 wrote:
Quote:
C - modifier issue - In this sentence - a single strain of plant …. Is a noun + noun modifier..
But single strain of plant is not a practice

Here is a detail that I like because its author is correct about Option E's superior rhetorical construction:
caljwill wrote:
Quote:
(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, -
Clear, concise, and importantly, much more active and direct than the original. Revisiting vs. Answer Choice D, this one seems better from a rhetorical construction standpoint

And here is the detail that I like best because although meaning is not spelled out, it IS captured.
sucal000 wrote:
Quote:
A, B, C, D all suggests that a single strain of plant increases the likelihood; only E address the use of xxx.
A plant does not increase the likelihood, the use (the method practice) does.


Best answer is sucal000 - kudos!
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New post 26 Nov 2018, 03:07
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A, B, C, D all suggests that a single strain of plant increase the likehood; only E address the use of xxx.

A plant do not increase the likehood, the use (the method) does.
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Re: If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 09:51
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,


NOTE: BEST or EXCELLENT answers must include an explanation of the meaning of this sentence.
The meaning of the sentence should be stated in your own words. Merely repeating what you think is the correct answer
does not constitute "an explanation of the meaning."


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.


For me a close call between options E&D, modifier error type SC

Option A & B use 'it' pronoun error so wrong
Option C modifier error
Now coming to D vs E : A vs The ; A is used along with a noun whereas The is used specific object ... so usage of The is correct in E

IMO E is correct
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New post 25 Nov 2018, 21:10
Archit3110 wrote:

For me a close call between options E&D, modifier error type SC

Option A & B use 'it' pronoun error so wrong
Option C modifier error
Now coming to D vs E : A vs The ; A is used along with a noun whereas The is used specific object ... so usage of The is correct in E

IMO E is correct

Hi Archit3110 -
What is the meaning of the sentence, do you think? (See the red text in my post above.)
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New post 25 Nov 2018, 21:44
I feel answer must be either A or B,because these 2 options help us to connect the second sentence, that starts with "It".
Now, eliminate starts...option 2 stated as and is together that does notsoumd to be coherent....so OA is A...
That's what I feel

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 23:36
Meaning :- ( Meaning of the sentence is slightly ambiguous) So, as per meaning if a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area than it increases ( than what increases) the likelihood that the impact…

Error Analysis

Although in first read I mis-read it to be a placeholder, the usage of it is ambiguous

2 Error : a practice is a noun + noun modifier . And we know that non + noun modifier can modify either verb or noun in preceding clause

But, it is not clear what is practice trying to modify, For instance whether single strain is practice or is used is a practice ( Not clear !!!!


A - Error Analysis done above
B - Same pronoun reference issue as A
C - modifier issue - In this sentence - a single strain of plant …. Is a noun + noun modifier.. But single strain of plant is not a practice
D - Same modifier issue as C
E - (Correct) - a practice is the use -- Correct modifier used …

The use … increases (SV Pair makes sense)
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New post 25 Nov 2018, 23:48
generis wrote:

If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it - Correct format would be "If X, then Y", - this is notably missing here, though overall it doesn't seem terrible

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it - "as is" is incorrect - seed-marketing methods are actively fostering this behavior, "as is" makes it seem that seed-marketing methods are doing something else, and this is a side effect (at least in my interpretation)

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area - When removing "is" we no longer have a verb. Remove the clause and we see "If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, [], increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous"

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, - I have trouble ruling this one out for grammatical reasons, but it comes off as awkward to me... let's hold on to this one

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, - Clear, concise, and importantly, much more active and direct than the original. Revisiting vs. Answer Choice D, this one seems better from a rhetorical construction standpoint



Correct answer is (E).
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New post 26 Nov 2018, 13:54
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FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS are below
Quote:
If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it
(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it
(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area
(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,
(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,


The OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

• Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent.
• Nor are there logical referents in choice B for as is and it.
• Choice C entails a false appositive: the sentence now says that the single strain of plant
is itself a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, not that the use of a
single strain is such a practice.
• Choice D reverses the order of the constructions, but the appositive remains illogical.
• Choice E is the best answer: use is the proper subject for the verb increases
and [is also] a governing noun for the appositive practice.

FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS - kudos for correct and well-explained answers!


Questions are welcome, too. This material is important.

In some part of every followup question is material that test takers need to learn but that hasn't been addressed or addressed thoroughly here.

PLEASE CHOOSE a question or questions and post an answer. I PREFER THAT PEOPLE GO IN NUMERICAL ORDER. No limit.
Easiest way to answer:
1) BEFORE you click on quote to reply, copy the text of the question
2) click on "quote" to reply
3) move the text of this post down a little bit using the cursor and "enter"
4) paste the question at the top
5) delete everything except the question you are answering, and post an answer.
(if you want the question in a quote box, select the text and click on the letter "q" in the menu above the post).

(1)
ANSWERED ALREADY in THIS POST
• What is an appositive? Please give an example that is similar to the one in this question.

• In this question, what is the appositive, and what is or should be its noun?


