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# In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,

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In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 02 Jul 2013, 05:27
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In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thomasville has recorded the location, species, and condition of every tree in its downtown area. The results will be compared with results of the last such tree census, taken 20 years ago. Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population?

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.

B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.

C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.

E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.

Originally posted by nave on 21 May 2013, 13:23.
Last edited by Zarrolou on 02 Jul 2013, 05:27, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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21 May 2013, 13:45
We have to prove that focusing "primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will NOT assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now"

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.
This supports the conclusion. If the conditions are unlikely to become harsher, then the project seems to have good chances of succeed
B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.
Very good info... Does this affect in any way the proposal? No, move on
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.
Does this waken the proposal? In these kind of question the answer is likely to show us a negative effect of the proposal itself that will undermine its results, or will show us a alternate cause of an effect.
Are we able to say that the plan will be unsuccessful because a number of trees reached the end of their life in the period? No
D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.
Same as B, this does not affect the proposal
E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease
IMO CORRECT: if they focus on "species that turned out to have the best record" then the proportion of those species will increase and a disease can happen.
If this happens than "Thomasville will not have an abundant tree population 20 years from now"
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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21 May 2013, 23:48
1
In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thomasville has recorded the location, species, and condition of every tree in its downtown area. The results will be compared with results of the last such tree census, taken 20 years ago. Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population?

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.
the conditions are unlikely to become harsher assists tree plantation, hence can not be the answer
B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.
Not Related
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.
Talks about trees 20 years ago, but planting them again can increase the tree population, hence cannot be the answer
D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.
Not related as we are not concerned about the urban conditions
E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.
This seems right as if we plant a species too much, then a disease can effect the population of the trees very much

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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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22 May 2013, 00:00
It clearly casts doubt on the goal of the plan to increase the trees count after the plan is implemented to the number years 20 years back.
Option D is a trap, our aim is to achieve the goal ie the number should exceed the number of trees 20 years back. By saying that natural condition favors most, it says the trees survival ratre might decrease but we can use chemicals to increase by just 1 tree from the number of trees 20 years back.

Consider kudos if my post helps!!!!

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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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22 May 2013, 02:29

OA is E indeed

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 01:57
Archit143 wrote:
It clearly casts doubt on the goal of the plan to increase the trees count after the plan is implemented to the number years 20 years back.
Option D is a trap, our aim is to achieve the goal ie the number should exceed the number of trees 20 years back. By saying that natural condition favors most, it says the trees survival ratre might decrease but we can use chemicals to increase by just 1 tree from the number of trees 20 years back.

Consider kudos if my post helps!!!!

Archit

Well in option E, we can also use the medicines to eliminate the disease that can reduce the number of trees.

In option D, the Thomasville can be considered as urban,but the is not mentiioned in the passage.

PLease the exact reasons to eliminate D and E....
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 03:25
Zarrolou wrote:
We have to prove that focusing "primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will NOT assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now"

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.
This supports the conclusion. If the conditions are unlikely to become harsher, then the project seems to have good chances of succeed
B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.
Very good info... Does this affect in any way the proposal? No, move on
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.
Does this waken the proposal? In these kind of question the answer is likely to show us a negative effect of the proposal itself that will undermine its results, or will show us a alternate cause of an effect.
Are we able to say that the plan will be unsuccessful because a number of trees reached the end of their life in the period? No
D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.
Same as B, this does not affect the proposal
E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease
IMO CORRECT: if they focus on "species that turned out to have the best record" then the proportion of those species will increase and a disease can happen.
If this happens than "Thomasville will not have an abundant tree population 20 years from now"

When I pre-phrased this argument before looking at the answer choices, I thought, " What if the records from past 20 years are not correct or what if the species which existed then do not exist now?" Although, I agree with the explanation, but can you help me rule out this pre-phrased weed from my mind?
Thanks
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 03:45
1
nitin6305 wrote:

