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Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2019, 21:49
GMATNinja wrote:
Blackishmamba wrote:
sqube wrote:
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'Historians'. Modifier Error.

(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'Historians's exloration'. Modifier Error.

(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'legacy'. Modifier Error.

(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies: concise and correct choice.

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring: incorrect usage of 'had'.


Why usage of 'had' in answer choice E is wrong?
All I see in choice E is a meaning error.

The nice thing about legacies is that they never go away. (Or, depending on the legacy in question, maybe that's not such a nice thing? :-))

Though the Olmec culture may be long gone, its legacy is still intact in the present, so the use of the past tense "had" is not appropriate here. The question writer gives us a hint about the tense by connecting the present tense "is" with the past tense "had." It can be completely fine to have two different tenses in the same sentence, but there has to be a good reason for the tense shift. In this case, there isn't a good reason for it at all.

I hope that helps!


Hi GMATNinja daagh

Why can "Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations" not modify "the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture"? logically a more dominant civilisation can overshadow the legacy of a less dominant one.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2019, 23:10
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A culture can be overshadowed only by another culture or civilization. It cannot be done by the legacy of another culture. Should you do so, you will be weighing unequal things.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2020, 00:00
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them

(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring

(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring

A is incorrect. Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations should modify Olmec culture and not the historians. The legacy it had for is not idiomatic. Legacy to is correct.

B. incorrect because of the modifier error as mentioned in A. Mesoamerican societies succeeded Olmec culture which is singular. use of plural pronoun them to refer to Olmec culture is incorrect.

C. should modify Olmec culture and not legacy. Same pronoun error as B.

D. correct answer. Usage of being is correct because it indicates something that is currently happening in passive form.

E. that cannot refer to Mesoamerican societies as the historians are exploring Olmec culture. 'had a legacy' is not correct. Legacy is something that remains even after the thing ceases to exist.


D. Correct answer.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2020, 06:33
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo
I had ruled out option D because of to followed by -ing form ("legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies"). But since it is a official GMAT question, I now know it is correct. Can you please help me understand under what scenarios is this usage acceptable and under what scenarios it is not acceptable.
Thanks in advance.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2020, 17:44
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ruchik wrote:
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo
I had ruled out option D because of to followed by -ing form ("legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies"). But since it is a official GMAT question, I now know it is correct. Can you please help me understand under what scenarios is this usage acceptable and under what scenarios it is not acceptable.
Thanks in advance.

First, consider this example: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to athletes."

  • A "gift" is something you give TO some other person/group of people, so we need to use the structure, "Nike gave [something] TO [some person/group]."
  • Now what if we want to modify "athletes" (i.e. "many athletes", "high-school athletes, "aspiring athletes", ...)? Well, the modifier, even if it's an -ing modifier, doesn't change the fact that we need the word "to" to indicate that Nike gave something TO the athletes: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to aspiring athletes."

The same is true in this question:

  • In choice (D), "succeeding" modifies "Mesoamerican societies.
  • Stripping out some modifiers, we have, "... the Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to Mesoamerican societies."
  • A legacy is something you leave TO some other person or group of people.
  • So we need "legacy TO Mesoamerican societies", regardless of what modifiers we add before "Mesoamerican societies".

I'm sure that you've heard me say this before, but here it comes again: there are very few concrete "rules" that you can apply to GMAT SC. You have to examine each answer choice, think about the meaning, and determine which choice is the best out of the five choices in THAT problem.

That approach, while difficult and unsatisfying, is much more effective than trying to memorize an endless list of rules and scenarios.

I hope that helps a bit!
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2020, 10:21
Just for my understanding purpose in Option A, is it ok have 2 verbs? without using conjunctions, subordinate conjunctions or relative clauses

A. historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

Although "Had" is auxiliary verb.

This is not related to the question but for my understanding. And, I have find this usage at multiple occasion, which I often find it problematic.

I would be glad if moderators or anyone can help me rectify it

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2020, 06:02
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avinashiitp wrote:
Just for my understanding purpose in Option A, is it ok have 2 verbs? without using conjunctions, subordinate conjunctions or relative clauses

A. historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

Although "Had" is auxiliary verb.

This is not related to the question but for my understanding. And, I have find this usage at multiple occasion, which I often find it problematic.

I would be glad if moderators or anyone can help me rectify it

GMATNinja, Abhi077, generis, hazelnut, GMATNinjaTwo

Take a look at these two examples:

  • "Scientists are studying the volcanic eruption and the effect that it had on the local ecosystem." - My guess is that you are okay with this one. The main subject+verb pair is "scientists are studying". We have another noun+verb pair within the "that" clause ("it had"), and the "that" clause modifies "the effect".
  • "Scientists are studying the volcanic eruption and the effect it had on the local ecosystem." - This is the exact same sentence except the word "that" has been removed. This is okay because the "that" (a relative pronoun, if you like the jargon) is implied.