(2) The OE states, "Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent."
ANSWERED ALREADY in THIS POST
• Why did I put a word in red typeface? Be specific. Shorthand for a rule doesn't help those who don't know the rule.

• What does the author of the OE mean when (s)he writes that the pronoun it and the appositive lack a noun referent?


(3)The OE states, "Nor are there logical referents in choice B for as is and it."

• If there were logical referents, what would they or it be?

• As a subject, this phrasing works: If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area.
However, this similar phrasing does not work as a subject: A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods. Explain why.


(4) In plain English
• What does the phrase "a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods" mean?

You don't have to Google anything. In fact, please don't.
In context, what does "modern seed-marketing methods" refer to?

• What is the relationship between "methods" and "practice"?

(5) The OE states, "Choice C entails a false appositive: the sentence now says that the single strain of plant
is itself a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, not that the use of a
single strain is such a practice."

• Rewrite this explanation in plainer English that spells out details.

The OE states, "Choice D reverses the order of the constructions, but the appositive remains illogical."
• What "constructions" does D reverse, and why is the appositive illogical?


(6) Distillation of meaning. (Look up "distillation" if it is unfamiliar. It may be for many. Great word.)

• What is the connection between (a) the appositive and the subject, and (b) the appositive and the result?

HINT: Why would farmers be inclined to court disaster?
HINT: There are "bad guys" in the picture. Who or what are they?

• Given these connections, what, in plain English, does this sentence mean?
Pretend I am not an agrarian expert. Pretend I look like this :sleep: or this :dazed
when you use words whose meanings are not self-evident.

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New post 30 Nov 2018, 23:40
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Quote:
(1)
• What is an appositive? Please give an example that is similar to the one in this question.

• In this question, what is the appositive, and what is or should be its noun?


(2) The OE states, "Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent."

• Why did I put a word in red typeface? Be specific. Shorthand for a rule doesn't help those who don't know the rule.

• What does the author of the OE mean when (s)he writes that the pronoun it and the appositive lack a noun referent?




(1)
• an appositive is a noun or noun phrase that can be used to modify or to give details of another close-by noun.
E.g. Frightened mouse ,black in colour, is chased by cat. Here Black in colour is appositive
• In this Question the appositive is "a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods" and it is referring to a plant which is wrong because a practice cannot be plant.

(2)
• There is no Antecedent for the pronoun it , even if pronoun It refer backs to the Single Strain or the plant , meaning is ambiguous. Similarly the appositive should modify or give details of some noun and it is not making sense with either single strain or plant. That is the reason you used the word lack.
• Author means there is no referent for both and need a clear noun referent. Hence option a is incorrect
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New post 01 Dec 2018, 12:33
2
soapbolt wrote:
Quote:
(1)
• What is an appositive? Please give an example that is similar to the one in this question.
• In this question, what is the appositive, and what is or should be its noun?

(2) The OE states, "Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent."
• Why did I put a word in red typeface? Be specific. Shorthand for a rule doesn't help those who don't know the rule.
• What does the author of the OE mean when (s)he writes that the pronoun it and the appositive lack a noun referent?

(1)
• an appositive is a noun or noun phrase that can be used to modify or to give details of another close-by noun.
E.g. Frightened mouse ,black in colour, is chased by cat. Here Black in colour is appositive
• In this Question the appositive is "a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods" and it is referring to a plant which is wrong because a practice cannot be plant.

(2)
• There is no Antecedent for the pronoun it , even if pronoun It refer backs to the Single Strain or the plant , meaning is ambiguous. Similarly the appositive should modify or give details of some noun and it is not making sense with either single strain or plant. That is the reason you used the word lack.
• Author means there is no referent for both and need a clear noun referent. Hence option a is incorrect

soapbolt - nice work!

You correctly highlight two facts about appositives:
1) all appositives give us extra information about the noun they modify (the frightened mouse is black in color)
2) appositives vary in length
-- your example was a short phrase
-- the appositive in the question is fairly long
-- appositives can be one word: My friend, Aarav, hopes to become a writer.

P.S. Appositives can be essential and non-essential.
For an excellent post about appositives, please see mikemcgarry in THIS post on GMAT Club.

I will rephrase my confusing question.
Question: Although there is no suitable candidate in option A, to what [kind of] noun or pronoun should the
appositive refer?
Answer: To a noun like the one in option E, because a practice is synonymous with the use of.

Regarding the OE, "the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent" . . .
. . . as you note, no antecedent makes sense as an antecedent of "practice" or "it."

Kudos! :)

Go to THIS POST for more follow-up questions whose correct answers get kudos.
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New post 01 Dec 2018, 20:01
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Clocked 23 seconds ...purely based on meaning.

If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

Understand:
- when a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide range, the use of strain increases the impact of ..." ..See logically "a single strain increases the impact of single crop disease over all others" is incorrect. How can a sungle strain cause havoc over the large fields?? There has to be some action that may lead to the impact.

Splits:
1) Subject - a single strain of plant ..., it ... - discard all such structure where "a single strain is subject and is followed by a pronoun which refers to single strain" Discard all option with such structure where "a single strain" is a subject and is follwed by "it"
Eliminate - A B C D

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,
- correct for reasons mentioned above.


