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# In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 22 Oct 2018, 00:55
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55% (hard)

Question Stats:

63% (01:36) correct 37% (01:44) wrong based on 1358 sessions

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In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

Spoiler: :: OE
Solution: B

Most Assumption questions feature a new element in the conclusion: an element not introduced in any of the premises. To strengthen the argument, find the answer choice that contains that element and connects it to the existing premises. In this case, the only relevant premise is “Children are the only attendees dressed as ninjas”, and the conclusion is “Children are the only attendees who take the event seriously.” This tells us that dressing as a ninja is a necessary condition for taking the event seriously: in other words, if you aren’t dressed as a ninja, you don’t take the event seriously. (B.) (Remember that this does NOT work the other way around: dressing as a ninja is not sufficient to prove that you take the event seriously – it is merely one thing you have to do to prove you take the event seriously – so (A) is NOT right.)

Originally posted by skrishnakarthik on 20 Oct 2013, 01:24.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Oct 2018, 00:55, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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07 May 2014, 23:01
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1
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skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.
C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival
d) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.
E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

I feel this can be solved as a Sufficient/Necessary condition type of reasoning question.
The argument says you need to be dressed up as a Ninja to be taken seriously. This means dressing up like a ninja is a NECESSARY condition to be taken seriously and taken seriously is a sufficient condition.
Take festival seriously->Dressed as a Ninja
so valid answer should be either of the following:
1. Takes festival seriously -> Dressed up as ninja
2. Not Dressed up as a ninja -> Does Not takes festival seriously.

Only choice A and B are relevant here, of that choice B is same as 1 so is the correct answer.
Choice A means: Dressed up as ninja -> Takes festival seriously. which is incorrect as its not either 1 or 2 from above.
##### General Discussion
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2013, 03:44
5
1
a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
- What abt people who doesnt dressup as ninjas, do they take it seriously too? They can be serious too..then the conclusion is wrong else right

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja
- Correct answer - all attendess who take function seriously will dress - up as ninja. As only children cam in dressup they only are serious about the festival

Hope it helps..!!
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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08 May 2014, 01:04
4
3
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 19:32
3
bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").

Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 07:21
1
minwoswoh wrote:
bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").

Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!

Hi

Case 1 : If P(takes festival seriously) is the sufficient condition for Q(dress up as Ninja) to Occur
Case 2 : And the Contrapositive will mean If Not Q(Not dress up as Ninja) --> then Not P((does not take festival seriously)

so in the question in hand , Case 1 is getting applied to Option B

As for your example, the contrapositive ll be

If someone is not European then he is not German

Hope it Makes Sense
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 09:18
1
dream21 wrote:
minwoswoh wrote:
bb61 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

to take the festival seriously -------> attendees must dress up as ninjas
p--->q
not P----> not q

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

in conditional situation the assumption question always support the necessary condition.

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. q---->p mistaken reversal
it is not necessary that whoever dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously but whoever takes the festival seriously must dress up as ninja

b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. this means: if anyone is an attendees and takes the festival seriously then he/she won't fail to dress up as ninja (satisfy the necessary condition "must dress up as ninja").

Hi bb61,
I think your explanation is good. However, I believe we cannot always use the reasoning that equals "P --> Q" = "Not P --> Not Q"
Logic does not work as an equation in which if you negate both sides you get the same equation.

Consider this example. "If someone is German, then he is European".
This does not mean that "If someone is not German, then he is not European". (That someone could be Italian, and still be European)

Would like to hear your thoughts, bro, and those of the community as well.
Thanks!

Hi

Case 1 : If P(takes festival seriously) is the sufficient condition for Q(dress up as Ninja) to Occur
Case 2 : And the Contrapositive will mean If Not Q(Not dress up as Ninja) --> then Not P((does not take festival seriously)

so in the question in hand , Case 1 is getting applied to Option B

As for your example, the contrapositive ll be

If someone is not European then he is not German

Hope it Makes Sense

Hi dream21,
It makes sense to me. So let me retype your reasoning.

P --> Q (Given)
Not P --> Not Q (INCORRECT)
Not Q --> Not P (CORRECT)

If Daniel is German, then he is European. (Given)
If Daniel is not German, then he is not European (INCORRECT)
If Daniel is not European, then he is not German (CORRECT)

Is this template correct at all times?
And ultimately, have you seen a significant number of Gmat questions based on this or we are just getting out of scope with formal logic?

