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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of

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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process.

A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction
D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was
E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by abhimahna on 06 Jul 2017, 01:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2005, 22:24
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C it is
A and B miss verb to make first half a clause
D) "that was as early as" is not english :)
E) misplaced modifier problem. Is it the "mineral extraction" or the "method which is "well-established"?

C) has correct verb-tense agreement and makes "well-established" adjective of proper noun "method"
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2005, 22:25
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A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established
"it" is wrong
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established
missing a verb
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction
sounds good
D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was
Sounds like the mineral was as early as 18 century
E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established
The comma before "well" is wrong.

I would choose (C) for this one.

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2005, 22:44
Just wanted to know that if one of the option be this

F. had been a well-established method of mineral extraction

Would it be right? I think the "had been" in option E is also wrong.... but why?

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2005, 23:37
ketanm wrote:
Just wanted to know that if one of the option be this

F. had been a well-established method of mineral extraction

Would it be right? I think the "had been" in option E is also wrong.... but why?

Ketan


i also want o add one more..... hahaha
(G) there are only 5 choice answers in GMAT and we have to choose the best from the available and it may not be the standard form of english...... :lol:

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2005, 23:47
ketanm wrote:
Just wanted to know that if one of the option be this

F. had been a well-established method of mineral extraction

Would it be right? I think the "had been" in option E is also wrong.... but why?

Ketan


Good question. Had this option been one of the choices, I would very well have chosen it. (I used correct grammar didn't I? :D)

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2005, 00:13
I think
was a well-established method of mineral extraction
sounds good


is preferrable over

had been a well-established method of mineral extraction

A simple past tense is prefered over past-perfect here, as we are not talking about two things happening, one after the other (or are we?).
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2005, 01:13
was a well-established method of mineral extraction

Concise and correct. My vote for C.

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2015, 20:44
HongHu wrote:
A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established
"it" is wrong
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established
missing a verb
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction
sounds good
D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was
Sounds like the mineral was as early as 18 century
E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established
The comma before "well" is wrong.

I would choose (C) for this one.



Can i know why "it" is wrong in choice A??

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2015, 21:14
C for me too. Please post the OA.

Thanks for a good question.

nocilis wrote:
Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process.

A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction
D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was
E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established

Explain your answer in detail pl.

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2016, 06:43
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 07:23
Excellent Explanation Paul..
Thanks..

Paul wrote:
C it is
A and B miss verb to make first half a clause
D) "that was as early as" is not english :)
E) misplaced modifier problem. Is it the "mineral extraction" or the "method which is "well-established"?

C) has correct verb-tense agreement and makes "well-established" adjective of proper noun "method"

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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 19:10
Hi Experts,
Why is had been incorrect vs was in D vs C?
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 22:47
IMO E is the correct answer. In option C, well established modifies method of extraction. Therefore, 'as early as 18th century' is meaningless.

According to me, the method was well established as early as 18th century. In option E, well established modifies method of extraction correctly.


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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago, miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process.

A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established ---'leaching and it' makes it an error of double subjecting with a single verb
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established -- This is a fragment.
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction ---correct choice
D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was ---that refers to mineral and not to extracting mineral
E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established -- if leaching had been a well-established method as early as 18th century, what happened to the method after the specified timeline? 'Had been' can be used only if the method ceased to be well established after the 18th century.
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2017, 21:54
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Here is the sentence structure of this sentence:
Clause 1: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals,
Clause 2: it was well established as early as the eighteenth century,
Clause 3: but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize
Clause 4: that bacteria took an active part in the process.

Clause 1 does not have any verb. The subject “leaching” does not have any verb. Thus this sentence is a fragment. In addition, clause 2 is not connected appropriately to clause 1. It should be connected using a ; or ,FANBOYS.


Process of Elimination :-

Choice A - 'leaching and it' makes it an error of double subjecting with a single verb
Choice B – Fragment Error: This choice changes clause 2 into a modifier. But it does not address the absence of verb for the subject “leaching”.
Choice C – No errors.
Choice D – Modifier error: The sentence implies that well-established method of mineral extraction was as early as 18th century. This is non-sensical – saying that a method was as early as 18th century. It would have made sense if this said that the method existed as early as 18th century. This error may be construed as SV-Make sense error – the subject – “well established method” does not make sense with the verb – “was”.
Choice E – Verb error: This choice states uses past perfect tense for the verb – had been. This changes the intended meaning of the sentence. This sentence now implies that leaching is no longer a method of mineral extraction. In the light of this information, what follows does not make sense. Since this is no longer a method of mineral extraction, the fact miners realized its working 25 years back becomes invalid. Thus, because this sentences uses past perfect tense as shown, it distorts the intended meaning of the sentence.
Thus, the correct answer is Choice C.
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2017, 21:59
Here is the sentence structure of this sentence:
Clause 1: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals,
Clause 2: it was well established as early as the eighteenth century,
Clause 3: but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize
Clause 4: that bacteria took an active part in the process.

Clause 1 does not have any verb. The subject “leaching” does not have any verb. Thus this sentence is a fragment. In addition, clause 2 is not connected appropriately to clause 1. It should be connected using a ; or ,FANBOYS.


Process of Elimination :-

Choice A - 'leaching and it' makes it an error of double subjecting with a single verb
Choice B – Fragment Error: This choice changes clause 2 into a modifier. But it does not address the absence of verb for the subject “leaching”.
Choice C – No errors.
Choice D – Modifier error: The sentence implies that well-established method of mineral extraction was as early as 18th century. This is non-sensical – saying that a method was as early as 18th century. It would have made sense if this said that the method existed as early as 18th century. This error may be construed as SV-Make sense error – the subject – “well established method” does not make sense with the verb – “was”.
Choice E – Verb error: This choice states uses past perfect tense for the verb – had been. This changes the intended meaning of the sentence. This sentence now implies that leaching is no longer a method of mineral extraction. In the light of this information, what follows does not make sense. Since this is no longer a method of mineral extraction, the fact miners realized its working 25 years back becomes invalid. Thus, because this sentences uses past perfect tense as shown, it distorts the intended meaning of the sentence.
Thus, the correct answer is Choice C.
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Re: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 12:23
Paul wrote:
C it is
A and B miss verb to make first half a clause
D) "that was as early as" is not english :)
E) misplaced modifier problem. Is it the "mineral extraction" or the "method which is "well-established"?

C) has correct verb-tense agreement and makes "well-established" adjective of proper noun "method"


Actually, for your explanation for E to be valid wouldn't you need no comma before the modifier?

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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2017, 02:15
Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process.

A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established
B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established
C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction

D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was
--> when we have V-ing, check if there is a sensible doer of this V-ing. In this sentence, i cannot find any sensible doer for extracting.

E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established
--> V-ed modifier , well established can not jump over preceding noun mineral extraction to modify a method . Only that, which modifier can jump if sentence context allows so (no ambiguity and essential phrase)
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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2017, 02:39
Hi daagh , egmat

D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was

Let's ignore the illogical meaning problem in the phrase method of extracting mineral that was as early as the eighteenth century. Can that in D jump over preposition phrase of extracting mineral to modify a method (of extracting mineral is an essential modifier and can not be placed elsewhere)?

Many thanks for your help ;)
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Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of   [#permalink] 11 Sep 2017, 02:39
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