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Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of

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Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 14:36
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Question Stats:

83% (01:25) correct 17% (01:41) wrong based on 2680 sessions

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of the head, but little or no protection for the temple regions on the sides of the head. A study of head injuries resulting from bicycle accidents showed that a large proportion were caused by blows to the temple area. Therefore, if bicycle helmets protected this area, the risk of serious head injury in bicycle accidents would be greatly reduced, especially since ________.

(A) among the bicyclists included in the study's sample of head injuries, only a very small proportion had been wearing a helmet at the time of their accident

(B) even those bicyclists who regularly wear helmets have a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford

(C) a helmet that included protection for the temples would have to be somewhat larger and heavier than current helmets

(D) the bone in the temple area is relatively thin and impacts in that area are thus very likely to cause brain injury

(E) bicyclists generally land on their arm or shoulder when they fall to the side, which reduces the likelihood of severe impacts on the side of the head


ID - CR05186

Better Bicycle Helmets

Step 1: Identify the Question

This is a fill in the blank question. The word since just before the blank indicates the need for another reason supporting the conclusion, so this is a Strengthen the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

1) Helmets protect back and top of head but not temple

2) Study: blow to temple → most injuries

Bike helmets: protect temple → reduce head injuries

The argument states that injuries to the temple are common in bicycle accidents. Why else might protecting the temple be important?

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Strengthen questions, the goal is to find a piece of information that would support the conclusion. The correct answer should make the conclusion at least a little more likely to be valid.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) The conclusion claims only that helmets that protect the temple would reduce serious injury. Whether bicyclists choose to wear helmets does not affect whether it is important for helmets to protect the temple.

(B) The knowledge of bicyclists about the protection of helmets does not influence the importance of protecting the temple. As long as the helmets work, it doesn’t matter whether the bicyclists know how or why they work.

(C) This represents a potential disadvantage of helmets designed to protect the temple. The correct answer should support the importance of protecting the temple.

(D) CORRECT. If impact on the temple region is more likely to cause brain injury, the importance of protecting this region increases.

(E) This answer is out of scope because the argument is focused on accidents that do result in head injury, rather than those where the rider is able to avoid falling on his head.
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 14:54
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(A) among the bicyclists included in the study's sample of head injuries, only a very small proportion had been wearing a helmet at the time of their accident
" not wearing" of helmet is not into consideration

(B) even those bicyclists who regularly wear helmets have a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford
bicyclist need not know about all that because it is mentioned that " .....helmets provide good protection for the top and back of the head..."


(C) a helmet that included protection for the temples would have to be somewhat larger and heavier than current helmets
still, the larger shape and heavier weight will not serve the purpose and does not ensure the safety of the temple.

(D) the bone in the temple area is relatively thin and impacts in that area are thus very likely to cause brain injury
the temple bone is sophisticated enough to get hurt - correct !

(E) bicyclists generally land on their arm or shoulder when they fall to the side, which reduces the likelihood of severe impacts on the side of the head
doesn't not ensure safety and this is not the case in general
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2012, 08:04
I was confused b/w b and d . . it can be b as cyclists are unaware of this and they cannot protect themselves at the riskier part.

d bcz brain injury might be more serious than other injuries but no where mentioned in passage.

both require some leap ahead of whats stated and/or implied . . m still confused on why d and not b
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2012, 23:25
Between D and E , i picked E , can some one explain how to eliminate E??
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2012, 01:52
crackHSW wrote:
Between D and E , i picked E , can some one explain how to eliminate E??


If the motorcycle rider land on their arm or shoulder when they fall, then there is reduced chance of severe impacts on the temple area and so the no. of injuries is less in temple area in motorcycle accidents.

so, there is no need for the protection of temple area.
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2012, 07:46
I chose B..will anyone explain..y not B?? HOW D IS CORRECT?
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2012, 00:09
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For such questions it is imperative that one understands the reasoning in the argument.
Argument says - Helmets does not provide enough protection for temple region of the head and a study says that most injuries to cyclists are caused by injuries in temple area.

We need to complete the argument - "Therefore, if bicycle helmets protected this area, the risk of serious head injury in bicycle accidents would be greatly reduced, especially since ______________ ."

Now it is important to understand what is required out of us to complete - we need to complete the statement that could justify that if temple area is protected, risk of head injury will greatly reduce and this completion part needs to strengthen this reasoning.

As in (B) says - " even those bicyclists who regularly wear helmets have a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford"

This statement conveying that bikers have a poor understanding of the helmet protection - now to think here is how just having a poor understanding of helmet protection can Strengthen what we require to fill in the blank.

It doesn't.

(D) on the other hand - by stating that temple area has a soft bone, Surely strengthens that helmet protection needs to be better for temple area.

Hope it HELPS.


sanjoo wrote:
I chose B..will anyone explain..y not B?? HOW D IS CORRECT?

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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2014, 06:01
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
I was confused b/w b and d . . it can be b as cyclists are unaware of this and they cannot protect themselves at the riskier part.

d bcz brain injury might be more serious than other injuries but no where mentioned in passage.

both require some leap ahead of whats stated and/or implied . . m still confused on why d and not b


Hello Puneet,
The argument suggests that "serious injuries" to the head will decrease substantially if the temple region is protected by helmets.
To complete the argument we need a corroborative evidence that says "yes, injuries to the temple causes serious head injuries and preventing this will lower serious injury rates"
Option D does just his by showing that injuries to the temple region of the head can be quite serious.
Option B though talks about bicyclists having a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford- this has no bearing to the fact that protecting the temple region will cause reduction in serious injuries.

Therefore Option D is relevant, option B isn't.
Hope that helps,
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2014, 11:06
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

(A) among the bicyclists included in the study's sample of head injuries, only a very small proportion had been wearing a helmet at the time of their accident...right now we are focusing only on temple injuries.... hence incorrect...

(B) even those bicyclists who regularly wear helmets have a poor understanding of the degree and kind of protection that helmets afford...Understanding does'nt matter....INCORRECT....

(C) a helmet that included protection for the temples would have to be somewhat larger and heavier than current helmets....WE ARE'NT worried about size...incorrect

(D) the bone in the temple area is relatively thin and impacts in that area are thus very likely to cause brain injury...correct....completes the sentence perfectly...

(E) bicyclists generally land on their arm or shoulder when they fall to the side, which reduces the likelihood of severe impacts on the side of the head,...irrelevant...
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2018, 04:06
I chose (A) initially and I think this can easily be the answer because :
the study also indirectly shows that even if without helmet, they are unlikely to be injured at the top and back of the head. Therefore, protecting the temple area is more than sufficient to reduce large population of head injuries.

Therefore, if we omit the keyword “serious”, (A) can complete the sentence better than (D).

Is this reasoning correct to eliminate (A)?


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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2018, 23:17
D is the correct answer because;

The premise initially mentions LARGE proportion whereas in the conclusion statement it mentions SERIOUS injuries.

So we need an answer that connects temple area as having the most serious injuries- thereby the conclusion would be correct and statement completed.
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Re: Most bicycle helmets provide good protection for the top and back of &nbs [#permalink] 17 Jul 2018, 23:17
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