Thanks!
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 11:46
5
minwoswoh wrote:

Hi dream21,
It makes sense to me. So let me retype your reasoning.

P --> Q (Given)
Not P --> Not Q (INCORRECT)
Not Q --> Not P (CORRECT)

If Daniel is German, then he is European. (Given)
If Daniel is not German, then he is not European (INCORRECT)
If Daniel is not European, then he is not German (CORRECT)

Is this template correct at all times?
And ultimately, have you seen a significant number of Gmat questions based on this or we are just getting out of scope with formal logic?

Thanks!

If All P -> Q (given), Then what you have written is correct.I am not sure how to create a venn diagram in post as it will be easier to explain.

I will try to explain in text.
Imagine two circles as P and Q.
P is area inside P and Q is area inside Q
Not P is area outside circle P and Not Q is are ...Q

If All P -> Q , then P must lie inside Q i.e circle P is inside Q.

Condition 1 : Not Q --> Not P.
Not q means an area outside q.
If An area is out side Q , then it must be outside P also.Because P is inside q.So, The statement is always TRUE.

Condition 2: Not P --> Not Q.
Not P means area outside P.
As P is inside Q, Outside of area P could be region in Q or area out side Q also.So it can be Q or NOT Q both.So, This statement is not true.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2015, 20:50
sajib2126 wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A.Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

C.Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

D.The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

E.If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

Please Explain why answer is not A or what is the clear difference between A and B

hi sajib,
lets see the choices..

A.Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.
it does not talk of people who are not dressed up as ninjas, do they take the program seriously even when not in dress or they do not.... it just talks of one category of people , which is not being questioned in seriousness..

now B..
B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.
look at it.. it talks of people of the category not attending in uniform that they are not serious and this is what we are looking for..
hope it helped...

ans B
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2015, 21:44
Need help to clear ambiguity between option A and option. I am still not getting the point .
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2015, 22:34
1
sajib2126 wrote:
Need help to clear ambiguity between option A and option. I am still not getting the point .

hi,
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.
look at the coloured portion.. this is the argument

it states that children are the only serious attendee because they dress up like ninjas....
A tells us 'A.Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.'.... if this is the assumption then the argument should have been But clearly children take this festival seriously, for they bother to dress up as ninjas....

however since the argument uses them as the only category that is serious, it means it is necessary to wear clothes as ninjas to be serious in program... or anyone not wearing the dress is not serious this is what B states
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2015, 00:11
3
Hi sajib2126,

Negation technique is very helpful in solving 'assumption' type question.

Lets check option A first, and negate.

A. Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

Negate A - Any attendee who doesn't dress up as a ninja doesn't take the festival seriously.

It's the other way round -

If X, then Y ----> doesn't mean If Y, then X

If you take festival seriously, then dress up as ninja
If dressed up as Ninja, then you may or may not take the festival seriously.

Lets check option B, and negate.

B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

Negate B - Attendee who takes the festival seriously would dress up as a Ninja.

That is what clearly mentioned in the argument.

Hope this is clear now.

Correct me if I am wrong
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2016, 11:54
Points in argument
• In recent years, a village outside Osaka has taken to hosting a ninja festival,
• Osaka is in Japan.
• ninja festival is a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present.
• Since only children are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.
Assn1: only people who dress up as ninjas can attend
Assn2: Only children bother to dress up as ninjas
Assn3: Those who attend take festival seriously
• only children take this festival seriously................conclusion

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously...........you cannot attend the a club just because you wore its dress code. You need to have its membership as well.
b) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.................one who attended the club have dressed as per the code since it is mandatory.
C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival..........a bit similar to option A. We don't need to assume that those who don't dress up do not attend as it can refer to anyone.
d) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code..............even though there is no theme dress code it is possible that makers prefer ninja dress code for participants just for fun or tradition.
E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees............seriousness among fellow attendees is out of scope and not our concern.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2017, 04:49
4
This questions works on a simple rule

if P, then Q ==> ~Q --> ~P

For this condition ~P--> ~Q is always incorrect.

Here P is attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas and Q is Take the festival seriously.

A.Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously. : This is restatement, hence can't be Assumption.

B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja. Correct as per above rule.

C.Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival. : Incorrect as per above rule.

