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In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th

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In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by the male for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer.


(A) for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve

(B) for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve

(C) in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving

(D) to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve

(E) to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving


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https://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/24/science/q-a-811858.html

Cricket Thermometers

Q. Do crickets chirp more slowly as the temperature drops in the fall?

A. In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by the male to attract females rises and falls along with the outside temperature, and can in fact be used as a rough thermometer.

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Originally posted by sondenso on 27 May 2008, 19:26.
Last edited by Bunuel on 17 Oct 2018, 03:15, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 11:00
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Interesting question, right? All sorts of funky stuff going on here with meaning and pronouns.

For those of you who missed it, we went through this question in our live YouTube session this past Monday. The video is available here.

Quote:
A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve.

The nice thing about (A) is that the subject-verb agreement is clearly wrong. "The number of chirps per minute... rise and fall." No reason to overthink this one. (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve

Subject-verb agreement looks fine here, but "which" seems to modify temperature, and that doesn't make sense. The temperature can serve as a thermometer? That's messed up. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Same subject-verb error as in (A), so (C) is gone, too.

Quote:
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.

Heh heh, here's where it gets interesting. :twisted:

Let's talk about the pronoun "it". On the face of things, it looks like "it" could refer back to temperature (the nearest singular noun), and that's illogical. If we reach further back, "it" could refer to "male", "minute", "number", or "cricket." So it's ambiguous, right?

Nope! Notice that "it" is the subject of a dependent clause -- the second clause in the sentence. What's the subject of the first (independent) clause? "The number", or "the number of chirps per minute." And the GMAT is weirdly consistent about this: if a sentence contains two clauses (either one dependent and one independent, or two independent clauses) and the second clause starts with a pronoun, then the pronoun can refer unambiguously to the subject of the first clause.

So "it" refers to "the number of chirps per minute", without any trouble at all. Let's keep (D).

Quote:
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Hm, nothing looks wrong here grammatically. If I'm being honest, I'd keep (E), too.

Now let's compare those last two:

    D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.
    E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

These two are identical, other than the last little bit of the underlined portion. And there's a subtle little meaning difference between these two. (D) is saying that the "number of chirps per minute" CAN serve as a thermometer if you wanted it to. (E) is saying that the number of chirps "in fact" (="definitely") "possibly" (≠"definitely) serves as a thermometer. And that's nonsense: how can something "in fact" and "possibly" serve as a thermometer?

That's subtle, but enough to make (D) the right answer.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 11:42
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In some species of cricket, the number of chirps (Singular Subject) per minute used by the male for attracting (Wrong Idiom: use 'TO' to express intend or objective) females rise and fall (Plural Verb: S-V disagreement) in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they (Unclear Antecedent: the number of chirps ? should be IT) can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer.

A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve.
B. for attracting (Wrong Idiom) females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which (Refers to temperature - changes the meaning of original sentence) can in fact serve
C. in attracting (Wrong Idiom) females rise and fall (Plural Verb: S-V disagreement) in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving (Verb + ing modifier: Can modify preceding clause, preceding noun, or even the subject of the preceding clause. Qualifies 'the number of chirps'? or 'surrounding temperature'? or entire clause ?)
D. to attract (Correct Idiom) females rises and falls (Singular Verb) in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it (Keeps ||ism intact with 'the number of chirps' - singular subject) can in fact serve. - Best choice
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving (Verb + ing modifier: Can modify preceding clause, preceding noun, or even the subject of the preceding clause. Qualifies 'the number of chirps'? or 'surrounding temperature'? or entire clause ?)
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2011, 15:12
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In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by the male for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer.

A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve.
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.


Here's how to answer this question in <30 seconds.

Step 1) Read "the number of chirps used by the male TO DO SOMETHING"

Recognize that the structure is "used by the male TO DO SOMETHING" - so you skim down the first few words of each answer choice and notice only (D) and (E) have "to attract" as the first two words.

Step 2) Now that you've narrowed it down to (D) and (E), don't bother reading from the top of the sentence stem anymore.

Just continue reading through answer choice (D). So we have:
"the number of chirps used by the male TO ATTRACT X rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve..."

