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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s

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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the southern United States, who constituted 80 percent of the unskilled factory labor force there, strongly supported unionization. While the American Federation of Labor (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal rights for all, and African American unionists provided the CIO’s backbone. Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period. However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or support for racial discrimination. The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.


1.. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. demonstrating that unions failed to address the concerns of African American workers during a particular period
B. arguing that African American workers’ participation in unions during a particular period was ultimately beneficial to them
C. contrasting the treatment of African American workers by two different labor organizations during a particular period
D. giving reasons for the success of African American unionists in winning victories for both African American and White workers during a particular period
E. questioning one explanation for the attitudes of African American workers toward unionization during a particular period



2. According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.



3. The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?

(A) They believed that the elimination of discrimination within unions was a necessary first step toward the achievement of economic advancement for African Americans.
(B) They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions.
(C) They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers.
(D) Some of them advocated the organization of separate African American unions because of discriminatory practices in the AFL and the CIO.
(E) Many of them did not believe that White unionists in CIO unions would tolerate or support racial discrimination against African American workers.


Originally posted by bupbebeo on 02 Sep 2010, 22:14.
Last edited by hazelnut on 23 Nov 2017, 20:42, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2010, 01:28
ACE are all out.
Stuck between B & D.
D- talks about reasons for the success of the unionists. However there are no ' reasons' as such mentioned in the entire passage except for the fact that line 38 states that "many became highly effective organizers.
B- states that the passages talks about African americans participation in unions during a particular period was beneficial to them.

Hence, IMO B is the right answer.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2010, 15:35
The passage is primarily concerned with


A. demonstrating that unions failed to address the concerns of African American workers during a particular period

B. arguing that African American workers’ participation in unions during a particular period was ultimately beneficial to them

C. contrasting the treatment of African American workers by two different labor organizations during a particular period

D. giving reasons for the success of African American unionists in winning victories for both African American and White workers during a particular period

E. questioning one explanation for the attitudes of African American workers toward unionization during a particular period


I personalize and try to find the reasons why will I write such para if I need to write one.. and then strike out the options..

A: it is true but does not capture the main idea..
Clearly B is the answer..
C. contrasting treatment by 2 diff organization is not the idea author wants to convey.
D. Author does not intend to convey the reasons of success..
E. author is not questioning explanation.

Please confirm the OA..
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2015, 00:37
Line 17--> "Yet it can be argued…"
Line 36--> "The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off"

Option (B) states the purpose of the passage as the author is arguing to prove the point that the participation of African American workers eventually proved beneficial to the workers.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2016, 05:15
2
• The author talks about the participation of African American workers in the unions of the 1930’s and 1940’s
• The author then explains the treatment meted out to African Americans by 2 different union groups
• The author eventually talks about how African American workers recognized the needs of workers as a whole thereby gaining the respect of the White Unionists


1.

The passage is primarily
“Yet it can be argued….”
“The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off “
Option (B) clearly states the purpose of the passage as the author is arguing to prove the point that the participation of African American workers eventually proved beneficial to the workers.

2. According to the passage…
“gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers”
Option (A) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence the right answer.

3. The author of the passage…
“However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers”
Option (C ) is a clear word justification of the above excerpt and is hence correct.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2017, 08:36
In question 2:
How does "The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers." lead to "Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests."
Can somebody please explain this?
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 09:52
1
According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

The answer is A

If we read carefully the following lines from the paragraph we can see that white racist members came to respect certain African american members.

The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.
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African American industrial workers in the southern United States  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 09:59
In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the southern United States, who constituted 80 percent of the unskilled factory labor force there, strongly supported unionization. While the American Federation of Labor (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal rights for all, and African American unionists provided the CIO’s backbone. Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO
unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period. However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or support for racial discrimination. The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off:
many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as
instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.

The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?
A. They believed that the elimination of discrimination within unions was a necessary first step toward the achievement of economic advancement for African Americans.
B. They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions.
C. They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers.
D. Some of them advocated the organization of separate African American unions because of discriminatory practices in the AFL and the CIO.
E. Many of them did not believe that White unionists in CIO unions would tolerate or support racial discrimination against African American workers.

