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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s

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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
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• The author talks about the participation of African American workers in the unions of the 1930’s and 1940’s
• The author then explains the treatment meted out to African Americans by 2 different union groups
• The author eventually talks about how African American workers recognized the needs of workers as a whole thereby gaining the respect of the White Unionists

1.

The passage is primarily
“Yet it can be argued….”
“The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off “
Option (B) clearly states the purpose of the passage as the author is arguing to prove the point that the participation of African American workers eventually proved beneficial to the workers.

2. According to the passage…
“gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers”
Option (A) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence the right answer.

3. The author of the passage…
“However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers”
Option (C ) is a clear word justification of the above excerpt and is hence correct.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
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According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

The answer is A

If we read carefully the following lines from the paragraph we can see that white racist members came to respect certain African american members.

The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the southern United States, who constituted 80 percent of the unskilled factory labor force there, strongly supported unionization. While the American Federation of Labor (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal rights for all, and African American unionists provided the CIO’s backbone. Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO
unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period. However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or support for racial discrimination. The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off:
many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as
instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.

The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?
A. They believed that the elimination of discrimination within unions was a necessary first step toward the achievement of economic advancement for African Americans.
B. They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions.
C. They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers.
D. Some of them advocated the organization of separate African American unions because of discriminatory practices in the AFL and the CIO.
E. Many of them did not believe that White unionists in CIO unions would tolerate or support racial discrimination against African American workers.

OA:
I am not able to boil down to the assumption that joining white labor unionist means empowering all workers!!
Choice B says something close to what is written in the passage that (AFL) either excluded African Americans or maintained racially segregated unions, and CIO is based on equal rights for all policy.

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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Hi Experts GMATNinjaTwo, mikemcgarry, GMATNinja.

Can you please explain the OAs of this passage.
I have my GMAT next week and am unable to find suitable explanations for the answers anywhere.

I got this question on GMAT Prep Test 5 - EP2.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
workout - need a hand here. 3rd question is really debatable. even others have some problems in it. I am not so sure given the reasons in above explanations. B can be inferred more rather than C. Here is my explanation.

The author of the passage suggests which of the following about African American workers who participated in union activities in the 1930’s and 1940’s?
(B) They belonged exclusively to CIO unions because they were excluded from AFL unions. - I think there are only two types. AFL and CIO. AFL was not excepting them. so this one is true. possible gap - there are many of these types.
(C) They believed that the economic advancement of African American workers depended on organized efforts to empower all workers. -
“However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor in African Americans’ economic marginalization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers” - Possible gap - Is join means organized efforts. organized efforts take a lot more then what information given in the passage.

I am skeptical about both choices. other choices are straight eliminator.
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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Quote:
2. According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

Why option C is incorrect ?
If look below statement from passage
"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period"

It is clear White union members never wanted equal rights for all.

What was the reason of change of attitude of white union members ?
I didn't found in passage.
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Harsh2111s
Quote:
2. According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

Why option C is incorrect ?
If look below statement from passage
"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period"

It is clear White union members never wanted equal rights for all.

What was the reason of change of attitude of white union members ?
I didn't found in passage.

Look at the last two sentences:
In this period -
... many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.

So their attitudes toward African American union organizers did change.

C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
Did they persist in opposing the equal rights policy - we don't know. Initially they did oppose it, we know. But their attitudes did change as told to us at the end of the passage. Did they persist with their initial opposition, we don't know.
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In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo please could you help with Q.2. In one of your posts you mentioned that each word plays an important role and hence one must be very careful. https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-yea ... l#p2547717

Keeping the above in mind isn't the usage/placement of many in the argument different from the usage/placement in the question?

The passage mentions that: "The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers"

Here, we say that many AA unionists became highly effective and gained respect of even the racist White unionists.

While the questions asks as about: "true of many racist White unionists" But we don't know how many of the white unionists showed their respect to these AA unionists.

Keeping this in mind I chose (C). Please could you help me with this one

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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]

Question 2

Hoozan
GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo please could you help with Q.2. In one of your posts you mentioned that each word plays an important role and hence one must be very careful. https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-yea ... l#p2547717

Keeping the above in mind isn't the usage/placement of many in the argument different from the usage/placement in the question?

The passage mentions that: "The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers"

Here, we say that many AA unionists became highly effective and gained respect of even the racist White unionists.

While the questions asks as about: "true of many racist White unionists" But we don't know how many of the white unionists showed their respect to these AA unionists.

Keeping this in mind I chose (C). Please could you help me with this one

You’re correct to note that the word “many” as found in the quote from the passage refers to African American unionists and not racist White unionists. Nevertheless, it’s reasonable to conclude that if African American workers gained the respect of even racist White unionists (as stated explicitly in the passage), then they won the respect of many racist White unionists. In other words, the fact that the passage says AA unionists gained the respect of racist White unionists implies that they won the respect of many of those unionists.

The other thing to keep in mind is that while we should always think about CR passages and answer choices literally, we must be careful not to fall into mindless word-matching. Just because the question includes the term “many” does not necessarily mean that the relevant portion of the passage will include the word “many.” Instead, we should try to see how concepts in the answer choices and passage overlap and are connected. In doing so, we can be sure not to eliminate an answer choice by trying to take shortcuts.

Another important point is that we’re looking for the best answer choice, not the correct answer choice. The passage provides no basis to believe that racist White unionists persisted in opposing equal rights for all. So, (C) can be eliminated, and (E) is the best answer choice.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
GMATNinja

Question 2

Hoozan
GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo please could you help with Q.2. In one of your posts you mentioned that each word plays an important role and hence one must be very careful. https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-yea ... l#p2547717

Keeping the above in mind isn't the usage/placement of many in the argument different from the usage/placement in the question?

