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Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and

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Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues at the expense of aesthetic concerns. The high-rise buildings constructed throughout the industrialized world in the 1960s and 1970s provide ample evidence that cost-efficiency and utility have became the overriding concerns of the modern architect. However, Otto Wagner’s seminal text on modern architecture, first published in Germany in 1896, indicates that the failure of modern architecture cannot be blamed on the ideals of its founders.

Wagner’s Modern Architecture called for a new style based on modern technologies and models of construction. He insisted that there could be no return to traditional, preindustrial models; only by accepting wholeheartedly the political and technological revolutions of the nineteenth century could the architect establish the forms appropriate to a modern, urban society. “All modern creation,” Wagner wrote, “must correspond to the new materials and demands of the present…must illustrate our own better, democratic, self-confident, ideal nature,” and must incorporate the new “colossal technical and scientific achievements” of the age. This would indeed seem to be the basis of a purely materialist definition of architecture, a prototype for the simplistic form-follows-function dogma that opponents have identified as the intellectual basis of modern architecture.

But the picture was more complex, for Wagner was always careful to distinguish between art and engineering. Ultimately, he envisaged (to have a mental picture of especially in advance of realization “envisages an entirely new system of education”) the architect developing the skills of the engineer without losing the powers of aesthetic judgment that Wagner felt were unique to the artist. “Since the engineer is seldom a born artist and the architect must learn as a rule to be an engineer, architects will in time succeed in extending their influence into the realm occupied by the engineers, so that legitimate aesthetic demands can be met in a satisfactory way.” In this symbiotic relationship essential to Modernism, art was to exercise the controlling influence.

No other prospect was imaginable for Wagner, who was firmly rooted as a designer and, indeed, as a teacher in the Classical tradition. The apparent inconsistency of a confessed Classicist advising against the mechanical imitation of historical models and arguing for new forms appropriate to the modern age created exactly the tension that made Wagner’s writings and buildings so interesting. While he justified, for example, the choice of a circular ground plan for churches in terms of optimal sight-lines and the technology of the gasometer, the true inspiration was derived from the centralized churches of the Italian Renaissance. He acknowledged as rationalist that there was no way back to the social and technological conditions that had produced the work of Michelangelo or Fischer von Erlach, but he recognized his emotional attachment to the great works of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues and for failing to focus on aesthetic concerns.
(B) Critics have failed to take into account the technological innovations and aesthetic features that architects have incorporated into modern buildings.
(C) Wagner’s Modern Architecture provides architects with a chronicle of the origins of modern architecture.
(D) Wagner’s Modern Architecture indicates that the founders of modern architecture did not believe that practical issues should supersede the aesthetic concerns of the past.
(E) Wagner’s seminal text, Modern Architecture, provides the intellectual basis for the purely materialistic definition of modern architecture.

2. According to the passage, Wagner asserts which one of the following about the roles of architect and engineer?

(A) The architect should make decision about aesthetic issues and leave decision about technical matters to the engineers.
(B) The engineer has often developed the powers of aesthetic judgment previously thought to be unique to the architect.
(C) The judgment of the engineer should be as important as the judgment of the architect when decisions are made about aesthetic issues.
(D) The technical judgment of the engineer should prevail over the aesthetic judgment of the architect in the design of modern buildings.
(E) The architect should acquire the knowledge of technical matters typically held by the engineer.

3. The passage suggests that Wagner would be LEAST likely to agree with which one of the following statements about classical architecture and the modern architect?

(A) The modern architect should avoid the mechanical imitation of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
(B) The modern architect cannot design buildings appropriate to a modern, urban society and still retain emotional attachments to the forms of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
(C) The modern architect should possess knowledge of engineering as well as of the architecture of the past.
(D) The modern architect should not base designs on the technological conditions that underlay the design of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
(E) The designs of modern architects should reflect political ideals different from those reflected in the designs of classical architecture.

4. The passage suggests which one of the following about the quotations from Modern Architecture cited in the second paragraph?

(A) They represent the part of Wagner’s work that has had the least influence on the architects who designed the high-rise buildings of the 1960s and 1970s.
(B) They describe the part of Wagner’s work that is most often evoked by proponents of Wagner’s ideas on art and technology.
(C) They do not adequately reflect the complexity of Wagner’s ideas on the use of modern technology in architecture.
(D) They reflect Wagner’s active participation in the political revolutions of the nineteenth century.
(E) They provide an overview of Wagner’s ideas on the relationship between art and technology.

