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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 10 Sep 2017, 08:21, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2013, 04:17
Can you tell me the difference between A and B?

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2013, 09:40
it was easy to eliminate C, D and E. Choice between A and B.

But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Argument has assumed that " to take this festival seriously , must be true condition is dress up as ninjas".

Or one who is taking this festival seriously , would be dressed up as a ninja.
that's what option B says..
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2013, 20:24
skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.
C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival
d) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.
E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

I would like to see some convincing explanation of the difference between a and b. Thanks.....:)

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
- What abt people who doesnt dressup as ninjas, do they take it seriously too? They can be serious too..then the conclusion is wrong else right

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja
- Correct answer - all attendess who take function seriously will dress - up as ninja. As only children cam in dressup they only are serious about the festival

Hope it helps..!!

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.
C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival
d) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.
E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.


I feel this can be solved as a Sufficient/Necessary condition type of reasoning question.
The argument says you need to be dressed up as a Ninja to be taken seriously. This means dressing up like a ninja is a NECESSARY condition to be taken seriously and taken seriously is a sufficient condition.
Take festival seriously->Dressed as a Ninja
so valid answer should be either of the following:
1. Takes festival seriously -> Dressed up as ninja
2. Not Dressed up as a ninja -> Does Not takes festival seriously.

Only choice A and B are relevant here, of that choice B is same as 1 so is the correct answer.
Choice A means: Dressed up as ninja -> Takes festival seriously. which is incorrect as its not either 1 or 2 from above.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q


Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q


Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").


Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 01:40
B it is.
I agree with minmoswoh that we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q".
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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minwoswoh wrote:
bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q


Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").


Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!


Hi

Case 1 : If P(takes festival seriously) is the sufficient condition for Q(dress up as Ninja) to Occur
Case 2 : And the Contrapositive will mean If Not Q(Not dress up as Ninja) --> then Not P((does not take festival seriously)

so in the question in hand , Case 1 is getting applied to Option B

As for your example, the contrapositive ll be

If someone is not European then he is not German

Hope it Makes Sense :)
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 09:18
dream21 wrote:
minwoswoh wrote:
bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q


Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").


Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!


Hi

Case 1 : If P(takes festival seriously) is the sufficient condition for Q(dress up as Ninja) to Occur
Case 2 : And the Contrapositive will mean If Not Q(Not dress up as Ninja) --> then Not P((does not take festival seriously)

so in the question in hand , Case 1 is getting applied to Option B

As for your example, the contrapositive ll be

If someone is not European then he is not German

Hope it Makes Sense :)


Hi dream21,
It makes sense to me. So let me retype your reasoning.

P --> Q (Given)
Not P --> Not Q (INCORRECT)
Not Q --> Not P (CORRECT)

If Daniel is German, then he is European. (Given)
If Daniel is not German, then he is not European (INCORRECT)
If Daniel is not European, then he is not German (CORRECT)


Is this template correct at all times?
And ultimately, have you seen a significant number of Gmat questions based on this or we are just getting out of scope with formal logic?

Thanks!
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 11:46
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minwoswoh wrote:

Hi dream21,
It makes sense to me. So let me retype your reasoning.

P --> Q (Given)
Not P --> Not Q (INCORRECT)
Not Q --> Not P (CORRECT)

If Daniel is German, then he is European. (Given)
If Daniel is not German, then he is not European (INCORRECT)
If Daniel is not European, then he is not German (CORRECT)


Is this template correct at all times?
And ultimately, have you seen a significant number of Gmat questions based on this or we are just getting out of scope with formal logic?

Thanks!


If All P -> Q (given), Then what you have written is correct.I am not sure how to create a venn diagram in post as it will be easier to explain.

I will try to explain in text.
Imagine two circles as P and Q.
P is area inside P and Q is area inside Q
Not P is area outside circle P and Not Q is are ...Q

If All P -> Q , then P must lie inside Q i.e circle P is inside Q.

Condition 1 : Not Q --> Not P.
Not q means an area outside q.
If An area is out side Q , then it must be outside P also.Because P is inside q.So, The statement is always TRUE.

Condition 2: Not P --> Not Q.
Not P means area outside P.
As P is inside Q, Outside of area P could be region in Q or area out side Q also.So it can be Q or NOT Q both.So, This statement is not true.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 12:28
VarunBhardwaj wrote:
minwoswoh wrote:

Hi dream21,
It makes sense to me. So let me retype your reasoning.

