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# Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2019, 05:37
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lstsch wrote:
Why can the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture not be overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec Civilizations? (Why is C wrong?)
1. A legacy is what is left behind after someone or something is gone. Why would a civilization overshadow a legacy? We'd expect a civilization to overshadow another civilization.

Remember that we are supposed to look for the intended meaning here, so don't look at C and ask whether it is possible. Instead, check whether it is likely that that the sentence wants to compare two civilizations to the legacy of a third civilization (culture in this case).

2. Option C results in
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring.

Given that the Olmec culture is older than the others, I'd expect a singular pronoun instead of the them. That is, we'd want the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded it, not succeeded them.

3. X is what historians are exploring is not as direct as X is being explored by historians.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2019, 06:11
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Quote:
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies
(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them
(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring
(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies
(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring

C. Let's appreciate that it is the more ancient Olmec culture rather than the Maya and Aztec cultures that is being explored by the historians and not the Olmec culture's legacy to the succeeding generations. Here the comparison goes haywire by comparing a legacy of Olmec culture with the Maya and Aztec cultures

E. The historians are not exploring any succeeding Mesoamerican societies either. Per se, C and E substantially alter the original intent.

D: The expression ' the more ancient " is just an adjective that describes the Olmec and should be taken as a single unit. I do not think one should think about a parallelism issue in this.

For example--The 16th president, Lincoln is revered much more than many other presidents. Here because we have described Lincoln as the 16th president, it is not necessary that we describe others as the 20th president or 14th president and so on. Nor should we drop the noun modifier before the subject because we have not used a similar modifier for the other side.

Even E describes Olmec culture as more ancient, while it is not describing Maya and Aztec with any such adjectives. Therefore, parallelism is a non-issue in the given case.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2019, 02:28
lstsch wrote:
Why can the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture not be overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec Civilizations? (Why is C wrong?)

First, (C) is illogical.

Take another look: "the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them." If the Olmec culture is more ancient, this is the culture that was succeeded, so we'd want the singular pronoun "it."

But even if you missed this issue, our goal is to compare options and pick the one that's best. Between (C) and (D), we have a choice between a sentence indicating that the Olmec culture was overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, and an option indicating that the legacy of the Olmec culture was overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations. It's more logical to compare legacies with legacies and cultures with cultures (or civilizations,) and so (D) is better than (C).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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12 May 2019, 07:35
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 245

Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them

(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring

(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring

look at choice e
in the pattern
do-ed phrase+ main clause
the do-ed phrase must be in meaning relation with the main clause. do-ed phrase can not, I think, is purely attributive. if it is attributive, is should be post modifier toughing the subject of the main clause.
(pls, comment on this point. I am not confident of making this point )

although it is long shadowed... , the culture is explored...
this meaning relation is logic. choice D is correct and choice e is

long shadowed..., culture is more ancient

no logic meaning relation can exist between "long shadowed..." and "cuture is more ancient as with the case of choice d. so, choice e is long.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2019, 21:18
GMATNinja wrote:
Blackishmamba wrote:
sqube wrote:
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'Historians'. Modifier Error.

(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'Historians's exloration'. Modifier Error.

(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring: 'Olmec culture' is Overshadowed; not 'legacy'. Modifier Error.

(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies: concise and correct choice.

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring: incorrect usage of 'had'.

All I see in choice E is a meaning error.

The nice thing about legacies is that they never go away. (Or, depending on the legacy in question, maybe that's not such a nice thing? )

Though the Olmec culture may be long gone, its legacy is still intact in the present, so the use of the past tense "had" is not appropriate here. The question writer gives us a hint about the tense by connecting the present tense "is" with the past tense "had." It can be completely fine to have two different tenses in the same sentence, but there has to be a good reason for the tense shift. In this case, there isn't a good reason for it at all.

I hope that helps!

Let me first thank you for your apt explanations for various questions.

Just wanted to know whether following reasoning can also be used to eliminate E in addition to the incorrect usage of had for a legacy that can still continue to exist.
1)'and' is a parallelism marker and ' had a legacy' is not parallel to anything before 'and'
OR
2) Usage of had is incorrect because there is no other past event that would occur after the culture had a legacy. Though I am slightly cpnfused whether an action of 'overshadowing' can classify as as another past event that is recent.

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2019, 13:24
1
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MAnkur wrote:
Let me first thank you for your apt explanations for various questions.

Just wanted to know whether following reasoning can also be used to eliminate E in addition to the incorrect usage of had for a legacy that can still continue to exist.
1)'and' is a parallelism marker and ' had a legacy' is not parallel to anything before 'and'
OR
2) Usage of had is incorrect because there is no other past event that would occur after the culture had a legacy. Though I am slightly cpnfused whether an action of 'overshadowing' can classify as as another past event that is recent.

Regarding your first point, the parallelism is technically okay:

• "Mike 1) is greedy and 2) has a stash of granola bars that he refuses to share with his fellow campers." - Mike [verb 1] and [verb 2] - perfectly parallel.
• "Mike 1) eats pizza now, 2) ate tacos for breakfast, and 3) will eat sushi for dinner." - Mike [verb 1], [verb 2], and [verb 3] - also perfectly parallel. The verbs in the parallel list do NOT need to have the same tense.
• "The Olmec culture 1) is more ancient and 2) had a legacy." - Here we have a similar structure ("The Olmec culture [verb 1] and [verb 2]"). The two verbs are parallel even though their tenses are different.