5. The author of the passage states which one of the following about the concerns of modern architecture?

(A) Cost-efficiency, utility, and aesthetic demands are the primary concerns of the modern architect.
(B) Practical issues supersede aesthetic concerns in the design of many modern buildings.
(C) Cost-efficiency is more important to the modern architects than are other practical concerns.
(D) The design of many new buildings suggests that modern architects are still inspired by architectural forms of the past.
(E) Many modern architects use current technology to design modern buildings that are aesthetically pleasing.

6. The author mentions Wagner’s choice of a “circular ground plan for churches” (line 54) most likely in order to

(A) provide an example of the kinds of technological innovations Wagner introduced into modern architecture
(B) provide an example of Wagner’s dismissal of historical forms from Italian Renaissance
(C) provide an example of a modern building where technological issues were much less significant than aesthetic demands
(D) provide evidence of Wagner’s tendency to imitate Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque models
(E) provide evidence of the tension between Wagner’s commitment to modern technology and to the Classical tradition

7. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) summarizing the history of a debate
(B) explaining a traditional argument
(C) describing and evaluating a recent approach
(D) justifying a recent criticism by presenting new evidence
(E) supporting an assertion by discussing an important work



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 12 (October 1994)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by dharam44 on 03 Dec 2018, 22:42.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 23 Sep 2019, 03:50, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (629).
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Re: Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2018, 10:25
2
1- D, ans lies in first paragraph first line.
Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues at the expense of aesthetic concerns

2-E ans lies in "Since the engineer is seldom a born artist and the architect must learn as a rule to be an engineer"

3-B " he recognized his emotional attachment to the great works of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque."

4-B because third para first line says"But the picture was more complex"

5-B "Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues at the expense of aesthetic concerns."

6-E "The apparent inconsistency of a confessed Classicist advising against the mechanical imitation of historical models and arguing for new forms appropriate to the modern age created exactly the tension that made Wagner’s writings and buildings so interesting. While he justified, for example, the choice of a circular ground plan for churches in terms of optimal sight-lines and the technology of the gasometer, the true inspiration was derived from the centralized churches of the Italian Renaissance.

7-E , supports assertion by Wagner's work.
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Re: Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2018, 11:49
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Hi workout,

Tough and lengthy passage.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues and for failing to focus on aesthetic concerns.- given in first para but not the overall idea
(B) Critics have failed to take into account the technological innovations and aesthetic features that architects have incorporated into modern buildings.- nothing given in the passage.
(C) Wagner’s Modern Architecture provides architects with a chronicle of the origins of modern architecture. - Inconsistent
(D) Wagner’s Modern Architecture indicates that the founders of modern architecture did not believe that practical issues should supersede the aesthetic concerns of the past. - overall idea of the passage
(E) Wagner’s seminal text, Modern Architecture, provides the intellectual basis for the purely materialistic definition of modern architecture. - Inconsistent

2. According to the passage, Wagner asserts which one of the following about the roles of architect and engineer?

(A) The architect should make decision about aesthetic issues and leave decision about technical matters to the engineers. - Inconsistent
(B) The engineer has often developed the powers of aesthetic judgment previously thought to be unique to the architect. - Inconsistent
(C) The judgment of the engineer should be as important as the judgment of the architect when decisions are made about aesthetic issues. - Inconsistent
(D) The technical judgment of the engineer should prevail over the aesthetic judgment of the architect in the design of modern buildings. - Inconsistent
(E) The architect should acquire the knowledge of technical matters typically held by the engineer. - given in 3 rd para

3. The passage suggests that Wagner would be LEAST likely to agree with which one of the following statements about classical architecture and the modern architect?

(A) The modern architect should avoid the mechanical imitation of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque. - given in last para
(B) The modern architect cannot design buildings appropriate to a modern, urban society and still retain emotional attachments to the forms of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque. - they can as given in the para.
(C) The modern architect should possess knowledge of engineering as well as of the architecture of the past. - given in 3rd para
(D) The modern architect should not base designs on the technological conditions that underlay the design of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque. - given in last para
(E) The designs of modern architects should reflect political ideals different from those reflected in the designs of classical architecture. - given in 2nd para

4. The passage suggests which one of the following about the quotations from Modern Architecture cited in the second paragraph?