When I pre-phrased this argument before looking at the answer choices, I thought, " What if the records from past 20 years are not correct or what if the species which existed then do not exist now?" Although, I agree with the explanation, but can you help me rule out this pre-phrased weed from my mind?
Thanks

hi,
prethinking is the best way to attack.
i will say in your prethinking i felt :
What if the records from past 20 years are not correct or what if the species which existed then do not exist now?"===>this can be a weakener.
see with prethinking it is not necessary that you will get directly to right answer....but for sure when you prethink you get more involved in to the argument...and finally you get the gist of the passage in a much better way.
moreover as there can be more than 1 strengthner /weakener for the argument ...so it is not necessary that what you have paraphrased will match the authors thought

your second weakener seems to be incorrect:
what if the species which existed then do not exist now?"===>see this is wrong because the trees with best record doesnt exist.now if you read the conclusion :
Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

you can paraphrase this : PLANTING X...WILL ASSURE SOMeTHING.
now if you say X doesnt exist then this is not a weakener.....because we have to show to show that IF YOU PLANT X...THEN ALSO ITS NOT SURE.

but i will say nitin well going...stick to same process.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 03:50
Quote:
hi,
prethinking is the best way to attack.
i will say in your prethinking i felt :
What if the records from past 20 years are not correct or what if the species which existed then do not exist now?"===>this can be a weakener.
see with prethinking it is not necessary that you will get directly to right answer....but for sure when you prethink you get more involved in to the argument...and finally you get the gist of the passage in a much better way.
moreover as there can be more than 1 strengthner /weakener for the argument ...so it is not necessary that what you have paraphrased will match the authors thought

your second weakener seems to be incorrect:
what if the species which existed then do not exist now?"===>see this is wrong because the trees with best record doesnt exist.now if you read the conclusion :
Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

you can paraphrase this : PLANTING X...WILL ASSURE SOMeTHING.
now if you say X doesnt exist then this is not a weakener.....because we have to show to show that IF YOU PLANT X...THEN ALSO ITS NOT SURE.

but i will say nitin well going...stick to same process.

Thanks a lot for clearing the doubt and thanks for the motivation too!
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thom  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 03:52
1
nitin6305 wrote:
Zarrolou wrote:
We have to prove that focusing "primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will NOT assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now"

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.
This supports the conclusion. If the conditions are unlikely to become harsher, then the project seems to have good chances of succeed
B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.
Very good info... Does this affect in any way the proposal? No, move on
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.
Does this waken the proposal? In these kind of question the answer is likely to show us a negative effect of the proposal itself that will undermine its results, or will show us a alternate cause of an effect.
Are we able to say that the plan will be unsuccessful because a number of trees reached the end of their life in the period? No
D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.
Same as B, this does not affect the proposal
E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease
IMO CORRECT: if they focus on "species that turned out to have the best record" then the proportion of those species will increase and a disease can happen.
If this happens than "Thomasville will not have an abundant tree population 20 years from now"

When I pre-phrased this argument before looking at the answer choices, I thought, " What if the records from past 20 years are not correct or what if the species which existed then do not exist now?" Although, I agree with the explanation, but can you help me rule out this pre-phrased weed from my mind?
Thanks

I disagree with the above post.
Pre thinking is not always good and helpful. You can lose valuable time, and your answer is likely not to match those given.

In weaken strength support ... questions there are many thing that can do the job properly, so what you think could not match any answer (even if it's correct).

So before reading the answers try to have an idea of what to expect, but DO NOT look for what you think it's the answer.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 05:00
nave81 wrote:
In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thomasville has recorded the location, species, and condition of every tree in its downtown area. The results will be compared with results of the last such tree census, taken 20 years ago. Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population?

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.

B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.

C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.

E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.

I beg to differ from the discussion consensus. In my opinion -

C is the answer. Following is the comparison between C and E -
1) C - This one directly targets the research result which would turn out to be faulty as a lot of trees which were abundant 20 years back now don't exist. Hence, Thomasville guys would end up planting trees which weren't widespread 20 years back.

2) E - Agreed that the population of trees would be devastated if there is an outbreak of a disease, there isn't any substantial evidence that the disease would definitely spread on population explosion. With no details on disease, it is an irrelevant point and should be scrapped off.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 05:15
1
Aniketa wrote:
nave81 wrote:
In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thomasville has recorded the location, species, and condition of every tree in its downtown area. The results will be compared with results of the last such tree census, taken 20 years ago. Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population?

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.

B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.

C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.

E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.

I beg to differ from the discussion consensus. In my opinion -

C is the answer. Following is the comparison between C and E -
1) C - This one directly targets the research result which would turn out to be faulty as a lot of trees which were abundant 20 years back now don't exist. Hence, Thomasville guys would end up planting trees which weren't widespread 20 years back.