"it can in fact serve" - what is "it" referring to? It's referring to "number of chirps."

"And the number of chirps can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer" - that's what choice (D) suggests.

What does chocie (E) suggest?

(E): "the number of chirps used by the male TO ATTRACT females [does x], in fact possibly serving as an approximate thermometer."

Wait a minute, we have "serving as thermometer" at the end but in the beginning we have: "does x" - specifically "rises and falls"

"Rises and falls" is NOT consistent with "serving as a thermometer" - see (E) looks no good.

Let's look back at (D).
(D): "number of chirps rises and falls...and [the number of chirps] can serve as a thermometer"

Ah - that's more like it. The number of chirps rises and falls..and can serve as a thermometer. The verb tenses are more consistent here than they are in (E).

Step 3) Compare (D) and (E) and recognize that only (E) uses consistent verb tenses on both sides of the sentence. Pick (D) and move on.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2012, 23:43
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gjg wrote:
In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by the male for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer.

A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving

D. What’s the antecedent of “it”? Is it the “number”? Then how can the “number” serve as an approximate thermometer?


Let I answer your confusion, hope that helps.

The antecedent of IT is THE NUMBER OF CHIRPS PER MINUTES USED BY THE MALE, not the Number only, IT cannot refer to the CRICKET or the MALE, these two nouns are illogical. The pronoun IT here is matched with the subject of preceding noun THE NUMBER of CHIRPS PER MINUTES USED BY THE MALE
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2013, 05:32
I have a doubt.

for option E The number of chirps rises and falls.......and it serve as a thermometer

Why didn't we use serves instead of serve ?
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2013, 07:46
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prinkashar wrote:
I have a doubt.

for option E The number of chirps rises and falls.......and it serve as a thermometer

Why didn't we use serves instead of serve ?


verbs followed by words such as : CAN ,WILL,MAY etc...are always PLURAL.
Example: i can do this///he can do this///they can do this.
i may not go///he may not go////they may not go.
i will do this///he will do this///they will do this.

hope this helps
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2015, 01:07
If something is a fact, we can't say it is possible. Because it is a fact.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2016, 01:30
Hi Folks,

D to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve

"It" refers to "The no of chirps per minute"
Can someone please explain how could "The no of chirps per minute" server as an thermometer... ?? quiet strange :(
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2016, 10:23
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The idea in this sentence is that one could, it one wanted, measure the temperature by counting the number of chirps per minute produced by some male crickets. Since the frequency of chirps rises and falls with the temperature, someone could count the chirps and determine the approximate temperature. Of course, this person would need some data on the number of chirps per minute at different temperatures to get a sense of the scale.

So, PrakharGMAT, that's how the number could serve as a thermometer.

Ergenekon, notice that we are definitely describing a possibility more than an established practice. It seems unlikely that anyone actually measures the temperature in this way! In any case, there's no rule that says that something that has been established as a fact can't be described as possible. In fact, we do this all the time. Someone will accomplish something, and we'll say that we now know that accomplishment is possible. The problem with E actually goes a bit in the other direction. If we follow the main clause with "possibly serving," we're saying that this number may in fact be serving as a thermometer. In other words, E implies that the crickets (or someone else unnamed) may routinely use this number to measure the temperature, and that's not really what the author is getting at.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 05:56
Hi,


Very sorry to open this thread. Here is why I choose D over E

'D' Has two independent clauses joined by 'and, and pronoun 'it' refers to noun number of thermometers, which is all fine and clear.
'E' has (in fact possibly) serving which acts as an -ing modifier preceded by comma which modifies the entire clause and refers to the subject. However, here "The number of chirps....................with the surrounding temperature' is enclosed within two commas which makes it a parenthetical information and serving illogically refers to "species of cricket".

Can anyone confirm/explain if my reasoning for ruling out 'E' correct?

Thanks in advance.

DmitryFarber wrote:
The idea in this sentence is that one could, it one wanted, measure the temperature by counting the number of chirps per minute produced by some male crickets. Since the frequency of chirps rises and falls with the temperature, someone could count the chirps and determine the approximate temperature. Of course, this person would need some data on the number of chirps per minute at different temperatures to get a sense of the scale.