(A) They represent the part of Wagner’s work that has had the least influence on the architects who designed the high-rise buildings of the 1960s and 1970s.- opposite
(B) They describe the part of Wagner’s work that is most often evoked by proponents of Wagner’s ideas on art and technology. - Inconsistent
(C) They do not adequately reflect the complexity of Wagner’s ideas on the use of modern technology in architecture. - given in 2nd para
(D) They reflect Wagner’s active participation in the political revolutions of the nineteenth century. - Inconsistent
(E) They provide an overview of Wagner’s ideas on the relationship between art and technology. - out of scope. given in 3dr para

5. The author of the passage states which one of the following about the concerns of modern architecture?

(A) Cost-efficiency, utility, and aesthetic demands are the primary concerns of the modern architect. - extreme answer choice
(B) Practical issues supersede aesthetic concerns in the design of many modern buildings. - given in 1st para
(C) Cost-efficiency is more important to the modern architects than are other practical concerns. - Inconsistent
(D) The design of many new buildings suggests that modern architects are still inspired by architectural forms of the past. - Inconsistent
(E) Many modern architects use current technology to design modern buildings that are aesthetically pleasing. - opposite

6. The author mentions Wagner’s choice of a “circular ground plan for churches” (line 54) most likely in order to

(A) provide an example of the kinds of technological innovations Wagner introduced into modern architecture - he didn't introduced
(B) provide an example of Wagner’s dismissal of historical forms from Italian Renaissance - Inconsistent
(C) provide an example of a modern building where technological issues were much less significant than aesthetic demands - out of scope
(D) provide evidence of Wagner’s tendency to imitate Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque models - Inconsistent
(E) provide evidence of the tension between Wagner’s commitment to modern technology and to the Classical tradition - he still gave the justification in order to prove that.

7. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) summarizing the history of a debate - author is not summarizing anything
(B) explaining a traditional argument - Inconsistent
(C) describing and evaluating a recent approach - no approach is used. Inconsistent
(D) justifying a recent criticism by presenting new evidence - Inconsistent
(E) supporting an assertion by discussing an important work - overall summary
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Re: Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 00:00
Can someone explain Q5. I got highly confused between B and C. Both seems to be the concern of modern architecture. How do I choose?
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Re: Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 09:57
DiyaDutta wrote:
Can someone explain Q5. I got highly confused between B and C. Both seems to be the concern of modern architecture. How do I choose?


Explanation


5. The author of the passage states which one of the following about the concerns of modern architecture?

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

A direct paraphrase of the passage’s first two sentences — which are going to be key sentences in virtually every passage!

(A) distorts the passage by mixing aesthetic demands in with cost-efficiency and utility. The former, according to para 1, are not a primary concern of modern architecture.

(C) The passage never distinguishes cost-efficiency from other practical concerns.

(D) distorts material in para 4. The circular church was a design justified by Wagner, not a representative example of modern architecture which, we can infer, does not look to historical models.

(E) Opposite: The opening lines imply that aesthetic value is missing in many modern buildings.

Answer: B

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Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2020, 05:31
Hi everyone,
Got all correct in 12:30 minutes, including 5:50 minutes to read.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

In paragraph one we are given why modern architecture is criticized for: it appears that utility has become more important that aesthetic. But according to the work of OW we know that the failure of modern architecture cannot be blamed on its founders.

Purpose: Explain why modern architecture has been criticized for and present the work of WO



P2

Paragraph 2 describes OW's work and gives us his idea of what architecture should be. He thinks that between architecture and society there should be a connexion and that architecture should be a reflection of the materials, achievements and so on of the current world. But there must be something more as in the last sentence we can see the usage of the conditional. Plus note that the following paragraph starts with a but.

Purpose: The purpose is to describe OW's work and to cast doubt on the apparent definition of architecture given in such work


P3

Here we are given that there is more to know about OW. He thinks that arts play an important role in architecture and that the figure of the architect and of the engineer will meddle. However the arts will be prevailing in this relation.

Purpose: To highlight an hidden aspect of OW.


P4

In this last paragraph we know something more about OW. Even tough he claimed that technology was very significant, he was still attached to the renaissance/classic values.

Purpose: To reveal that OW was still attached to classical values


Main point

The main point is to investigate the reasons why modern architecture is criticized for by analyzing the work and ideas of OW


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point is to investigate the reasons why modern architecture is criticized for by analyzing the work and ideas of OW


(A) Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and technical issues and for failing to focus on aesthetic concerns.
Partial scope

(B) Critics have failed to take into account the technological innovations and aesthetic features that architects have incorporated into modern buildings.
incorrect

(C) Wagner’s Modern Architecture provides architects with a chronicle of the origins of modern architecture.
The main point is not just to describe something

(D) Wagner’s Modern Architecture indicates that the founders of modern architecture did not believe that practical issues should supersede the aesthetic concerns of the past.
This option is both correct and broad enough. Hence it is a valid main point

(E) Wagner’s seminal text, Modern Architecture, provides the intellectual basis for the purely materialistic definition of modern architecture.
incorrect definition of OW's work






2. According to the passage, Wagner asserts which one of the following about the roles of architect and engineer?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

The role of these 2 figures is discussed in paragraph 3. According to OW the two figures should connect but arts should prevail.