2) E - Agreed that the population of trees would be devastated if there is an outbreak of a disease, there isn't any substantial evidence that the disease would definitely spread on population explosion. With no details on disease, it is an irrelevant point and should be scrapped off.

hi,
sorry to say but i think you misunderstood some point.
IMO argument is like this:
20 years back let suppose we have 10 plants category===>somebody recorded location, species, and condition of all ten types.
now today suppose Thomasville recorded the same location, species, and condition of all plants present.==>suppose we have today 15 different varieties.(5 belongs to 20 years back types and 10 are new....and 5 types which existed 20 years back dont exist today)
now if you have to compare the best survival...of the plants....then you can compare only when 2 datas are present(past data and present data)...
2 datas are available only for 5 types of plants....because other 5 types of 20 years back plant doesnt exist now hence we cant collect data for now.
so if somebody have to choose after comparing then he cant choose plants which doesnt exist(because we cant compare)
that is the reason optio C: is wrong
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.THEY ALREADY DIED.....hence we cant collect todays data foe those plant....hence wrong.

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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 05:18
Aniketa wrote:

I beg to differ from the discussion consensus. In my opinion -

C is the answer. Following is the comparison between C and E -
1) C - This one directly targets the research result which would turn out to be faulty as a lot of trees which were abundant 20 years back now don't exist. Hence, Thomasville guys would end up planting trees which weren't widespread 20 years back.

2) E - Agreed that the population of trees would be devastated if there is an outbreak of a disease, there isn't any substantial evidence that the disease would definitely spread on population explosion. With no details on disease, it is an irrelevant point and should be scrapped off.

Actually C doesn't help if anything its contradictory to a given fact in the argument

Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

It has to be E

Since its saying because I have chosen a sample of tress that survive best I can ensure 20 years from now that the trees will remain but E says if there is a disease outbreak all the trees will vanish. Conclusion is destroyed!
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2015, 14:27
I came across this question in GMAT prep. I chose option B.
I am still not sure why option E is right. The argument clearly states "Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now", This means the survival rate is best. How can disease impact these trees? As soon as I saw this option I eliminated without thinking twice.
Can you guys suggest how to avoid these kind of mistakes in future?
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 05:59
weaken

replace recent trees with the most survival tree => more tree in next 20 years

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.
this choice strengthen the argument

B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.
that tree are going to be cut down is not under concern of the argument

C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.
this choice give information about trees that have least survival ability. Does not have effect on the argument

D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.
yes, there are trees that grow not well in urban condition. However, this does not meaning that these trees will not survive in large number in urban areas

E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.
this choice correctly weaken the ability that these tree will survive in large number
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 04:55
blueseas wrote:
Aniketa wrote:
nave81 wrote:
In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project, Thomasville has recorded the location, species, and condition of every tree in its downtown area. The results will be compared with results of the last such tree census, taken 20 years ago. Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population?

A. because of the the strict laws governing industrial development, environmental conditions in Thomasville are unlikely to become harsher for trees than they have been during the last 20 years.

B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.

C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

D. Very few species of trees grow as well in urban conditions as in natural conditions.

E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.

I beg to differ from the discussion consensus. In my opinion -

C is the answer. Following is the comparison between C and E -
1) C - This one directly targets the research result which would turn out to be faulty as a lot of trees which were abundant 20 years back now don't exist. Hence, Thomasville guys would end up planting trees which weren't widespread 20 years back.

2) E - Agreed that the population of trees would be devastated if there is an outbreak of a disease, there isn't any substantial evidence that the disease would definitely spread on population explosion. With no details on disease, it is an irrelevant point and should be scrapped off.

hi,
sorry to say but i think you misunderstood some point.
IMO argument is like this:
20 years back let suppose we have 10 plants category===>somebody recorded location, species, and condition of all ten types.
now today suppose Thomasville recorded the same location, species, and condition of all plants present.==>suppose we have today 15 different varieties.(5 belongs to 20 years back types and 10 are new....and 5 types which existed 20 years back dont exist today)
now if you have to compare the best survival...of the plants....then you can compare only when 2 datas are present(past data and present data)...
2 datas are available only for 5 types of plants....because other 5 types of 20 years back plant doesnt exist now hence we cant collect data for now.
so if somebody have to choose after comparing then he cant choose plants which doesnt exist(because we cant compare)
that is the reason optio C: is wrong
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.THEY ALREADY DIED.....hence we cant collect todays data foe those plant....hence wrong.

even though i liked your explanation a lot, there seems to be a flaw here.