So, PrakharGMAT, that's how the number could serve as a thermometer.

Ergenekon, notice that we are definitely describing a possibility more than an established practice. It seems unlikely that anyone actually measures the temperature in this way! In any case, there's no rule that says that something that has been established as a fact can't be described as possible. In fact, we do this all the time. Someone will accomplish something, and we'll say that we now know that accomplishment is possible. The problem with E actually goes a bit in the other direction. If we follow the main clause with "possibly serving," we're saying that this number may in fact be serving as a thermometer. In other words, E implies that the crickets (or someone else unnamed) may routinely use this number to measure the temperature, and that's not really what the author is getting at.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 15:57
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I'm afraid that doesn't work. If the end modifier ("serving") were a noun modifier, it would need to be much closer to the noun in question. An "-ing" word preceded by a comma typically introduces an adverbial modifier, and that's what we have here. There's nothing wrong with that grammatically, and that's why we have to go with the meaning issue I described.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2016, 01:04
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2
gjg wrote:
In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by the male for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve as an approximate thermometer.

A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving

D. What’s the antecedent of “it”? Is it the “number”? Then how can the “number” serve as an approximate thermometer?


Responding to a pm:
Quote:
i think E is better here. because the number of chirps per minute itself does not act as thermometer. The action of its rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature serves as thermometer. why D??


The number of chirps is what could act as a thermometer. We would of course need a conversion scale. Depending on the "number of chirps" and its corresponding temperature reading on the scale, we could guess the temperature.
Hence, "it" refers to "number of chirps"

As for (E), it implies that the number of chirps possibly serves as a thermometer. It doesn't. Nobody actually uses the number of chirps as a thermometer. (D) implies that it could serve i.e. it has the ability to serve as a thermometer (even though we wouldn't really use it normally).
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 17:48
Please explain what is wrong in option E and whats correct in option D
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 02:17
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harikrish wrote:
Please explain what is wrong in option E and whats correct in option D


E has 2 problems:

1. "In fact" and "possibly" are contradictory. "In fact" implies "definitely true" - something cannot be "definitely" and "possibly" true at the same time. Therefore E is wrong.

2. Moreover, even if the phrase "in fact" is ignored, the meaning implied by E would be that the number of chirps per minute possibly serves as an approximate thermometer already, not that it CAN be served as an approximate thermometer.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2017, 15:35
From a PM:

Quote:
@GMATNinja: In D, the usage of "CAN" also, I guess, adds the aspect of possibility. Isn't it ?

So, considering this aspect in the OA, how we can really say that "in fact" and "possibly" in E are actually distorting the intended meaning of this SC ? (Because the sense of possibility seems to be conveyed through the usage of "CAN" in the OA as well)

Thoughts ?

"Can" isn't the same thing as "possibly." "Can" indicates potential or ability -- so in (D), the number of chirps has the ability to serve as a thermometer. And it's reasonable enough to say that it does, "in fact", have that ability. "Possibly" simply indicates that we don't really know whether something is actually occurring; it says nothing about ability or potential.

So (E) is saying something slightly different from (D): the number of chirps is "in fact possibly serving" as an approximate thermometer. And that's muddier, as described in both my explanation and in sayantanc2k's above.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 07:31
GMATNinja wrote:
Interesting question, right? All sorts of funky stuff going on here with meaning and pronouns.

For those of you who missed it, we went through this question in our live YouTube session this past Monday. The video is available here.

Quote:
A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve.

The nice thing about (A) is that the subject-verb agreement is clearly wrong. "The number of chirps per minute... rise and fall." No reason to overthink this one. (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve

Subject-verb agreement looks fine here, but "which" seems to modify temperature, and that doesn't make sense. The temperature can serve as a thermometer? That's messed up. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Same subject-verb error as in (A), so (C) is gone, too.

Quote:
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.

Heh heh, here's where it gets interesting. :twisted:

Let's talk about the pronoun "it". On the face of things, it looks like "it" could refer back to temperature (the nearest singular noun), and that's illogical. If we reach further back, "it" could refer to "male", "minute", "number", or "cricket." So it's ambiguous, right?

