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Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed

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Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology", which involves the organized comparison of human societies. Scholars like E.B. Taylor and J.G. Frazer in England worked mostly with materials collected by others – usually missionaries, traders, explorers, or colonial officials. This practice earned them their current sobriquet of "arm-chair anthropologists".

Ethnologists share a special interest in why people living in different parts of the world often had similar beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must somehow have learned from one another, however indirectly; in other words, they argued that cultural traits must have spread from one place to another, or "diffused".

Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of inventing similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized.

20th century anthropologists largely reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some ethnologists from this group, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments. Others, such as Claude Lévi-Strauss have argued that apparent patterns of development reflect fundamental similarities in the structure of human thought - called structuralism. By the mid-20th century, the examples of people skipping stages, such as going from hunter-gatherers to post-industrial service occupations in one generation, were so numerous that 19th century social evolutionism was effectively disproved.
1- Which of the following observations, if true, would help validate the theory of structuralism?

A- Two indigenous groups, from separate and isolated polar latitudes, developed similar customs in coping with the cold climate.
B- Many of the customs of a South Pacific island culture are linked to the mainland cultures 3000 miles away; it is believed that some contact from primitive raft journeys took place between the cultures.
C- Two ancient cultures with no interaction and vastly different climates were found by archaeologists to have developed strangely similar customs and innovations.
D- Many of the modern astronomical and mathematical systems used today have been adapted from techniques developed by the Maya over 4,000 years ago.
E- Many important intellectual advances in human history, such as the development of calculus and evolutionary theory, took place independently of one another.


2- The primary purpose of this passage is to:

A- show that the basic tenets of 19th century social evolutionism are false
B- discuss two conflicting views of 19th century ethnologists
C- explain the theories of modern cultural anthropology
D- provide a historical perspective on 19th century ethnology
E- argue that 20th century perspectives on ethnology are superior to 19th century perspectives.


3- It can be inferred from the passage that “ethnology” (Highlighted) is:

A- different from cultural anthropology
B- a branch of anthropology
C- synonymous with social evolution
D- a separate field of study from anthropology
E- similar to “structuralism”


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Originally posted by rohan2345 on 20 Nov 2018, 23:02.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 19 Mar 2019, 01:20, edited 2 times in total.
Formatted properly added timer and highlighted the text,
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 23:45
Question 3:

Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology".

Does it mean ethnology is a branch of anthropology? Or Does it mean anthropology is a branch of ethnology?

I can not find any text from which I can infer the first case. And if bold sentence is the only reference than second case looks better.

But answer choice says it is case 1.

If it is given that A is a part of B, can we infer B is also a part of A?
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 11:08
nightblade354

Please take a shot at this. I got only one correct.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:05
AkshdeepS wrote:
Question 3:

Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology".

Does it mean ethnology is a branch of anthropology? Or Does it mean anthropology is a branch of ethnology?

I can not find any text from which I can infer the first case. And if bold sentence is the only reference than second case looks better.

But answer choice says it is case 1.

If it is given that A is a part of B, can we infer B is also a part of A?


I think that the key fact is that the sentence says that modern cultural anthropology has its origins in ethnology, not anthropology as a all. So in general, ethnology is a branch of anthropology, and Modern cultural anthropology developed in reaction to ethnology

I am not 100% sure that this is the correct explanation but I've seen it this way :)
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:10
AkshdeepS wrote:
Question 3:

Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology".

Does it mean ethnology is a branch of anthropology? Or Does it mean anthropology is a branch of ethnology?

I can not find any text from which I can infer the first case. And if bold sentence is the only reference than second case looks better.

But answer choice says it is case 1.

If it is given that A is a part of B, can we infer B is also a part of A?


oblivion441
Hi,

Though I got rest two questions incorrect, I got third correct. So, the second line of third para says that "Some ethnologists of this group".. from there I inferred that enthology is a branch of anthropology.


Could you please post your reasons for questions 1 & 2. It will be really helpful
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:27
AkshdeepS wrote:
Question 3:

Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology".

Does it mean ethnology is a branch of anthropology? Or Does it mean anthropology is a branch of ethnology?

I can not find any text from which I can infer the first case. And if bold sentence is the only reference than second case looks better.

But answer choice says it is case 1.

If it is given that A is a part of B, can we infer B is also a part of A?




Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology", which involves the organized comparison of human societies.

^ This is suggests that Anthropology is related to ethnology. But note that it in the first three paragraphs only 19th century studies are discussed. It isn't until the final paragraph that we see the below:

20th century anthropologists largely reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some ethnologists from this group, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.

^ "Some ethnologists from this group" definitely suggests that ethnology is a subset of anthropology. As if it was not until the 20th century that anthropology was listed as a "parent" of ethnology.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:39
Wonderwoman31

Of course, I tell you my way of reasoning, even though I am not sure this is the correct way.

