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# In response to office workers' worries .....

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Senior Manager
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In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 00:06
In response to office workers' worries about the health risks associated with using video display terminals (VDTs), researchers asked office workers to estimate both the amount of time they had spent using VDTs and how often they had suffered headaches over the previous year. According to the survey, frequent VDT users suffered from headaches more often than other office workers did, leading researchers to conclude that VDTs cause headaches.
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researchers' conclusion?
(A) Few often office workers surveyed participated in regular health programs during the year in question.
(B) In their study the researchers failed to ask the workers to distinguish between severe migraine headaches and mild headaches.
(C) Previous studies have shown that the glare from VDT screens causes some users to suffer eyestrain.
(D) Office workers who experienced frequent headaches were more likely than other workers to overestimate how much time they spent using VDTs.
(E) Office workers who regularly used VDTs experienced the same amount of job-related stress as workers who did not use VDTs.

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If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that!
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Senior Manager
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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 05:10
So, using VDT more frequently causes headaches

This is about causality , if you show that when the effect occurs , the cause doesn't occur then you will weaken the argument for sure.

D weakens the argument showing that even if the effect occurs ( Headaches) the cause does not occur ( Overestimating the amount of time spent using VDT , so it's not necessarly VDT that causes headaches)

A- Wrong, doesn't adress why a population is more concerned about a phenomenon than other is ( too general)
B- Wrong, doesn't attack the cause (VDT) , it talks only about types of migrain experienced by the workers
C- Wrong, clearly Out of Scope
E- Wrong, this option could be correct if it clearly assumes that Stress causes headaches.
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Senior Manager
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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 07:48
Rock750 wrote:
So, using VDT more frequently causes headachesThis is about causality , if you show that when the effect occurs , the cause doesn't occur then you will weaken the argument for sure.

D weakens the argument showing that even if the effect occurs ( Headaches) the cause does not occur ( Overestimating the amount of time spent using VDT , so it's not necessarly VDT that causes headaches)

A- Wrong, doesn't adress why a population is more concerned about a phenomenon than other is ( too general)
B- Wrong, doesn't attack the cause (VDT) , it talks only about types of migrain experienced by the workers
C- Wrong, clearly Out of Scope
E- Wrong, this option could be correct if it clearly assumes that Stress causes headaches.
I like your approach. But I will take parts from your answer which I have been trying to grapple.
Causal Argument Conclusion to be focused: VDT more frequently causes headaches.
(D) Office workers who experienced frequent headaches were more likely than other workers to overestimate how much time they spent using VDTs.

Restate of D:
More frequent headache bearers overestimate time spent with VDTs.
Here is excerpt of your first line(also highlighted above):
Using VDT more frequently causes headaches.

I am not able to compare how D is negatively affecting the causality(In fact, I perceive an inkling of support/strengthen here if I replace "time spent with VDTs" in restate of D with "Using VDT" as in your response. D will then become "More frequent headache bearers if they use VDT more(as it is not that important)")
_________________

If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that!
The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy.

Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING.
Failure establishes only this, that our determination to succeed was not strong enough.
Getting defeated is just a temporary notion, giving it up is what makes it permanent.

http://gmatclub.com/forum/1000-sc-notes-at-one-place-in-one-document-with-best-of-explanations-192961.html

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Senior Manager
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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 08:09

Lets assume that these headache bearers spend in reality 4hours/ day using VDT
But when researchers asked them about the time spent using VDT , headache bearers had overestimated the time say 9hours/day as per option D, leading to a flawed survey. So, we can conclude that even if the effect is there (headache), the cause assumed by researchers is irrelevant.
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Senior Manager
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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 08:43
Rock750 wrote:

Lets assume that these headache bearers spend in reality 4hours/ day using VDT
But when researchers asked them about the time spent using VDT , headache bearers had overestimated the time say 9hours/day as per option D, leading to a flawed survey. So, we can conclude that even if the effect is there (headache), the cause assumed by researchers is irrelevant.
Thanks for responding but I am more confused now. I considered the choice D as an observed fact targeting other facts in the arguments to weaken the argument. Never looked into choice as a survey. Is this a specific strategy to attack conclusion?

Let me take the survey approach as well.
Wouldn't an irrelevant survey as just indicated above will be similar to the rest of other irrelevant choices A/B/C/E in absence of any hint of causality in choice D?
To add to this, in D, we are indirectly crediting the theory that headaches in bearers are somehow correlated with VDTs(though overestimated). Isn't it?
_________________

If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that!
The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy.

Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING.
Failure establishes only this, that our determination to succeed was not strong enough.
Getting defeated is just a temporary notion, giving it up is what makes it permanent.

http://gmatclub.com/forum/1000-sc-notes-at-one-place-in-one-document-with-best-of-explanations-192961.html

Press +1 Kudos, if you think my post gave u a tiny tip.