Nope! Notice that "it" is the subject of a dependent clause -- the second clause in the sentence. What's the subject of the first (independent) clause? "The number", or "the number of chirps per minute." And the GMAT is weirdly consistent about this: if a sentence contains two clauses (either one dependent and one independent, or two independent clauses) and the second clause starts with a pronoun, then the pronoun can refer unambiguously to the subject of the first clause.

So "it" refers to "the number of chirps per minute", without any trouble at all. Let's keep (D).

Quote:
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Hm, nothing looks wrong here grammatically. If I'm being honest, I'd keep (E), too.

Now let's compare those last two:

    D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.
    E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

These two are identical, other than the last little bit of the underlined portion. And there's a subtle little meaning difference between these two. (D) is saying that the "number of chirps per minute" CAN serve as a thermometer if you wanted it to. (E) is saying that the number of chirps "in fact" (="definitely") "possibly" (≠"definitely) serves as a thermometer. And that's nonsense: how can something "in fact" and "possibly" serve as a thermometer?

That's subtle, but enough to make (D) the right answer.



Isn't ''used for'' wrong in A,B,C? I found that this is wrong in a file, perhaps compiled by carcass , containing 100 hard SC ques from OG and Manhattan.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2017, 14:49
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rma26 wrote:

Isn't ''used for'' wrong in A,B,C? I found that this is wrong in a file, perhaps compiled by carcass , containing 100 hard SC ques from OG and Manhattan.



Hello rma26,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

As such the phrase used for is not incorrect.

However, in this official sentence, we need the phrase to attract to show why male crickets use their chirps in a certain manner. Hence use of for attracting is not correct.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2017, 10:57
GMATNinja wrote:
Interesting question, right? All sorts of funky stuff going on here with meaning and pronouns.

For those of you who missed it, we went through this question in our live YouTube session this past Monday. The video is available here.

Quote:
A. for attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and they can in fact serve.

The nice thing about (A) is that the subject-verb agreement is clearly wrong. "The number of chirps per minute... rise and fall." No reason to overthink this one. (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. for attracting females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, which can in fact serve

Subject-verb agreement looks fine here, but "which" seems to modify temperature, and that doesn't make sense. The temperature can serve as a thermometer? That's messed up. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. in attracting females rise and fall in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Same subject-verb error as in (A), so (C) is gone, too.

Quote:
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.

Heh heh, here's where it gets interesting. :twisted:

Let's talk about the pronoun "it". On the face of things, it looks like "it" could refer back to temperature (the nearest singular noun), and that's illogical. If we reach further back, "it" could refer to "male", "minute", "number", or "cricket." So it's ambiguous, right?

Nope! Notice that "it" is the subject of a dependent clause -- the second clause in the sentence. What's the subject of the first (independent) clause? "The number", or "the number of chirps per minute." And the GMAT is weirdly consistent about this: if a sentence contains two clauses (either one dependent and one independent, or two independent clauses) and the second clause starts with a pronoun, then the pronoun can refer unambiguously to the subject of the first clause.

So "it" refers to "the number of chirps per minute", without any trouble at all. Let's keep (D).

Quote:
E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

Hm, nothing looks wrong here grammatically. If I'm being honest, I'd keep (E), too.

Now let's compare those last two:

    D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve.
    E. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, in fact possibly serving.

These two are identical, other than the last little bit of the underlined portion. And there's a subtle little meaning difference between these two. (D) is saying that the "number of chirps per minute" CAN serve as a thermometer if you wanted it to. (E) is saying that the number of chirps "in fact" (="definitely") "possibly" (≠"definitely) serves as a thermometer. And that's nonsense: how can something "in fact" and "possibly" serve as a thermometer?

That's subtle, but enough to make (D) the right answer.


shouldnt it be serves instead of serve in option D
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Re: In some species of cricket, the number of chirps per minute used by th  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2017, 15:48
4SL wrote:
shouldnt it be serves instead of serve in option D


Quote:
D. to attract females rises and falls in accordance with the surrounding temperature, and it can in fact serve


Nope! Sure, "it serves" would be correct, but there's a helping word ("can", "must", "may", "should", etc.) in the sentence, so "it can serve" would be correct.
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