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# Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and

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e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2852
Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2017, 14:23
1
PurpleDrank3000 wrote:
“either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating”

Is this parallel? Both “either” and “or” have prep phrases that start with “on”. Or is this not parallel because “vaccination” doesn’t match “exterminating”?

“either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of”

Same question as I put above. Both the X and Y elements here start with the preposition “on”. Is “on” alone enough to make these elements parallel? Do the “vaccinating” and “extermination” portions of the X and Y element matter?

Hello PurpleDrank3000,

You certainly ask a good question here.

However, there are certain considerations here.

Firstly, vaccinating of humans is an incorrect expression. We can say vaccinating humans or vaccination of humans.

Similarly, we can use extermination of mosquitoes or exterminating mosquitoes in the context of this sentence.

So let's work with these expressions.

As long as the sentence uses either X or Y, either on vaccinating humans or on the extermination of mosquitoes AND/OR either on vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes will be parallel because ultimately both either and or are followed by prepositional phrases.

But suppose if this sentence only uses the parallel marker or and not either X or Y, then in that case neither vaccinating humans can be parallel to the extermination of mosquitoes nor vaccination of humans will be parallel to exterminating mosquitoes.

The verb-ing noun forms cannot be parallel to a conventional noun. The reason for the same is that verb-ing nouns denote action while the conventional nouns denote a person, a place, or a thing.

Coming back to the official sentence, we see that the correct answer choice uses perfect parallelism even after the preposition on because a parallel list must be as much parallel as possible. If the two expressions can be written in identical form, then they must be written so.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and  [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2019, 19:05
A. like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating

B. like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of

C. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating

D. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of

E. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating

A,B - "like" to present examples
C,D - parallelism issue on either .. or on...
The correct parallelism would have been ...on either or....
either on... or on....

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Joined: 23 Feb 2015
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2019, 13:32
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right answer quickly! To start, let's take a quick look at the original question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating mosquitoes with pesticides.

A. like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
B. like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
C. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
D. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
E. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences jump out:

1. like vs. as (Idioms)
2. either on vs. on either (Parallelism & Idioms)
3. on exterminating / on the extermination of / on extermination of / exterminating (Parallelism)

Let's start with #1 on our list because it will knock out 2-3 options right away. This is an issue of idioms! In English, it's actually incorrect to introduce examples with the word "like." We use the word "like" in similes to show how to things are alike - not that they are examples of a larger category. To introduce examples, we use "as" or "such as." Here are some examples:

To save money, consider shopping at discount store like thrift shops and consignment stores. --> WRONG
To save money, consider shopping at discount stores, such as thrift shops and consignment stores. --> CORRECT

The air smelled like fresh dew. -->CORRECT
The air smelled as fresh dew. ---> WRONG

So let's see how our options hold up:

A. like malaria and dengue have focused either on the vaccination of humans or on exterminating
B. like malaria and dengue have focused either on vaccinating of humans or on the extermination of
C. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating
D. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of
E. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating

We can eliminate options A & B because they don't use the correct idiom structure to introduce examples. That was a quick way to eliminate 2 options, right?

Now that we've narrowed things down a bit, let's tackle #2 & #3 on our list. They actually have to do with the same grammar concept: parallelism!

We need to make sure that the two items that are being focused on are written using parallel structure:

C. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or on exterminating

have focused on either X or on Y = NOT PARALLEL

D. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating of humans or on extermination of

have focused on either X or on Y = NOT PARALLEL
(This is also incorrect because the two items don't use the same wording: vaccinating & extermination)

E. as malaria and dengue have focused on either vaccinating humans or exterminating

have focused on either X or Y = PARALLEL

There you have it - option E is the correct choice! It's the only one that uses the proper idiom "as" to introduce examples, and it uses parallel structure when listing the two items being focused on.

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.
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Re: Most efforts to combat such mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and   [#permalink] 06 Apr 2019, 13:32

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