I hope that answers your question!
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2020, 06:26
GMATNinja wrote:
ruchik wrote:
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo
I had ruled out option D because of to followed by -ing form ("legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies"). But since it is a official GMAT question, I now know it is correct. Can you please help me understand under what scenarios is this usage acceptable and under what scenarios it is not acceptable.
Thanks in advance.

First, consider this example: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to athletes."

  • A "gift" is something you give TO some other person/group of people, so we need to use the structure, "Nike gave [something] TO [some person/group]."
  • Now what if we want to modify "athletes" (i.e. "many athletes", "high-school athletes, "aspiring athletes", ...)? Well, the modifier, even if it's an -ing modifier, doesn't change the fact that we need the word "to" to indicate that Nike gave something TO the athletes: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to aspiring athletes."

The same is true in this question:

  • In choice (D), "succeeding" modifies "Mesoamerican societies.
  • Stripping out some modifiers, we have, "... the Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to Mesoamerican societies."

  • A legacy is something you leave TO some other person or group of people.
  • So we need "legacy TO Mesoamerican societies", regardless of what modifiers we add before "Mesoamerican societies".

I'm sure that you've heard me say this before, but here it comes again: there are very few concrete "rules" that you can apply to GMAT SC. You have to examine each answer choice, think about the meaning, and determine which choice is the best out of the five choices in THAT problem.

That approach, while difficult and unsatisfying, is much more effective than trying to memorize an endless list of rules and scenarios.

I hope that helps a bit!


GMATNinja what would be the meaning of the sentence if (D) was saying "...legacy to succeed Mesoamerican societies, instead of "...legacy to succeeding..." Thank you! :)
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2020, 04:05
I crossed out the right answer b/c of "legacy to succeeding"...
Can someone please explain this a bit? Is this the same usage as below:

Quote:
something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past
e.g. the legacy of the ancient philosophers
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/legacy

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2020, 18:56
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Victorz wrote:
I crossed out the right answer b/c of "legacy to succeeding"...
Can someone please explain this a bit? Is this the same usage as below:

Quote:
something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past
e.g. the legacy of the ancient philosophers
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/legacy

Yes, I think that definition fits. In this context, the "legacy" is something that the "more ancient Olmec" passed on to the Mayans and Aztecs.

We talk a bit more about that portion in this post.

Will2020 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
ruchik wrote:
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo
I had ruled out option D because of to followed by -ing form ("legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies"). But since it is a official GMAT question, I now know it is correct. Can you please help me understand under what scenarios is this usage acceptable and under what scenarios it is not acceptable.
Thanks in advance.

First, consider this example: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to athletes."

  • A "gift" is something you give TO some other person/group of people, so we need to use the structure, "Nike gave [something] TO [some person/group]."
  • Now what if we want to modify "athletes" (i.e. "many athletes", "high-school athletes, "aspiring athletes", ...)? Well, the modifier, even if it's an -ing modifier, doesn't change the fact that we need the word "to" to indicate that Nike gave something TO the athletes: "Nike gave free equipment and apparel to aspiring athletes."

The same is true in this question:

  • In choice (D), "succeeding" modifies "Mesoamerican societies.
  • Stripping out some modifiers, we have, "... the Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to Mesoamerican societies."

  • A legacy is something you leave TO some other person or group of people.
  • So we need "legacy TO Mesoamerican societies", regardless of what modifiers we add before "Mesoamerican societies".

I'm sure that you've heard me say this before, but here it comes again: there are very few concrete "rules" that you can apply to GMAT SC. You have to examine each answer choice, think about the meaning, and determine which choice is the best out of the five choices in THAT problem.

That approach, while difficult and unsatisfying, is much more effective than trying to memorize an endless list of rules and scenarios.

I hope that helps a bit!


GMATNinja what would be the meaning of the sentence if (D) was saying "...legacy to succeed Mesoamerican societies, instead of "...legacy to succeeding..." Thank you! :)

Umm... good question? I don't think that would actually make any sense. :)
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 23:46
Could someone shed light on the usage of 'being' in Option D?
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 00:34
sakshiagarwal96 wrote:
Could someone shed light on the usage of 'being' in Option D?
Hi sakshiagarwal96,

This being is one that we must use whenever we form the passive of the continuous tense.

X is exploring Y. ← Active voice, is exploring is the verb.
Y is being explored by X. ← Passive voice, is being explored is the verb.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2020, 00:34

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