As for your second point, in (E), "had" is just the simple past form of "to have" (i.e. "I had a pet dog as a child."). I think you're confusing it with the use of "had" in a past perfect verb (i.e. "I had studied diligently but still failed my exam."). "Had" by itself is just simple past tense; "had + verb-ed" is past perfect tense. Does that help?
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2019, 19:15
GMATNinja wrote:
MAnkur wrote:
Let me first thank you for your apt explanations for various questions.

Just wanted to know whether following reasoning can also be used to eliminate E in addition to the incorrect usage of had for a legacy that can still continue to exist.
1)'and' is a parallelism marker and ' had a legacy' is not parallel to anything before 'and'
OR
2) Usage of had is incorrect because there is no other past event that would occur after the culture had a legacy. Though I am slightly cpnfused whether an action of 'overshadowing' can classify as as another past event that is recent.

Regarding your first point, the parallelism is technically okay:

• "Mike 1) is greedy and 2) has a stash of granola bars that he refuses to share with his fellow campers." - Mike [verb 1] and [verb 2] - perfectly parallel.
• "Mike 1) eats pizza now, 2) ate tacos for breakfast, and 3) will eat sushi for dinner." - Mike [verb 1], [verb 2], and [verb 3] - also perfectly parallel. The verbs in the parallel list do NOT need to have the same tense.
• "The Olmec culture 1) is more ancient and 2) had a legacy." - Here we have a similar structure ("The Olmec culture [verb 1] and [verb 2]"). The two verbs are parallel even though their tenses are different.

As for your second point, in (E), "had" is just the simple past form of "to have" (i.e. "I had a pet dog as a child."). I think you're confusing it with the use of "had" in a past perfect verb (i.e. "I had studied diligently but still failed my exam."). "Had" by itself is just simple past tense; "had + verb-ed" is past perfect tense. Does that help?

It does help!

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2019, 07:56
option D puts the culture close to the modifier.hence D
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2019, 06:15
lstsch wrote:
Why can the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture not be overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec Civilizations? (Why is C wrong?)

The historians are exploring the olmec culture for its legacy. Which is opt D.

Opt c says the legacy is being explored by historians. Also if you notice the first lines in sentence the Maya and atztec civilization are the cultures so we need another culture to follow after comma subject rule.

I hope it helped. Please give kudos if it did.

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2019, 07:17
1
Quote:
Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

Hi,
The sentence starts with a modifier that something was long overshadowed by some civilization. So whatever follows must make sense and historians being overshadowed does not make sense at all. This is what makes A, B & C incorrect. There are other errors too. Lets take a look.
Quote:
(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies
color=#ff0000]Incorrect[/color]
Quote:
(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them
Same error as A. Plus, "is now of the more ancient" is just wrong. Incorrect
Quote:
(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring
Same as A. Legacy cannot be compared with civilizations. Incorrect
(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies[/quote] Civilizations vs Culture, Its refer back to Olmec culture. Correct

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring[/quote] Its not the societies that the historians are exploring. use of past perfect is unnecessary. Incorrect
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 01:49
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 245

Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies.

(A) historians are now exploring the more ancient Olmec culture for the legacy it had for succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(B) historians’ exploration is now of the more ancient Olmec culture's legacy to the Mesoamerican societies succeeding them

(C) the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture to the Mesoamerican societies that succeeded them is what historians are now exploring

(D) the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies

(E) the Olmec culture is more ancient and had a legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies that historians are now exploring

A - After comma the subject should be there. Historians is not the appropriate subject.
B - Historians exploration overshadowed by Maya and Aztec civilizations - doesn't make sense. The sentence seems awkward.
historians' exploration is now of Olmec culture.....Rather it should be Historians are now exploring Olmec culture.
C - The legacy is not the subject. Legacy is not overshadowed by Maya and Aztec civilizations.
D - seems correct. Olmec culture is long overshadowed by Maya and Aztec civilization. Its legacy means Olmec culture's legacy.
E - changes the meaning of original sentence. The sentence was not about stating Olmec culture is more ancient. From the sentence it seems historians are exploring Mesoamerical societies which is not the case. They are exploring Olemec culture.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 18:53
daagh wrote:
the more ancient Olmec culture should follow the opening modifier as correctly done in D. E Changes the meaning altogether.

How is it that E changes the meaning altogether ? What is the meaning difference between D and E ?
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 20:15
Isn't being supposed to be wrong ??

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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 21:12
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@ givinggmat

The focus of the topic is that the Olmec culture is now being explored for its legacy. That the Olmec is ancient and that it had a legacy are incidental descriptions of the olden culture.

E unwittingly gives primary importance to these incidental factors while relegating the exploration to the back burner.

Supreet wrote

Quote:
Isn't being supposed to be wrong?
Quote:

It is just not 'being'. It is 'is being', a present progressive. Progressive forms of 'being' together with their auxiliary verbs are legitimate in GMAT
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2019, 09:25
lstsch wrote:
Why can the legacy of the more ancient Olmec culture not be overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec Civilizations? (Why is C wrong?)

in C " mesoamerican soceties that succeeded them.........what can " them" refer to?? you will have your answer.
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Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2019, 13:47
Ans : D the more ancient Olmec culture is now being explored by historians for its legacy to succeeding Mesoamerican societies[/quote] Civilizations vs Culture, Its refer back to Olmec culture. Correct
Re: Long overshadowed by the Maya and Aztec civilizations, historians are   [#permalink] 08 Sep 2019, 13:47

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