So for question 1, A is really attractive, although it differs from C because:
Structuralism= similarities due to similar thoughts
Coping with the cold is not as strong as developing similar customs and INNOVATIONS,
Plus "with no interaction and vastly different climates" is specified, and strengthen the argument, whereas it is not mentioned in A


For question 2, the answer is D because the author is explaining how ethnology was interpreted by different points of view and the effects that these points of view have had on modern anthropology.
C might be tempting although it is not about the theories OF m.c.a. but the theories that HAVE LED TO m.c.a

BTW these questions are REALLY tricky

Hope this helps :)
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:45
oblivion441 wrote:
Wonderwoman31

Of course, I tell you my way of reasoning, even though I am not sure this is the correct way.

So for question 1, A is really attractive, although it differs from C because:
Structuralism= similarities due to similar thoughts
Coping with the cold is not as strong as developing similar customs and INNOVATIONS,
Plus "with no interaction and vastly different climates" is specified, and strengthen the argument, whereas it is not mentioned in A


For question 2, the answer is D because the author is explaining how ethnology was interpreted by different points of view and the effects that these points of view have had on modern anthropology.
C might be tempting although it is not about the theories OF m.c.a. but the theories that HAVE LED TO m.c.a

BTW these questions are REALLY tricky

Hope this helps :)


Hi,

I wanted to specifically discuss question 1. So, the difference, I have understood, in choices is that in choice A people developed similarities when faced with similar situations. While, in Option C people developed similarities even when there were different situations.

I think the passage was saying the first. That is why I marked A. Please let me know your thoughts on this.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 12:53
Wonderwoman31
Yes, it is correct.
"apparent patterns of development reflect fundamental similarities in the structure of human thought" such as Inventions, that are similar in completely different cultures because the way of reasoning of humans is similar.

I think you chose A because you thought it was referring to "such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments" while this is the Steward theory.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 13:05
1
oblivion441 wrote:
Wonderwoman31
Yes, it is correct.
"apparent patterns of development reflect fundamental similarities in the structure of human thought" such as Inventions, that are similar in completely different cultures because the way of reasoning of humans is similar.

I think you chose A because you thought it was referring to "such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments" while this is the Steward theory.


Hi,

Yeah, maybe I referred to Steward's theory and I should have referred Strauss' theory. But, while I attempting the passage, I re-read the passage and could not infer out Strauss suggesting Option C.

In case, it is clearer to you. Could you make Strauss' theory little simpler to me?
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 13:16
1
Stewards says that humans react the same ways because they adapt to similar environments (as animals do). Whilst Strauss says that "pattern of development" lay in the similar way of thinking, which is directly related to innovations more than to reactions to similar climates
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2018, 13:18
1
oblivion441 It was helpful. Thank you so much :)

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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 11:51
I got 2 correct:
Q1 and Q3.

Hello Experts GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am,

Regarding Q2: How can the historical perspective be an answer?
The structure of passage is:
P1: Modern Anthropology is described and its derivation is stated
P2: Ethnology is discussed and one school of thought is detailed
P3: Second thought of Ethnology is detailed ( passed through similar phase of transformation)
P4: Disagreement among anthropologists for similar phase of transformation and further evidences.

All in all passage seems to describe the evolution of anthropology and it's theories.
I weigh C over D.
Can you please help me explain how D beats C ?

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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 20:16
1
rish2708 wrote:
I got 2 correct:
Q1 and Q3.

Hello Experts GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am,

Regarding Q2: How can the historical perspective be an answer?
The structure of passage is:
P1: Modern Anthropology is described and its derivation is stated
P2: Ethnology is discussed and one school of thought is detailed
P3: Second thought of Ethnology is detailed ( passed through similar phase of transformation)
P4: Disagreement among anthropologists for similar phase of transformation and further evidences.

All in all passage seems to describe the evolution of anthropology and it's theories.
I weigh C over D.
Can you please help me explain how D beats C ?

Regards,
Rishav


Rishav,

You are missing the common link in all of these: 19th century ethnology

Para 1: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in 19th century "ethnology".
Para 2: A field of special interest of ethnology is discussed and a 19th century school of thought is shared.
Para 3: The other 19th century school of thought of ethnology is shared.
Para 4: 20th century anthropologists rejected 19th century ideas because of conflicting empirical facts.

All of this is in the past 19th century (1800s) and 20th century (1900s).

The passage is all about a historical perspective of 19th century ethnology.
Answer (D)

As for C- explain the theories of modern cultural anthropology,
we don't know the theories of modern cultural anthropology. The passage just says that modern cultural anthropology has its roots in 19th century ethnology. After that it discusses 19th century ethnology only.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 23:06
VeritasKarishma wrote:
rish2708 wrote:
I got 2 correct:
Q1 and Q3.