Kudos [?]: 342 [0], given: 34

Senior Manager
Status: Final Lap
Joined: 25 Oct 2012
Posts: 282

Kudos [?]: 398 [0], given: 85

Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.54
WE: Project Management (Retail Banking)
Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 08:59
joshnsit wrote:
Rock750 wrote:

Lets assume that these headache bearers spend in reality 4hours/ day using VDT
But when researchers asked them about the time spent using VDT , headache bearers had overestimated the time say 9hours/day as per option D, leading to a flawed survey. So, we can conclude that even if the effect is there (headache), the cause assumed by researchers is irrelevant.
Thanks for responding but I am more confused now. I considered the choice D as an observed fact targeting other facts in the arguments to weaken the argument. Never looked into choice as a survey. Is this a specific strategy to attack conclusion?

Let me take the survey approach as well.
Wouldn't an irrelevant survey as just indicated above will be similar to the rest of other irrelevant choices A/B/C/E in absence of any hint of causality in choice D?
To add to this, in D, we are indirectly crediting the theory that headaches in bearers are somehow correlated with VDTs(though overestimated). Isn't it?

Ur welcome
The researchers made their conclusion based upon the survey. So, if u show that the answers that they get from the survey are flawed then the conclusion is flawed.
and that what D do ..

Not sure if i get ur second question.

For the third question: yes it is ..
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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 12:35
Again a typical causal argument that GMAT loves to test. The closer you stick to the causality, the better you can spot the right answer. Now observe the causal relationship in the argument.

Suppose a relation, A causes B. There are several ways to weaken it.

1) C causes B
2) A does not cause B
3) B causes A (Inverse relation)

Back to our argument. Consider choice D. If people who suffer frequent headaches are likely to overestimate the amount of time they spend using VDTs, then frequent usage of VDTs may not be the reason for headaches among them as they tend to report inaccurate usage. This is the inverse relation that attacks the conclusion by pointing that the survey results cannot be held valid.

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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2013, 11:26
cssk wrote:
Again a typical causal argument that GMAT loves to test. The closer you stick to the causality, the better you can spot the right answer. Now observe the causal relationship in the argument.

Suppose a relation, A causes B. There are several ways to weaken it.

1) C causes B
2) A does not cause B
3) B causes A (Inverse relation)

Back to our argument. Consider choice D. If people who suffer frequent headaches are likely to overestimate the amount of time they spend using VDTs, then frequent usage of VDTs may not be the reason for headaches among them as they tend to report inaccurate usage. This is the inverse relation that attacks the conclusion by pointing that the survey results cannot be held valid.

Thanks guys. OA is D. I also got it in first attempt but it took a while for me to assimilate this choice properly with comments above and below .

Lets assume that these headache bearers spend in reality 4hours/ day using VDT.
But when researchers asked them about the time spent using VDT , headache bearers had overestimated the time say 9hours/day as per option D, leading to a flawed survey. So, we can conclude that even if the effect is there (headache), the cause assumed by researchers is irrelevant.

_________________

If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that!
The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy.

Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING.
Failure establishes only this, that our determination to succeed was not strong enough.
Getting defeated is just a temporary notion, giving it up is what makes it permanent.

http://gmatclub.com/forum/1000-sc-notes-at-one-place-in-one-document-with-best-of-explanations-192961.html

Press +1 Kudos, if you think my post gave u a tiny tip.

Kudos [?]: 342 [0], given: 34

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Re: In response to office workers' worries ..... [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2013, 10:16
In response to office workers' worries about the health risks associated with using video display terminals (VDTs), researchers asked office workers to estimate both the amount of time they had spent using VDTs and how often they had suffered headaches over the previous year. According to the survey, frequent VDT users suffered from headaches more often than other office workers did, leading researchers to conclude that VDTs cause headaches.
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researchers' conclusion?
(A) Few often office workers surveyed participated in regular health programs during the year in question. We are not concerned with how often one participated in health programmes....
(B) In their study the researchers failed to ask the workers to distinguish between severe migraine headaches and mild headaches. Level of headache is not our concern...
(C) Previous studies have shown that the glare from VDT screens causes some users to suffer eyestrain. [b]We are not bothered about eye strain....[/b]
(D) Office workers who experienced frequent headaches were more likely than other workers to overestimate how much time they spent using VDTs. [color=#ed1c24]Means large amount of time spent in front of VDT may not have caused headache.....[/color] CORRECT
(E) Office workers who regularly used VDTs experienced the same amount of job-related stress as workers who did not use VDTs. WE are not worried about stress....

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Re: In response to office workers' worries .....   [#permalink] 27 Dec 2013, 10:16
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