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It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc

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It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 275, Date : 18-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the process that uses oxygen to convert food into energy) in any animal has a profound effect on its living patterns. The high metabolic rate of small animals, for example, gives them sustained power and activity per unit of weight, but at the cost of requiring constant consumption of food and water. Very large animals, with their relatively low metabolic rates, can survive well on a sporadic food supply, but can generate little metabolic energy per gram of body weight. If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered, therefore, one might assume that smaller, more active, animals could prey on larger ones, at least if they attacked in groups. Perhaps they could if it were not for anaerobic glycolysis, the great equalizer.

Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. If, for example, some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur, normally torpid, the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously, via anaerobic glycolysis, the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production. This explains how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbors: the compensation for a low oxidative metabolic rate is glycolysis.

There are limitations, however, to this compensation. The glycogen reserves of any animal are good, at most, for only about two minutes at maximum effort, after which only the. normal oXIdative metabolic source of energy remains. With the conclusion of a burst of activity, the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids, leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis. During this process the enormous energy debt that the animal has run up through anaerobic glycolysis must be repaid, a -debt that is proportionally much greater for the larger vertebrates than for the smaller ones. Whereas the tiny shrew can replace in minutes the glycogen used for maximum effort, for example, the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than three weeks. It might seem that this intermina bly long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival. Fortunately, muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary. Only in times of panic or during mortal combat would the entire reserves be consumed.

Spoiler: :: OA
E

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) refute a misconception about anaerobic glycolysis
(B) introduce a new hypothesis about anaerobic glycolysis
(C) describe the limitations of anaerobic glycolysis
(D) analyze the chemistry of anaerobic glycolysis and its similarity to oxidative metabolism
(E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival


Spoiler: :: OA
E

2. According to the author, glycogen is crucial to the process of anaerobic glycolysis because glycogen

(A) increases the organism's need for ATP
(B) reduces the amount of A TP in the tissues
(C) is an inhibitor of the oxidative metabolic production of ATP
(D) ensures that the synthesis of A TP will occur speedily
(E) is the material from which ATP is derived


Spoiler: :: OA
B

3. According to the author, a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can

(A) produce in large animals more lactic acid than the liver can safely reconvert
(B) necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals
(C) produce energy more slowly than it can be used by large animals
(D) consume all of the available glycogen regardless of need
(E) reduce significantly the rate at which energy is produced by oxidative metabolism


Spoiler: :: OA
D

4. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size because

(A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates
(B) larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates
(C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size
(D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size
(E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize


Spoiler: :: OA
A

5. The author suggests that, on the basis of energy production, a 100-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following?

I. Repeated attacks by a single smaller, more active adversary
II. Sustained attack by numerous smaller, more active adversaries
III. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size

(A) II only
(B) I and II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


Spoiler: :: OA
E

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by- which of the following factors?

I. Rate of oxidative metabolism
II. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids
III. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III


Spoiler: :: OA
A

7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences?

(A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology
(B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis
(C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy
(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals
(E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism


Spoiler: :: OA
A

8. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can. be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy.
(B) The most significant problem facing animals that have used anaerobic glycolysis for energy is the resynthesis of its by-product, glucose, into glycogen.
(C) The benefits to animals of anaerobic glycolysis are offset by the profound costs that must be paid.
(D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis.
(E) The great differences that exist in metabolic rates between species of small animals and species of large animals can have important effects on the patterns of their activities.


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Originally posted by carcass on 15 Aug 2019, 09:35.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Aug 2019, 08:18, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 08:15
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2019, 22:03
where can i get the explanation of this passage
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 00:27
1
Ayushishah1 wrote:
where can i get the explanation of this passage


Q1-(E)See para 1 how the author says it has been long known about oxidative metabolism ,something we knew and at the end of para 1 conclude wt he wants to
talk about i.e .Anaerobic glycolysis,THE GREAT EQUALIZER,and continues to talk about why it is important for animal survival.

Q2-(E)See para 2 .sentence 1 " through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider".

Q3-(B)Para 3 ,"the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than three weeks".

Q4-(D)Para 2,"Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal".

Q5-(A)Para 3"Whereas the tiny shrew can replace in minutes the glycogen used for maximum effort, for example, the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than
three weeks. It might seem that this intermina bly long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival".

Q6-(E)Again see Para 3

Q7-(A) i was confused beween A and E
physiology-the branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts(googled it).
why not E because its talking about anaerobic glycolysis.Though it might be good for biochemist researchers to know about anaerobic glycolysis
i think the biochemist would be more inclined towards knowing the deep details of the structures or the process instead of the survival skills of animals.

Q8-(A) is the OA . u can eliminate B,C,D.
but why not E see para 1"If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered, therefore, one might assume that smaller, more active, animals could prey on larger
ones, at least if they attacked in groups. Perhaps they could if it were not for anaerobic glycolysis, the great equalizer".
its specifically talking about metabolic rates because of anaerobic glycolysis which doesnt have much effect on smaller animals because of their size .
i still doubt that my explaination to this is ccorrect but if someone wanna add something pls let me know
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 00:32
1
All correct in 11 mins 40 seconds, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read
Para 1- rate of oxidative metabolism, high metabolic rate of small animals vs low metabolic rate of very large animals, anaerobic glycolysis, the great equalizer
Para 2- anaerobic glycolysis- the quick firepower, how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbors
Para 3- limitations- glycogen reserves for upto 2 mins, lactic acid; muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival - Correct, the process is explained in para 2 and its effects on animal survival is also stated

2. According to the author, glycogen is crucial to the process of anaerobic glycolysis because glycogen
(E) is the material from which ATP is derived
Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider.