D.The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code. : Irrelevant.

E.If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees. : Same as C.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2017, 19:07
DesiGmat wrote:
Hi sajib2126,

Negation technique is very helpful in solving 'assumption' type question.

Lets check option A first, and negate.

A. Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

Negate A - Any attendee who doesn't dress up as a ninja doesn't take the festival seriously.

It's the other way round -

If X, then Y ----> doesn't mean If Y, then X

If you take festival seriously, then dress up as ninja
If dressed up as Ninja, then you may or may not take the festival seriously.

Lets check option B, and negate.

B.No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

Negate B - Attendee who takes the festival seriously would dress up as a Ninja.

That is what clearly mentioned in the argument.

Hope this is clear now.

Correct me if I am wrong

Negation technique should mean that negated statement invalidates the argument. I don't see how the negated B breaks down the argument. Wouldn't the negated statement for B be Attendee who fails to take the festival seriously dressed up as a ninja?
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2017, 23:33
texas wrote:
Negation technique should mean that negated statement invalidates the argument. I don't see how the negated B breaks down the argument. Wouldn't the negated statement for B be Attendee who fails to take the festival seriously dressed up as a ninja?

The argument says only children takes the festival seriously "since only they are bothered to dressed up as Ninja's".

It means the author is assuming that those you dressed up as Ninja's take the festival seriously.

Option B is saying the same thing "No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.".

Let's negate this:

Some attendances who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

It means even if they are taking it seriously, they will fail to dress up as a Ninja. This means our assumption is broken because we clearly said dressing up as Ninja means taking the festival seriously. Hence, B is correct.
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 08:23
skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

Solution: B

Most Assumption questions feature a new element in the conclusion: an element not introduced in any of the premises.

To strengthen the argument, find the answer choice that contains that element and connects it to the existing premises. In this case, the only relevant premise is “Children are the only attendees dressed as ninjas”, and the conclusion is “Children are the only attendees who take the event seriously.” This tells us that dressing as a ninja is a necessary condition for taking the event seriously: in other words, if you aren’t dressed as a ninja, you don’t take the event seriously. (B.)

(Remember that this does NOT work the other way around: dressing as a ninja is not sufficient to prove that you take the event seriously – it is merely one thing you have to do to prove you take the event seriously – so (A) is NOT right.)
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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2018, 20:44
skrishnakarthik wrote:
In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a ninja festival, a celebration of Japan’s heritage that reflects on its feudal past while exalting its pop culture driven present. But clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any attendee who dresses up as a ninja takes the festival seriously.

(B) No attendee who takes the festival seriously would fail to dress up as a ninja.

(C) Anyone who is not dressed up as a ninja is not attending the festival

(D) The festival organizers have instituted a ninja-themed dress code.

(E) If an attendee is not dressed as a ninja, then that attendee will not be taken seriously by other attendees.

GMAT is very smart to trick us and plays well with the wordings.

Although i answered this question incorrectly first, re-reading the same clears the confusion.

Options C, D and E goes straight away. The choice is left between A and B.

Not the as per the question stem, Only Children take this festival seriously and they dressed up as ninja.
Now instead of Only Children if it would have intended for larger audience then A would have been correct. However since the argument restricts this only to children, Option B is correct. Hope this clears the confusion.

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Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2018, 14:16

VERITAS PREP OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

Solution: B

Most Assumption questions feature a new element in the conclusion: an element not introduced in any of the premises. To strengthen the argument, find the answer choice that contains that element and connects it to the existing premises. In this case, the only relevant premise is “Children are the only attendees dressed as ninjas”, and the conclusion is “Children are the only attendees who take the event seriously.” This tells us that dressing as a ninja is a necessary condition for taking the event seriously: in other words, if you aren’t dressed as a ninja, you don’t take the event seriously. (B.) (Remember that this does NOT work the other way around: dressing as a ninja is not sufficient to prove that you take the event seriously – it is merely one thing you have to do to prove you take the event seriously – so (A) is NOT right.)
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GMAT 1: 720 Q50 V37
Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a  [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2018, 20:27
As soon as i finished reading B ..i knew it;s the answer

clearly only children take this festival seriously, for they are the only attendees who bother to dress up as ninjas.
Re: In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a   [#permalink] 13 Sep 2018, 20:27

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# In recent years, a village outside Osaka, Japan has taken to hosting a

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