C> A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

You see a number of tress reached the End of Life........ not ALL the trees in that species. No all trees of such variety are dead! Thus they very well can get comparative data for this species of tress.

On the contrary, what if this species, which was widespread, also turns out to have the best the survival characteristics BUT just not the best survival record coz many of the trees actually died due to End Of their Natural Life;

Thus they would not consider this species altogether and the conclusion fails in the first part itself.
Planting trees primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival will assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now.

Any thoughts or comments on this line of reasoning ? what am i overlooking or over-analyzing ?
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2019, 09:16
To me also, C seems a very good option because if that's the case, the species in C will erroneously not show the best record of survival in the 20 year census.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2019, 01:18

guys,
can one of you explain why b is not the best choice, cant wrap the fact around my head that since c clearly shows that the data collected would be wrong or incomplete.
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2019, 02:55
2
Samakshkapoor92 wrote:
guys,
can one of you explain why b is not the best choice, cant wrap the fact around my head that since c clearly shows that the data collected would be wrong or incomplete.

Samakshkapoor92, when you answer a CR question (or an RC question, for that matter), your task is to find which answer choice is correct based on the passage, not on information that is contained in the other answer choices. Essentially, you should treat each answer choice as if it exists in a vacuum with only the text of the passage, and make your decisions one by one. So let's go through the options that are giving you trouble:

Quote:
B. Thomasville has reliable records to show which trees in existence 20 years ago were cut down to permit new construction downtown.

Remember, we are looking for a statement that "most seriously undermines the claim that the tree planting proposal will assure an abundant tree population." The proposal relies on data from 20 years ago and current data to determine which trees will most likely survive another 20 years. Answer choice (B) introduces a wrinkle in the data, which is that some of the trees that did not survive "were cut down to permit new construction." This, on the surface, sounds like it will create a problem for the proposal.

However, the answer choice doesn't merely state that some trees were cut down due to construction. It specifies that Thomasville has reliable records about exactly which trees were cut down. Can the fact that Thomasville has reliable records of this data undermine the proposal? Definitely not -- having reliable records could only help fix the complication that is introduced by the answer choice. You can eliminate (B) for this reason.

Quote:
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

The goal of the "proposal" is to "assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now." This answer choice tells us that a number of one particular species of tree died off naturally within the past twenty years. Is this because that kind of tree generally lives less than twenty years? Or because the trees were all planted at the same time more than twenty years ago? The first option would strengthen the proposal, while the second would call the data into question. We are not given enough information to determine the reason behind this statement, and therefore its effect on the strength of the proposal.

What we do know is that other types of trees have survived for the past twenty years, and that the proposal advocates planting those trees. So, answer choice (C) does not significantly undermine the proposal and we can throw it out.

Finally, take a look at the correct answer:

Quote:
E. A city with a high proportion of an any one species of the trees can have its tree Population devastated by one outbreak of a disease.

The proposal advocates planting trees "primarily from the species that turns out to have the best record of survival." Because one species will be planted more than the others, this answer choice significantly undermines the proposal. If the tree population can be devastated by one outbreak of a disease, then it is likely that Thomasville will not have an abundance of trees in twenty years if the town adopts the proposal.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,  [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2019, 15:20
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
C. A number of trees from one of the species widespread in Thomasville 20 years ago reached the end of their natural life span in the intervening period.

The goal of the "proposal" is to "assure downtown Thomasville of an abundant tree population 20 years from now." This answer choice tells us that a number of one particular species of tree died off naturally within the past twenty years. Is this because that kind of tree generally lives less than twenty years? Or because the trees were all planted at the same time more than twenty years ago? The first option would strengthen the proposal, while the second would call the data into question. We are not given enough information to determine the reason behind this statement, and therefore its effect on the strength of the proposal.

What we do know is that other types of trees have survived for the past twenty years, and that the proposal advocates planting those trees. So, answer choice (C) does not significantly undermine the proposal and we can throw it out.

Dear GMATNinja

Can you elaborate more on the highlighted part? I do not understand how the first strengthen and the second weaken.
Thanks
Re: In preparation for a large-scale tree-planting project,   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2019, 15:20

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