The passage mentions that: "The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers"

Here, we say that many AA unionists became highly effective and gained respect of even the racist White unionists.

While the questions asks as about: "true of many racist White unionists" But we don't know how many of the white unionists showed their respect to these AA unionists.

Keeping this in mind I chose (C). Please could you help me with this one

You’re correct to note that the word “many” as found in the quote from the passage refers to African American unionists and not racist White unionists. Nevertheless, it’s reasonable to conclude that if African American workers gained the respect of even racist White unionists (as stated explicitly in the passage), then they won the respect of many racist White unionists. In other words, the fact that the passage says AA unionists gained the respect of racist White unionists implies that they won the respect of many of those unionists.

The other thing to keep in mind is that while we should always think about CR passages and answer choices literally, we must be careful not to fall into mindless word-matching. Just because the question includes the term “many” does not necessarily mean that the relevant portion of the passage will include the word “many.” Instead, we should try to see how concepts in the answer choices and passage overlap and are connected. In doing so, we can be sure not to eliminate an answer choice by trying to take shortcuts.

Another important point is that we’re looking for the best answer choice, not the correct answer choice. The passage provides no basis to believe that racist White unionists persisted in opposing equal rights for all. So, (C) can be eliminated, and (E) is the best answer choice.

I hope that helps!

" Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."

Can't we infer (C) from the above portion of the para?
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Hoozan
" Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."

Can't we infer (C) from the above portion of the para?
The problem with (C) is the precise wording of the answer choice. Take a look at it here:

Quote:
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
The passage does NOT indicate whether racist white unionists persisted in opposing the ADOPTION of this policy. Presumably, given that they were racist, the unionists were not in favor of equal rights for all. But the passage does not speak to whether the unionists persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of this policy. For that reason, we can eliminate (C).

I hope that helps!
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]

I reviewed your response to Harsh2111 and i want to know which part of the passage mentions that African Americans opposed CIO's policy.

C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
Did they persist in opposing the equal rights policy - we don't know. Initially they did oppose it, we know. But their attitudes did change as told to us at the end of the passage. Did they persist with their initial opposition, we don't know.

Can you please share the text from the passage which indicates that AA opposed CIO's adoption of a states policy.

Thanks,
Anshul
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Re: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
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PanpaliaAnshul

I reviewed your response to Harsh2111 and i want to know which part of the passage mentions that African Americans opposed CIO's policy.

C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
Did they persist in opposing the equal rights policy - we don't know. Initially they did oppose it, we know. But their attitudes did change as told to us at the end of the passage. Did they persist with their initial opposition, we don't know.

Can you please share the text from the passage which indicates that AA opposed CIO's adoption of a states policy.

Thanks,
Anshul

The CIO had the stated policy of equal rights for all.
"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."

Despite the policy, white unionists continued to discriminate. Hence, they opposed the policy.
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Re: In the 1930s and 1940s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Hi Experts,

Why E for Q2. is incorrect?

Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

It can be inferred from the below lines in the passage:

"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."
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Re: In the 1930s and 1940s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Alka10
Hi Experts,

Why E for Q2. is incorrect?

Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

It can be inferred from the below lines in the passage:

"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."

Answer option (E) states that the advocacy of racial discrimination by racist White unionists hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers. This statement is actually in line with the argument made in the passage, as it suggests that racial discrimination by White union members prevented African American workers from achieving economic empowerment. However, this question asks which of the following was true of many racist White unionists, and answer option (E) does not provide a characteristic or behavior specific to this group. Instead, it provides a consequence of their actions.
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Re: In the 1930s and 1940s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
I still don't understand why it's not "c".

"Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union members, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period."
Doesn't this mean they persisted in opposing CIO's equjal rights policy?
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In the 1930s and 1940s, African American industrial workers in the s [#permalink]
Question 2.

2. According to the passage, which of the following was true of many racist White unionists during the period discussed in the passage?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
B. They were a powerful element in the southern labor movement because they constituted the majority of the unskilled factory labor force in the southern United States.
C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.
D. Their primary goal was to strengthen the negotiating power of the unions through increasing White union membership.
E. Their advocacy of racial discrimination hampered unions in their efforts to gain more power for workers.

Responding to a pm:

The answer here is (A) because this is given in the passage. The problem with (C) is that we cannot say whether it is correct or not. It could be, it may not be.

Read these key phrases:

(CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal rights for all,... Yet it can be argued that through contracts ... by White union members, unions—CIO included—were often instrumental in maintaining the occupational segregation ... However, recognizing employers’ power over workers as a central factor... African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or support for racial discrimination. The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of even racist White unionists by winning victories for White as well as African American workers . African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment.

There is very little given to us about white racist unionists. But we are given the highlighted above. What can we say about them?

A. Their attitudes toward African American union organizers changed once they recognized that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.

African American unionists gained the respect of even the white racist unionists. So we can say that the attitudes of these white racist unionists changed once they saw that the activities of these organizers were serving workers’ interests.
Hence (A) is given to us.

C. They persisted in opposing the CIO’s adoption of a stated policy of equal rights for all.

We don't know whether they persisted in equal rights policy. We know that their attitudes did change after they saw that the efforts of African American union organizers were benefiting whites as well as African Americans. So when their attitudes changed, did they stop asking for equal rights, we don't know.
Hence the passage doesn't give us enough info to say whether they persisted or not.

So the best option is certainly (A).
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