(A) The architect should make decision about aesthetic issues and leave decision about technical matters to the engineers.
not mentioned

(B) The engineer has often developed the powers of aesthetic judgment previously thought to be unique to the architect.
not mentioned

(C) The judgment of the engineer should be as important as the judgment of the architect when decisions are made about aesthetic issues.
not mentioned

(D) The technical judgment of the engineer should prevail over the aesthetic judgment of the architect in the design of modern buildings.
not mentioned

(E) The architect should acquire the knowledge of technical matters typically held by the engineer.
mentioned here: "the architect developing the skills of the engineer without losing the powers of aesthetic judgment that Wagner felt were unique to the artist."





3. The passage suggests that Wagner would be LEAST likely to agree with which one of the following statements about classical architecture and the modern architect?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Our task here is to find what most OW would agree with and eliminate the remaining option.


(A) The modern architect should avoid the mechanical imitation of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
Ow thinks that architects should use the means available in the current era...

(B) The modern architect cannot design buildings appropriate to a modern, urban society and still retain emotional attachments to the forms of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
That's basically the opposite of what OW thinks. correct

(C) The modern architect should possess knowledge of engineering as well as of the architecture of the past.
OW believes this to be true

(D) The modern architect should not base designs on the technological conditions that underlay the design of the models of the Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque.
Similar reasoning used in option A

(E) The designs of modern architects should reflect political ideals different from those reflected in the designs of classical architecture.
In line with what is written in P2





4. The passage suggests which one of the following about the quotations from Modern Architecture cited in the second paragraph?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

"This would indeed seem to be the basis of a purely materialist definition of architecture, a prototype for the simplistic form-follows-function dogma that opponents have identified as the intellectual basis of modern architecture.

But the picture was more complex
"


(A) They represent the part of Wagner’s work that has had the least influence on the architects who designed the high-rise buildings of the 1960s and 1970s.
Cannot be inferred

(B) They describe the part of Wagner’s work that is most often evoked by proponents of Wagner’s ideas on art and technology.
Cannot be inferred

(C) They do not adequately reflect the complexity of Wagner’s ideas on the use of modern technology in architecture.
In line with pre-thinking

(D) They reflect Wagner’s active participation in the political revolutions of the nineteenth century.
Cannot be inferred

(E) They provide an overview of Wagner’s ideas on the relationship between art and technology.
Cannot be inferred





5. The author of the passage states which one of the following about the concerns of modern architecture?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Refer to the first paragraph


(A) Cost-efficiency, utility, and aesthetic demands are the primary concerns of the modern architect.
Inconsistent

(B) Practical issues supersede aesthetic concerns in the design of many modern buildings.
Correct

(C) Cost-efficiency is more important to the modern architects than are other practical concerns.
More important is wrong

(D) The design of many new buildings suggests that modern architects are still inspired by architectural forms of the past.
Not mentioned

(E) Many modern architects use current technology to design modern buildings that are aesthetically pleasing.
not mentioned





6. The author mentions Wagner’s choice of a “circular ground plan for churches” (line 54) most likely in order to

Pre-thinking

Function question

This example is used to show that deep down OW was still attached to the renaissance


(A) provide an example of the kinds of technological innovations Wagner introduced into modern architecture
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) provide an example of Wagner’s dismissal of historical forms from Italian Renaissance
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) provide an example of a modern building where technological issues were much less significant than aesthetic demands
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) provide evidence of Wagner’s tendency to imitate Italian Renaissance and Austrian Baroque models
in line with pre-thinking

(E) provide evidence of the tension between Wagner’s commitment to modern technology and to the Classical tradition
Not in line with pre-thinking




7. The passage is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point is to investigate the reasons why modern architecture is criticized for by analyzing the work and ideas of OW


(A) summarizing the history of a debate
Not the intent

(B) explaining a traditional argument
Not the intent

(C) describing and evaluating a recent approach
no approach is discussed

(D) justifying a recent criticism by presenting new evidence
no new evidence is cited

(E) supporting an assertion by discussing an important work
the assertion is found in the first paragraph: "the failure of modern architecture cannot be blamed on the ideals of its founders.". And the rest of the paragraph discusses an important work by OW



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Modern architecture has been criticized for emphasizing practical and   [#permalink] 03 Feb 2020, 05:31
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