Hello Experts GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am,

Regarding Q2: How can the historical perspective be an answer?
The structure of passage is:
P1: Modern Anthropology is described and its derivation is stated
P2: Ethnology is discussed and one school of thought is detailed
P3: Second thought of Ethnology is detailed ( passed through similar phase of transformation)
P4: Disagreement among anthropologists for similar phase of transformation and further evidences.

All in all passage seems to describe the evolution of anthropology and it's theories.
I weigh C over D.
Can you please help me explain how D beats C ?

Regards,
Rishav


Rishav,

You are missing the common link in all of these: 19th century ethnology

Para 1: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in 19th century "ethnology".
Para 2: A field of special interest of ethnology is discussed and a 19th century school of thought is shared.
Para 3: The other 19th century school of thought of ethnology is shared.
Para 4: 20th century anthropologists rejected 19th century ideas because of conflicting empirical facts.

All of this is in the past 19th century (1800s) and 20th century (1900s).

The passage is all about a historical perspective of 19th century ethnology.
Answer (D)

As for C- explain the theories of modern cultural anthropology,
we don't know the theories of modern cultural anthropology. The passage just says that modern cultural anthropology has its roots in 19th century ethnology. After that it discusses 19th century ethnology only.


Thanks Ma'am,

I get it!! Closely looking, I missed the point that anthropology has its origin from "ethonology". So in a way P1 talks about what ethonology has given out.
Earlier I thought the central idea was anthropology.

Regards,
Rishav
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 09:20
Hi All,

I am still confused with question 1 and question 3. In question 1 why it's not A?
A- Two indigenous groups, from separate and isolated polar latitudes, developed similar customs in coping with the cold climate.
When it's mentioned " from separate and isolated polar latitudes" and they still developed similar customs in coping with the cold climate. It can be due to the similarity in their thought patterns.

While in C ---
C- Two ancient cultures with no interaction and vastly different climates were found by archaeologists to have developed strangely similar customs and innovations. ---> It can support Independent Invention..

Q: 3 In question 3 we have in the passage "Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology", "

When Modern anthropology has its origins in and its developed in reaction to ethnology than how it can be the branch of anthropology?
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 08:21
Regarding Q3=>
My observation from the last paragraph:
By the mid-20th century, the examples of people skipping stages, such as going from hunter-gatherers to post-industrial service occupations in one generation, were so numerous that 19th century social evolutionism was effectively disproved.

If we take a hint from this, shouldn't Ethnology be synonymous to Social Evolution?
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2019, 07:11
Please have a look at question 3 and its OA.
it does not seem correct to conclude that Ethnology is a branch of anthropology from the text provided.
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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 00:26
rohan2345 wrote:
Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th century "ethnology", which involves the organized comparison of human societies. Scholars like E.B. Taylor and J.G. Frazer in England worked mostly with materials collected by others – usually missionaries, traders, explorers, or colonial officials. This practice earned them their current sobriquet of "arm-chair anthropologists".

Ethnologists share a special interest in why people living in different parts of the world often had similar beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must somehow have learned from one another, however indirectly; in other words, they argued that cultural traits must have spread from one place to another, or "diffused".

Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of inventing similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized.

20th century anthropologists largely reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some ethnologists from this group, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments. Others, such as Claude Lévi-Strauss have argued that apparent patterns of development reflect fundamental similarities in the structure of human thought - called structuralism. By the mid-20th century, the examples of people skipping stages, such as going from hunter-gatherers to post-industrial service occupations in one generation, were so numerous that 19th century social evolutionism was effectively disproved.
1- Which of the following observations, if true, would help validate the theory of structuralism?

A- Two indigenous groups, from separate and isolated polar latitudes, developed similar customs in coping with the cold climate.
B- Many of the customs of a South Pacific island culture are linked to the mainland cultures 3000 miles away; it is believed that some contact from primitive raft journeys took place between the cultures.
C- Two ancient cultures with no interaction and vastly different climates were found by archaeologists to have developed strangely similar customs and innovations.
D- Many of the modern astronomical and mathematical systems used today have been adapted from techniques developed by the Maya over 4,000 years ago.
E- Many important intellectual advances in human history, such as the development of calculus and evolutionary theory, took place independently of one another.


2- The primary purpose of this passage is to:

A- show that the basic tenets of 19th century social evolutionism are false
B- discuss two conflicting views of 19th century ethnologists
C- explain the theories of modern cultural anthropology
D- provide a historical perspective on 19th century ethnology
E- argue that 20th century perspectives on ethnology are superior to 19th century perspectives.


3- It can be inferred from the passage that “ethnology” (Highlighted) is:

A- different from cultural anthropology
B- a branch of anthropology
C- synonymous with social evolution
D- a separate field of study from anthropology
E- similar to “structuralism”



Can someone explain the question 1 and question 3?

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Re: Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed   [#permalink] 26 Apr 2019, 00:26
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