P --> Q (Given)
Not P --> Not Q (INCORRECT)
Not Q --> Not P (CORRECT)

If Daniel is German, then he is European. (Given)
If Daniel is not German, then he is not European (INCORRECT)
If Daniel is not European, then he is not German (CORRECT)


Is this template correct at all times?
And ultimately, have you seen a significant number of Gmat questions based on this or we are just getting out of scope with formal logic?

Thanks!


If All P -> Q (given), Then what you have written is correct.I am not sure how to create a venn diagram in post as it will be easier to explain.

I will try to explain in text.
Imagine two circles as P and Q.
P is area inside P and Q is area inside Q
Not P is area outside circle P and Not Q is are ...Q

If All P -> Q , then P must lie inside Q i.e circle P is inside Q.

Condition 1 : Not Q --> Not P.
Not q means an area outside q.
If An area is out side Q , then it must be outside P also.Because P is inside q.So, The statement is always TRUE.

Condition 2: Not P --> Not Q.
Not P means area outside P.
As P is inside Q, Outside of area P could be region in Q or area out side Q also.So it can be Q or NOT Q both.So, This statement is not true.


Makes sense to me, Varun.

+1 Kudos for you for taking the time to evaluate my reasoning and write this explanation.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2014, 12:56
pqhai , can you please solve this question the POWERSCORE way? I am an absolute fan of your way of solving CR questions. Please enlighten!

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2015, 09:27
adityapagadala wrote:
a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
- What abt people who doesnt dressup as ninjas, do they take it seriously too? They can be serious too..then the conclusion is wrong else right

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja
- Correct answer - all attendess who take function seriously will dress - up as ninja. As only children cam in dressup they only are serious about the festival

Hope it helps..!!



But Doesnt B Sound extreme? Coz i have seen few examples where explanation says 'Avoid answers which refer to All/Every One etc'

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2015, 09:14
Well this is what i understood.It is not mentioned that all children take the festival seriously. So some children can dress up and take it not seriously.in that case assumption A becomes invalid.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2015, 21:06
In CR
any refers to some or some not.
from 1st statement
some people taken ninja festival seriously and some people doesnt.
In premise it clearly mention, only children taken ninja festival seriously.

option B mentions, clearly a condition no one who take festival serioulsy fail to dress up

so option B wins.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2016, 11:54
Points in argument
  • In recent years, a village outside Osaka has taken to hosting a ninja festival,
  • Osaka is in Japan.
  • ninja festival is a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present.
  • Since only children are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.
    Assn1: only people who dress up as ninjas can attend
    Assn2: Only children bother to dress up as ninjas
    Assn3: Those who attend take festival seriously
  • only children take this festival seriously................conclusion

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously...........you cannot attend the a club just because you wore its dress code. You need to have its membership as well.
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.................one who attended the club have dressed as per the code since it is mandatory.
C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival..........a bit similar to option A. We don't need to assume that those who don't dress up do not attend as it can refer to anyone.
d) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code..............even though there is no theme dress code it is possible that makers prefer ninja dress code for participants just for fun or tradition.
E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees............seriousness among fellow attendees is out of scope and not our concern.
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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2017, 08:23
skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.


Solution: B

Most Assumption questions feature a new element in the conclusion: an element not introduced in any of the premises.

To strengthen the argument, find the answer choice that contains that element and connects it to the existing premises. In this case, the only relevant premise is “Children are the only attendees dressed as ninjas”, and the conclusion is “Children are the only attendees who take the event seriously.” This tells us that dressing as a ninja is a necessary condition for taking the event seriously: in other words, if you aren’t dressed as a ninja, you don’t take the event seriously. (B.)

(Remember that this does NOT work the other way around: dressing as a ninja is not sufficient to prove that you take the event seriously – it is merely one thing you have to do to prove you take the event seriously – so (A) is NOT right.)
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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2017, 03:35
Answer is B

Before going to choices:

take festival seriously (A) -> dress up as ninja (B) => given ---------------------------- (1)
now reverse , B -> A, (i.e) dress up ninja -> take festival seriously => need not be true. ---------------------(2)

Now

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

Negate it - some attendee who dresses up as a ninja does NOT take the festival seriously.
so what, it does not destroy the argument because this falls in the (2) equation above.if (B) -> need not be A,

i.e., we can think as => though people take festival seriously dress up as ninja(A->B), there could be few people (B -> need not be A) dressed up as ninja and still don't take festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

Negate it - Some attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as ninja => destroys the equation(A->B) -------(1). So this must be our assumption.

Hence B.

Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 9

In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2017, 03:35
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