3. According to the author, a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can
(B) necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals
It might seem that this interminably long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival.

4. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size because
(D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size
The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal.

5. The author suggests that, on the basis of energy production, a 100-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following?

I. Repeated attacks by a single smaller, more active adversary - incorrect, a single smaller more active adversary won't be of much issue
II. Sustained attack by numerous smaller, more active adversaries - Correct, If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered, therefore, one might assume that smaller, more active, animals could prey on larger ones, at least if they attacked in groups.
III. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size - incorrect


6. It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by- which of the following factors?

With the conclusion of a burst of activity, the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids, leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis.
Fortunately, muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary.

I. Rate of oxidative metabolism
II. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids
III. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles
(E) I, II, and III
I took a lot of time in choosing/rejecting option III since the percentage of glucose isn't explicit.


7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences?

(A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology - Correct
(B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis - incorrect
(C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy - incorrect, there is no specific discussion about anatomy( I eliminated this option at the end)
(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals - irrelevant, dinosaurs are just one example of very large animals
(E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism - incorrect, the passage has elementary information and is unlikely to be of importance to biochemists doing R&D


8. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can. be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy. - Correct
(D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis. - incorrect
I was down to option A and D and felt option A is better because I wasn't whether calling anaerobic glycolysis a major factor is correct and option A seemed better
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 00:50
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 11 mins 40 seconds, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read
Para 1- rate of oxidative metabolism, high metabolic rate of small animals vs low metabolic rate of very large animals, anaerobic glycolysis, the great equalizer
Para 2- anaerobic glycolysis- the quick firepower, how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbors
Para 3- limitations- glycogen reserves for upto 2 mins, lactic acid; muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival - Correct, the process is explained in para 2 and its effects on animal survival is also stated

2. According to the author, glycogen is crucial to the process of anaerobic glycolysis because glycogen
(E) is the material from which ATP is derived
Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy provider.

3. According to the author, a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can
(B) necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals
It might seem that this interminably long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival.

4. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size because
(D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size
The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal.

5. The author suggests that, on the basis of energy production, a 100-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following?

I. Repeated attacks by a single smaller, more active adversary - incorrect, a single smaller more active adversary won't be of much issue
II. Sustained attack by numerous smaller, more active adversaries - Correct, If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered, therefore, one might assume that smaller, more active, animals could prey on larger ones, at least if they attacked in groups.
III. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size - incorrect


6. It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by- which of the following factors?

With the conclusion of a burst of activity, the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids, leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis.
Fortunately, muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary.

I. Rate of oxidative metabolism
II. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids
III. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles
(E) I, II, and III
I took a lot of time in choosing/rejecting option III since the percentage of glucose isn't explicit.


7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences?

(A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology - Correct
(B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis - incorrect
(C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy - incorrect, there is no specific discussion about anatomy( I eliminated this option at the end)
(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals - irrelevant, dinosaurs are just one example of very large animals
(E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism - incorrect, the passage has elementary information and is unlikely to be of importance to biochemists doing R&D


8. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can. be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy. - Correct
(D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis. - incorrect
I was down to option A and D and felt option A is better because I wasn't whether calling anaerobic glycolysis a major factor is correct and option A seemed better




can u explain how u eliminated option E in Q8 i m still not sure wether i have a solid reasoning or not ? thanks!
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 10:13
8. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

I poe B, C, E and took a long time to choose between A and D, this is my reasoning, pls correct me if I am wrong.
(A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can. be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy.
Correct
(B) The most significant problem facing animals that have used anaerobic glycolysis for energy is the resynthesis of its by-product, glucose, into glycogen.
this is only the idea of the last part, totally not the main idea
and yet, the process which these animals have to go through is much more than just resynthesis (the acid is reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis.)

(C) The benefits to animals of anaerobic glycolysis are offset by the profound costs that must be paid.
the paragraph said there are limitations, but not said it is offset
because we can see the obvious advantage that wont be gone is the fact that small animals couldn't prey on larger ones

(D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis.
wrong because I think it should be "a group of smaller animals"

(E) The great differences that exist in metabolic rates between species of small animals and species of large animals can have important effects on the patterns of their activities.
look back at the passage, if the writer wants E to be his main idea, the passage will be entirely about how different metabolic rates affect animal's activities
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Re: It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 20:57
Can someone explain Question 7 pls
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It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2019, 06:52
Explanation


7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

This is a bit off GMAT question, GMAC normally doesn't ask such questions in GMAT. Process of elimination (POE) is the only way (IMO) to choose the best answer. Take a look at the answer choices.

(A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology

No idea about A after reading only A so keep this option for a moment

(B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis

The word discovery made this option wrong as after reading the passage we knew that there is no such scenario which could lead to any discovery so discard this option.

(C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy.

Word anatomy made this option wrong as this could be some sort of specialized training but training of what? anatomy? not seriously. so this option is also out of the way.

(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals

only dinosaur is prehistoric and that was an example of some big body animals and not more than that so this option is wrong.

(E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism

The whole passage is not only about oxidative metabolism it also discuss Anaerobic glycolysis in detail so this option cover only fraction of the passage and that is why it is wrong.

What we have left now? option A so that is our answer. It happens sometimes that the OA is not the perfect answer for the situation but remember we are not looking for a perfect answer rather for a Best answer and among these five options A is the best. A is not the perfect answer and GMAC normally don't ask such questions in GMAT so don't worry if you are not convinced with OA or explanation.

Answer: A


Hope it helps

PallabiKundu wrote:
Can someone explain Question 7 pls

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It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the proc   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2019, 06:52
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