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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Hi Sajjad1994 :

Please give official explanation for Q1: Why not A? Actually in the passage , it doesn't mention what scientists believe now finally. It is only given why have believed so far. Whether this belief change is not given in argument.

For Q6: please share official explanation why not E ? in C , its not clear this loss means by what. So I choose E over C.
Official explanations would help for Q1 and Q6

Thanks!
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
hi expert, plz provide oe because some question oa might be wrong!!!!
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Explanation


1. The passage suggests that many biologists no longer believe which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The repetition of “horizontally” and “vertically” among the choices means that it’s time to figure out what those terms mean. Most genes, we’re told, are inherited vertically (that is, from ancestors), but “some…seem to have been acquired ‘horizontally,’” from outside agents. If so, then (B) and (D) each represent what scientists believe now, but (E) is what they no longer believe, and that’s why (E) is correct. As far as we can tell, no one ever believed that all genes are inherited from the outside (C).

And (A) is curious, picking up on wording from lines 2-3 but leaving out the controversial phrase “in the animal’s offspring.” Without that phrase and its connection to genetics, we’re left with the common sense idea that an individual organ’s use or disuse (i.e. doing bicep curls) can affect the development of that organ (i.e. build up the bicep or make it flabby).

Answer: E


6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about the absence of cell walls in some bacteria?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This time the question stem clues send us to paragraph 2, where the absence of bacterial cell walls is discussed. When one bacterium lost its wall, its “offspring” continued to do so (lines 15-19), and that’s what (C) describes.

(A) and (B) are wrong because they bring up the paragraph 3 idea of introducing a gene. The cell wall example stops short of mentioning a halt to the process, (D). And horizontal inheritance, (E), is a genetic concept. Genes are inherited vertically or horizontally, not the absence of cell walls.

Answer: C


mSKR wrote:
Hi Sajjad1994 :

Please give official explanation for Q1: Why not A? Actually in the passage , it doesn't mention what scientists believe now finally. It is only given why have believed so far. Whether this belief change is not given in argument.

For Q6: please share official explanation why not E ? in C , its not clear this loss means by what. So I choose E over C.
Official explanations would help for Q1 and Q6

Thanks!
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
GAngstA wrote:
hi expert, plz provide oe because some question oa might be wrong!!!!


GAngstA, can you please be more specific about which question you are having trouble with ?
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Sajjad1994 wrote:
Explanation


1. The passage suggests that many biologists no longer believe which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The repetition of “horizontally” and “vertically” among the choices means that it’s time to figure out what those terms mean. Most genes, we’re told, are inherited vertically (that is, from ancestors), but “some…seem to have been acquired ‘horizontally,’” from outside agents. If so, then (B) and (D) each represent what scientists believe now, but (E) is what they no longer believe, and that’s why (E) is correct. As far as we can tell, no one ever believed that all genes are inherited from the outside (C).

And (A) is curious, picking up on wording from lines 2-3 but leaving out the controversial phrase “in the animal’s offspring.” Without that phrase and its connection to genetics, we’re left with the common sense idea that an individual organ’s use or disuse (i.e. doing bicep curls) can affect the development of that organ (i.e. build up the bicep or make it flabby).

Answer: E


6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about the absence of cell walls in some bacteria?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This time the question stem clues send us to paragraph 2, where the absence of bacterial cell walls is discussed. When one bacterium lost its wall, its “offspring” continued to do so (lines 15-19), and that’s what (C) describes.

(A) and (B) are wrong because they bring up the paragraph 3 idea of introducing a gene. The cell wall example stops short of mentioning a halt to the process, (D). And horizontal inheritance, (E), is a genetic concept. Genes are inherited vertically or horizontally, not the absence of cell walls.

Answer: C


mSKR wrote:
Hi Sajjad1994 :

Please give official explanation for Q1: Why not A? Actually in the passage , it doesn't mention what scientists believe now finally. It is only given why have believed so far. Whether this belief change is not given in argument.

For Q6: please share official explanation why not E ? in C , its not clear this loss means by what. So I choose E over C.
Official explanations would help for Q1 and Q6

Thanks!



Hi GMATNinja Sajjad1994:
Actually for Q6 , I am still confused for Q6. I find Q6 is directly given in the context :


however, seem to
have been acquired
“horizontally,” from viruses,
(50) plasmids, bacteria, or other environmental agents

But in C , loss is not clear. According to passage "absence " is given. But loss doesn't mean absence. loss seems to be bigger set than absence.
(C) It can be caused by the loss of a cell wall in a single bacterium.

Some more clarification for C vs E would be helpful.

Thanks!
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Sajjad1994 GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry

Can anyone please walk through each of the options for Q4 ?

Thanks.
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Expert Reply
sting8 wrote:
Sajjad1994 GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry

Can anyone please walk through each of the options for Q4 ?

Thanks.


Explanation


4. Which one of the following, if true, offers the most support for Lamarck’s hypothesis?

Difficulty Level: 500-550

Explanation

Lamarck illustrated his hypothesis with the in-the-trees giraffe example, and (B) is a below-the ground example of the same process, in that the development of an organ came about because of its use.

The antlers in (A) aren’t explicitly connected to use or disuse, but rather to survival; and (A) would work better if we heard about modification of antlers through their use. (C) is emphatically an example of genetic differences.

(D) doesn’t explicitly ascribe the weaker sense of direction to “the disuse of an organ”; anyway it’s describing the change of a sense, and not an organ. Aggressiveness (E), too, isn’t the change of an organ; aggressiveness is a trait common to both wild and domesticated dogs, as opposed to a trait that changes over time.

Answer: B
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Why can't Question 5 has an answer as option D?
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Hey narji, did you see mSKR 's post. I think that should answer your question.
If not then someone will definitely help you out here.
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
Expert Reply
narji wrote:
Why can't Question 5 has an answer as option D?


Please double check, the OA of question #5 is indeed D. Or else let me know what you are looking for?
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Re: In the eighteenth century the French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamar [#permalink]
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