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Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t

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Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area. While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.


1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

A.They had the ability to absorb and incinerate everything.
B.They could cause changes that were not easily reversible.
C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it.
D.Their existence was hotly contested by physicists all over the world.
E. No one had actually detected a black hole.


2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.
B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists.
C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced.
D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole.
E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions.



3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?
A.One of relief.
B.One of despair.
C.One of skepticism.
D.One of joy.
E.One of frustration.



4.According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:
A.whether black holes radiate or not.
B.how easy is it to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.
C.what are the tools required to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.
D.whether an object’s information when it falls in a black hole is lost to an extent that the object can never be reconstructed.
E.whether the information about an object falling in the black hole is stripped out during the fall.


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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 02 Sep 2019, 03:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 07:35
please explain question 3??
i.e.

3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?
A.One of relief.
B.One of despair.
C.One of skepticism.
D.One of joy.
E.One of frustration.


I thought the answer is A

From which line can we infer that the author was skeptical?
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New post 13 Oct 2018, 09:28
nik021 wrote:
please explain question 3??
i.e.

3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?
A.One of relief.
B.One of despair.
C.One of skepticism.
D.One of joy.
E.One of frustration.


I thought the answer is A

From which line can we infer that the author was skeptical?


Hi,
Refer below line from the passage: "This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true"

The author thinks that the explanation for reconstruction of information falling in a black hole based on the principle of holography, if true, may answer some of the questions (contested notion that information is lost or not in a black hole), but will lead to many unanswered question (how much information can be stored on a given surface area-limitation of storage of information).

So, the Author is doubtful or skeptic of such explanation.
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Re: Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 14:23
2
Skywalker18 wrote:
Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area. While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.
1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

A.They had the ability to absorb and incinerate everything.
B.They could cause changes that were not easily reversible.
C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it.
D.Their existence was hotly contested by physicists all over the world.
E. No one had actually detected a black hole.


2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.
B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists.
C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced.
D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole.
E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions.



3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?
A.One of relief.
B.One of despair.
C.One of skepticism.
D.One of joy.
E.One of frustration.



4.According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:
A.whether black holes radiate or not.
B.how easy is it to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.
C.what are the tools required to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.
D.whether an object’s information when it falls in a black hole is lost to an extent that the object can never be reconstructed.
E.whether the information about an object falling in the black hole is stripped out during the fall.



8:53 minutes! All correct!

1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

A.They had the ability to absorb and incinerate everything.-No,"incinerate" not mentioned anywhere
B.They could cause changes that were not easily reversible.-No not mentioned.
C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it.-True, refer " indicating that all information is lost in a black hole "
D.Their existence was hotly contested by physicists all over the world.-no, existence of black holes was not hotly contested!
E. No one had actually detected a black hole.-OFS


2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.True,refer "a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.
Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states "
B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists.-OFS
C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced.-No, it has nothing to do with what Hawking proved
D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole.-Nopes
E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions.-OFS



3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?
A.One of relief.-No, he was doubtful of it
B.One of despair.-No, he was doubtful of it
C.One of skepticism.-Correct
D.One of joy.-No, he was doubtful of it
E.One of frustration.-No, he was doubtful of it



4.According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:
A.whether black holes radiate or not.-No
B.how easy is it to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.-Ease of reconstruction of an object that has fallen in BH is not mentioned.
C.what are the tools required to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole.-What tools are required is immaterial
D.whether an object’s information when it falls in a black hole is lost to an extent that the object can never be reconstructed.-Correct, refer"the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists"
E.whether the information about an object falling in the black hole is stripped out during them this context!.[/box_in][/box_out][/quote]
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New post 13 Oct 2018, 14:26
Piggu18 wrote:
Can anyone explain the question 2??


2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.True,refer "a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.
Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states "
B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists.-OFS
C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced.-No, it has nothing to do with what Hawking proved
D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole.-Nopes
E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions.-OFS
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New post 13 Oct 2018, 20:59
1
1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

A.They had the ability to absorb and incinerate everything. -- Incorrect
B.They could cause changes that were not easily reversible. -- Incorrect, never mentioned
C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it. Following is an excerpt from para 1 Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole .Based on this we can say that this choice is correct
D.Their existence was hotly contested by physicists all over the world. -- Incorrect
E. No one had actually detected a black hole. --Out of scope

2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart. -- by POE we can reach this or refer to the following lines from para 2 a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.
B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists. -- Out of scope
C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced. -- Incorrect
D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole. -- Never mentioned
E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions. -- Inconsistent with the info from passage

3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?

In most of the second paragraph where Holograph principle is mentioned the author uses the word may a lot indicating a tone of skepticism.
A.One of relief. -- Incorrect
B.One of despair. -- Incorrect
C.One of skepticism.-- Correct choice
D.One of joy. -- Incorrect
E.One of frustration.-- Incorrect

4.According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:

A.whether black holes radiate or not. -- Out of scope
B.how easy is it to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole. -- Incorrect
C.what are the tools required to reconstruct an object that has fallen in a black hole. -- Out of scope
D.whether an object’s information when it falls in a black hole is lost to an extent that the object can never be reconstructed. -- The main intent of the debate.Hence, the correct choice.
E.whether the information about an object falling in the black hole is stripped out during the fall.-- Incorrect

Hope this helps!
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Re: Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 07:57
workout
in question 1 it asks us prior to 1975
this line-Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole.
it doesnt tell prior to 1975
can you please provide reasoning for this question.
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New post 14 Oct 2018, 13:17
2
Hi manjot123, workout

you asked —>
in question 1 it asks us prior to 1975
this line-Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole.
it doesnt tell prior to 1975
can you please provide reasoning for this question.
———
The question is —>
1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

A.They had the ability to absorb and incinerate everything.
B.They could cause changes that were not easily reversible.
C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it.
D.Their existence was hotly contested by physicists all over the world.
E. No one had actually detected a black hole.
————

My interpretation of the question:
Why blackholes were considered unique prior to 1975?