NOTE: BEST or EXCELLENT answers must include the meaning of this sentence.
The meaning of the sentence should be stated in your own words. Merely repeating what you think is the correct answer
does not constitute "the meaning in your own words." :)


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.
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New post 06 Dec 2018, 23:21
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,


NOTE: BEST or EXCELLENT answers must include the meaning of this sentence.
The meaning of the sentence should be stated in your own words. Merely repeating what you think is the correct answer
does not constitute "the meaning in your own words." :)


The best or excellent answers get kudos, which will be awarded after the answer is revealed.


My reasoning:

A) the it pronoun is vague. does not have an antecedent
B) Same as A
C) The modifier "A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods" seems to be modifying a strain of plant, but a strain cannot be a practice.
D) Same as C
E) POE leaves E
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New post 07 Dec 2018, 00:01
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Hello,

The underlined phrase is actually using IF, which is incorrect.

Look at the verb ''increases'', this verb has no subject yet, so we need to find a subject for this verb.

Be careful, we don't know what ''it'' modifies for, so we can eliminate A, B.

Answer C and D contain 2 subjects '' a practice '', ''a single strain'', so the verb ''increases'' doesn't have a correct subject yet, that's why C&D out.

Answer E uses the subject ''the use of a single strain'' ... ''increases'' --> this is correct. ''a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods'' modifies for the whole phrase '' The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area ''.

So E is correct.
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New post 13 Dec 2018, 20:49
generis wrote:
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)



If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

• Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent.

• Nor are there logical referents in choice B for as is and it.

• Choice C entails a false appositive: the sentence now says that the single strain of plant
is itself a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, not that the use of a
single strain is such a practice.

• Choice D reverses the order of the constructions, but the appositive remains illogical.

• Choice E is the best answer: use is the proper subject for the verb increases
and [is also] a governing noun for the appositive practice.


I chose the correct answer based on the meaning- the use of strain increases...

Appositive modifiers-

1. The plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of the crocodile, a reptile that could eat the bird at any time - here reptile (appositive) modifies crocodile. This is a concrete appositive
2. The plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of the crocodile, a relationship that benefits both animals - here relationship (appositive) refers to the entire preceding clause. This is an abstract appositive

But as per OE, "Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent."
Do we ALWAYS need a noun referent for an appositive ?
Because I have read that appositive can either describe a preceding noun(Concrete appositive) or modify the whole idea of the preceding clause(Abstract appositive).

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , ccooley, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber other experts - please enlighten
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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2018, 09:02
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Skywalker18 wrote:
generis wrote:
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 19 Sentence Correction (SC1)



If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it increases the likelihood that the impact of a single crop disease or pest will be disastrous.

(A) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(B) If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, as is fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, it

(C) A practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, a single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area

(D) A single strain of plant used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

(E) The use of a single strain of plant for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods,

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

• Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent.

• Nor are there logical referents in choice B for as is and it.

• Choice C entails a false appositive: the sentence now says that the single strain of plant
is itself a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods, not that the use of a
single strain is such a practice.

• Choice D reverses the order of the constructions, but the appositive remains illogical.

• Choice E is the best answer: use is the proper subject for the verb increases
and [is also] a governing noun for the appositive practice.


I chose the correct answer based on the meaning- the use of strain increases...

Appositive modifiers-

1. The plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of the crocodile, a reptile that could eat the bird at any time - here reptile (appositive) modifies crocodile. This is a concrete appositive
2. The plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of the crocodile, a relationship that benefits both animals - here relationship (appositive) refers to the entire preceding clause. This is an abstract appositive

But as per OE, "Choice A is faulty because the pronoun it and the appositive a practice each lack a noun referent."
Do we ALWAYS need a noun referent for an appositive ?
Because I have read that appositive can either describe a preceding noun(Concrete appositive) or modify the whole idea of the preceding clause(Abstract appositive).


Whether we consider the phrase in A a phrase that modifies the preceding clause or an appositive that should modify a single noun, clearly the structure you have brought up is acceptable.

In other words, I believe that the following makes sense:

A single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area, a practice fostered by modern seed-marketing methods.

However, in A, we have "if". So the beginning of A is not a statement, but rather, a condition. So, perhaps the issue with the modifier in A is that it is not in apposition to a statement. Let's consider another example.

The number of women attending law school is increasing every year, a trend that bodes well for the coffers of law schools.

OK, that makes sense. The closing phrase modifies the preceding statement.

What about this?

If the number of women attending law school is increasing every year, a trend that bodes well for the coffers of law schools, then ...

The beginning of the sentence does not actually state that there is such a trend. So, my take is that the use of the modifying phrase does not make sense.

By the way, my understanding is that the people who write OEs are not the people who write questions. So, it could be that the person who wrote that OE did not really understand what the issue is.
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If a single strain of plant is used for a given crop over a wide area   [#permalink] 16 Dec 2018, 09:02
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