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# Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance

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Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 00:52
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

51% (01:33) correct 49% (01:43) wrong based on 478 sessions

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Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance loans amounting to over \$1.1 trillion to the developing nations; at stake, if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these loans, would be the bankruptcy of some of the world's largest financial institutions.

A. if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these loans, would be
B. if a significant number of these loans will be repudiated, is
C. should a significant number of these loans be repudiated, is
D. should a significant number of these loans be repudiated, are
E. should they repudiate a significant number of these loans, are

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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2018, 06:19
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Sasi
Hi
Should is often used in conditional clauses expressing possibilities, suppositions etc. By using should in the if-clause we are suggesting that something is unlikely or not particularly probable.

If you should run into Mathews, tell him that he owes me \$100. (= Your chances of meeting Mathews are rather slim, but if you MEET him, tell him that he owes me some money.)

More examples are given below

If she should come, ask her to wait. (She is unlikely to come, but if she COMES, ask her to wait.)
If they should attack us again, we will give them a warm reception. (They are unlikely to attack us again, but if they DO, we will make it memorable for them as well.)

Should can also go at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, if is dropped.

Should it rain, there will be no picnic today. (= If it should rain, there will be no picnic today.)
Should she arrive, ask her to wait.

Should she fail the test, she will lose her job. (= If she should fail the test, she will lose her job.)

Instead of should we can use happen in the if-clause.

If you happen to meet John, tell him that the meeting has been postponed.

OR

If you should meet John, tell him that the meeting has been postponed.

Should and happen to can be used together.

If you should happen to lose your job, what will you do?

Source: https://www.englishpractice.com/grammar ... ntences-2/

daagh
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##### General Discussion
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Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 04:55
GMATNinja egmat mikemcgarry

I understood that we need a singular verb for subject bankruptcy.
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 05:19
As per gmat, should can not take place of If Then construct.
Now coming back to the question.
A : since it contains would be , if part will need to be hypothetical subjunctive , and this is not the case here .
B : the tenses are all mixed up.
C: the sentence, though in hypothetical subjunctive, starts with should, and 'is ' is used
D and E both suffer from SV disagreement.
All the options don't fall in line IMO.

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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 10:02
Can someone please explain y C is the OA
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2017, 11:27
narrowed down to B and C,,,

can any expert pitch in please,,,,
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2018, 04:37
Need expert help with this question. daagh, GMATNinja, mikemcgarry
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2018, 22:33
Hi, why use of "if " is incorrect and of "should" is correct?
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2018, 00:25
at stake, should a significant number of these loans be repudiated, is be the bankruptcy of some of the world's largest financial institutions.

After semi colon we need an independent clause. So Experts, can anyone please explain the usage of "is" in the sentence and also the purpose of the phrase " should a significant number of these loans be repudiated"
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 12:45
Top Contributor
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This topic is a copycat of an original GMAT Prep question given below.

Developing nations in various parts of the world have amassed \$700 billion in debts; at stake, should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is the solvency of some of the world’s largest multinational banks.

(A) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is
(B) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, are
(C) should they repudiate a significant number of these debts, are
(D) if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these debts, would be
(E) if a significant number of these debts will be repudiated, is

The current topic

Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance loans amounting to over \$1.1 trillion to the developing nations; at stake, if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these loans, would be the bankruptcy of some of the world's largest financial institutions.

It is not clear what the author wants to convey by 'bankruptcy' at stake. Only the solvency or the survival is at stake. This is however beside the point.

A. if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these loans, would be
B. if a significant number of these loans will be repudiated, is
C. should a significant number of these loans be repudiated, is
D. should a significant number of these loans be repudiated, are
E. should they repudiate a significant number of these loans, are

Let us appreciate the two different meanings of the word 'should.' In normal sentences, 'should' is used as a modal helping verb to mean a suggestion or recommendation.
The second use of 'should' is known as 'the conditional should' and just indicates the same meaning as 'if.' Often, therefore , even the 'if' is dropped when 'should' is used in a conditional format.)

However, one vital aspect is the structural difference between both. In the modal, the main clause usually is in a plain subject-verb + object (SVO) form while in the conditional model, it is in an inverted form. ( modal plus subject plus base verb or the bare infinitive)
If you eat an egg a day, you can keep the Doctor away. (SVO)
Should you eat an egg a day, can you keep the Doctor away (the inversed form)

That is the reason we say that should the majority of the loan be defaulted, the solvency of the lenders themselves is at stake. Here the first part ' should the major significant number of these loans ' is the conditional closes while ' the solvency is at stake is the main clause.
As such, there is no problem with using 'if' instead of 'should. However, in the given contest
A is a problem because; we do not use ' would be' in first conditionals.
B also is grammatically at fault for using will be in the conditional clause. Therefore, C is the answer. D and E as we know contain an error of S-V number agreement for using the plural are for the singular bankruptcy.

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Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 17:23
Can someone please fix this question? In the question stem, "be" must be underlined...
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2018, 18:49
In the underlined part " if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these loans, would be" , "be" is not underlined.

I realized this after reading the solution provided by daagh.
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Re: Major funding agencies have arranged for several assistance   [#permalink] 13 Aug 2018, 18:49
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