My analysis:
Let’s look at the para 1: below few statements

The author stats with "It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though...."

The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world

From the text highlighted in pink color:
as you also stated, we understood that in 1975, Stephen showed the results.

But if we take a look at the line prior to Stephen's assertion, The the text highlighted in red:
we understand that author suggests nothing can emerge out of blackhole

Conclusion: when we combine all 3 statements (green, red and pink), it's clear that before 1975,
a) it was belived that distinctions never disappear even though nothing can emerge out of blackhole.
b) Then author says that blackholes are the exception as nothing comes out of blackholes (objects disappear)
c) until only in 1975, Stephen showed the opposite.

I hope this is clear now.

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 13:59
1
Hi gmat1393, workout, Piggu18,
I am sorry, but i am not fully convinced with @gmat1393's explanation provided for Q2. Again, i have few questions / observations on choices C, D, and E. so please correct if my understanding is not aligned with what author suggested.

You mentioned :
2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart. -- by POE we can reach this or refer to the following lines from para 2 a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists. -- Out of scope
My Observation: yes, out of scope.

C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced. -- Incorrect
My Observation:
You have mentioned that the statement is incorrect, i disagree. I agree that Option C is not the correct answer to Q2 and it's not related to an accounting trick. But the statement C, on it's own, is correct and can be understood from these references from para 1:
Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole. -- Never mentioned
My Observation:
You have mentioned that the statement is never mentioned, i disagree. I agree that Option D is not the correct answer to Q2 and it's not related to an accounting trick. But the statement D, on it's own, is correct and can be understood from these references from para 2:
but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole ......
It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.


E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions. -- Inconsistent with the info from passage
My Observation:
Why do you think this is inconsisten with the passage? in fact in the 2nd para:
It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.

from above, we can interpret that it's possible to store 3D info into 2D but there will be loss of information. Again, option E has nothing to do with an accounting trick. But the statement seems to be true.
---
Choice A seems to be a clear winner
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New post 15 Oct 2018, 18:56
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Thanks a bunch Skywalker18 & workout for presenting such a nice RC (GMAT like read).

Hello Forum ,

It seems that Q2 is 'hotly contested' ( :-) at least as of now).

2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.
CORRECT - The Flow of the passage : According to basic principle of physics information does not get lost ever. But, when information somehow enters the black hole,the information gets lost. The statements are contradictory. Moreover if the second is true , the long standing theoretical principles of physics break down . And this is the only exceptional case. Thus, there were a requirement to explain the exception. Thus the physicists adopted a new theory, holograph principle . According to the passage , this action is somewhat analogous to how the book of business(es) are kept in-line and explainable for audits (afterthought/compensation/explanation of the exception , so that the whole book of business does not fall apart).

B.Because it was added by scientists who worked more like accountants rather than scientists.
INCORRECT - Nowhere it was mentioned in the passage that scientists ever worked like accountants.

C.Because Stephen Hawking who proved that black holes radiate was not entirely convinced.
INCORRECT - Choice of words in the answer need to be looked at carefully ---- The passage mentions : Hawking was not easily convinced.

D.Because it puts a limit on how much information can be stored on the surface of a black hole.
INCORRECT - In the passage it was just mentioned as an implication of Holographic Theory that [u] there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area - It was presented as the reason of implying 'accounting trick'.

E.Because it does not seem likely that information about a 3-dimensional object can be stored in 2 dimensions.
INCORRECT - Similar to option D. In the passage it was just mentioned as an implication of Holographic Theory that [u] all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions - Neither any judgement was made whether it could be or likely could be done or not , nor it was presented as the reason of implying 'accounting trick'.




Disclaimer : I donot consider myself a V-expert ,but, I am definitely trying to learn with you.
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New post 26 Oct 2018, 21:19
1.According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole

C.Once an object goes inside the black hole, it is impossible to extract and reconstruct it.

---------------------------------------

2.Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

this principle was given after this conclusion from para 1 ------- "a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole."

this principle resolves above lines.

A.Because it was added as an afterthought or compensation to ensure that laws of theoretical physics don’t fall apart.

----------------------------------------

3.Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?

While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.
C.One of skepticism.

---------------------------------------------

4.According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:
D.whether an object’s information when it falls in a black hole is lost to an extent that the object can never be reconstructed. --- this one is only correct one.
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New post 02 May 2019, 01:55
Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced,

Can someone please explain what does this mean??

"Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole ".
SH showed that black holes can radiate away matter.

Also 2nd para starts with "Even though Hawking was not easily convinced " What is he not convinced about??

Why is there a contrast if SH showed that black holes can radiate away matter.
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New post 29 May 2019, 00:34
mallya12 wrote:
Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced,

Can someone please explain what does this mean??

"Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole ".
SH showed that black holes can radiate away matter.

Also 2nd para starts with "Even though Hawking was not easily convinced " What is he not convinced about??

Why is there a contrast if SH showed that black holes can radiate away matter.



the contrast in "Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole " because the physicist not convinced, and they believed the entire structure of theoretical physics would disintegrate.

2nd para starts with "Even though Hawking was not easily convinced " What is he not convinced about??

Answer to your question is:
SH is not convinced about the holograph principle...

Hope it Helps
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Re: Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t   [#permalink] 29 May 2019, 00:34
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Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between t

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