OA:

I am not able to boil down to the assumption that joining white labor unionist means empowering all workers!!
Choice B says something close to what is written in the passage that (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, and CIO is based on equal rights for all policy.

Feedback please.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2018, 13:41
Hi Experts GMATNinjaTwo, mikemcgarry, GMATNinja.

Can you please explain the OAs of this passage.
I have my GMAT next week and am unable to find suitable explanations for the answers anywhere.

I got this question on GMAT Prep Test 5 - EP2.
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 12:32
for question 3 why not option a?
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 19:02
workout - need a hand here. 3rd question is really debatable. even others have some problems in it. I am not so sure given the reasons in above explanations. B can be inferred more rather than C. Here is my explanation.

The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?
(B) They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions. - I think there are only two types. AFL and CIO. AFL was not excepting them. so this one is true. possible gap - there are many of these types.
(C) They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers. -
“However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers” - Possible gap - Is join means organized efforts. organized efforts take a lot more then what information given in the passage.

I am skeptical about both choices. other choices are straight eliminator.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2018, 15:45
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PriyankaPalit7 wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinjaTwo, mikemcgarry, GMATNinja.

Can you please explain the OAs of this passage.
I have my GMAT next week and am unable to find suitable explanations for the answers anywhere.

I got this question on GMAT Prep Test 5 - EP2.

nahid78 wrote:

I am not able to boil down to the assumption that joining white labor unionist means empowering all workers!!
Choice B says something close to what is written in the passage that (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, and CIO is based on equal rights for all policy.

Feedback please.

aragonn wrote:
3rd question is really debatable. even others have some problems in it. I am not so sure given the reasons in above explanations. B can be inferred more rather than C. Here is my explanation.

The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?
(B) They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions. - I think there are only two types. AFL and CIO. AFL was not excepting them. so this one is true. possible gap - there are many of these types.
(C) They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers. -
“However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers” - Possible gap - Is join means organized efforts. organized efforts take a lot more then what information given in the passage.

I am skeptical about both choices. other choices are straight eliminator.

PriyankaPalit7, I'm sorry we weren't able to respond in time for your test date! I hope you achieved the verbal score you were aiming for, regardless. :)

Since there's some controversy over Question #3, I'll focus on clearing the most contentious answer choices:
Quote:
3. The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?

This question asks us which of the following is suggested by the author. The correct answer choice doesn't have to be airtight and etched in stone, but it does have to be the most in line with what the author writes and believes about the workers in question.

Incorrect answer choices, on the other hand, can still be eliminated if they flat-out contradict what we've read in the passage.

Quote:
(A) They believed that the elimination of discrimination within unions was a necessary first step toward the achievement of economic advancement for African Americans.

According to the passage, this isn't at all what African Americans believed or did. The second half of the passage says that African American workers achieved their economic goals by joining with White unionists, despite White unionists' toleration or support of racial discrimination.

This completely contradicts the statement that African American workers believed that the elimination of discrimination within unions to be a necessary first step towards achieving economic advancement. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions.

This language is simply too extreme to be backed by the author's own words:

    "While the American Federation of Labor (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal rights for all, and African American unionists provided the CIO’s backbone."

We've just been told by the author that the AFL either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions. This contradicts the statement in choice (B) that African Americans belonged exclusively to CIO unions. Even if African American unionists were the backbone of CIO unions, it's clear from the passage that some African American workers were members of AFL unions (but in a racially segregated manner). This is why we can eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers.

Choice (C) lines up much more closely with the author's writing. Remember that the author is using this passage to describe two forces that held back the success of African American workers in this era:

  • Employers (who acted against workers, and unions, in general)
  • White unionists (who acted against black workers in particular)

The second half of the passage describes how African American workers cooperated with White unionists in order to oppose the power of employers. As aragonn has mentioned, the key statement by the author is:

    "recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or support for racial discrimination."

To clarify a potential misunderstanding of language here, "organized efforts to empower all workers" is almost precisely the definition of what a workers' union is. This language certainly suggests that African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers (i.e. unions), including the White workers (in those unions) who did not treat them well.

I hope this helps!
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