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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants

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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.


(A) comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that

(B) comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

(C) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and

(D) come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that

(E) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they


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Originally posted by raghavs on 24 Nov 2010, 21:52.
Last edited by Bunuel on 23 Oct 2018, 00:44, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: Most of the purported health benefits of tea  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2017, 23:15
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So we just filmed a live YouTube webinar on the joys of commas, dashes, colons, and semicolons, and this was one of the questions that we... um, could have covered, but decided not to, because an hour whips by quickly, and we had some better examples. But this particular question has a nice, distracting dash, and much of the webinar emphasized the idea that you don't want to get distracted unnecessarily by punctuation on the GMAT.

And the dash isn't terribly interesting here, anyway. The phrase after the dash is a modifier that tells us more about "antioxidants" -- specifically, everything after the dash is a noun ("compounds") with some modifiers attached to it, and the resulting noun phrase just modifies the noun "antioxidants." It's just that some of the versions of the noun phrase make more sense than others.

And I know that I'm a little bit late to the party (the end of pregnancy is awesome!), but hopefully this will still be useful for a few people!

Quote:
(A) comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that

The most obvious issue here is the subject-verb agreement: the subject "most of the health benefits" is plural, so "comes" is wrong.

The noun phrase after the dash also has a funny flaw. What the heck is the "that" doing there? It seems to modify "vitamin C" only, and that doesn't make any sense: it's the compounds "that inhibit the formation of plaque", not just the vitamin C.

Either way, (A) is gone.

Quote:
(B) comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

Subject-verb agreement is incorrect again, and that's enough reason to get rid of (B).

Plus, there's really no good reason to end the underlined portion by starting a brand-new clause after the "and." The stuff after the dash is all there as a modifier for "antioxidants", and it's awfully weird to suddenly stick a clause at the end of it. We're much better off if the rest of the sentence just continues to modify "compounds", which is a modifier for "antioxidants."

And even if you don't believe a word I said in that last paragraph, the subject-verb thing is a pretty big deal, so we can ditch (B).

Let's line (C) and (D) up next to each other to make it easier to see which one is better:
Quote:
(C) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and
(D) come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that

OK, so the subject-verb agreement is fixed here, so the only thing we need to think about is the modifier that comes after the dash. In (D), we have some nice parallelism: "compounds that are found in beta carotene... and that inhibit the formation of plaque..." Cool, "compounds" is just modified a couple of times.

But in (C), the end of the sentence is structured in a way that makes it seem like "inhibit" and "found" are verbs: "compounds also found in beta carotene... and inhibit the formation of plaque..." That's not cool: we can use the noun phrase beginning with "compounds" as a modifier for the noun "antioxidants" (which is what happens in D), but we can't stick a whole clause in there after the dash as a modifier for "antioxidants" (which is the story in C).

So (C) is out, and we can keep (D).

Quote:
(E) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

(E) has exactly the same issue as the last part of (B): there's really no good reason to end the underlined portion by starting a brand-new clause after the "and." The stuff after the dash is all there as a modifier for "antioxidants", and it's awfully weird to suddenly stick a clause at the end of it. We're much better off if the rest of the sentence just continues to modify "compounds", which is a modifier for "antioxidants."

(And yes, I cut and pasted some of the text in (B). My wife is in the early bits of labor, so I'm striving for efficiency between contractions. They aren't dramatic yet. TMI? OK, cool. I'll stop now.)

So (D) is the best we can do.
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2010, 08:57
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What is wrong with C?

When fully expanded C will read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

The subject of the first part is - most (of the health benefits)- and the verb is – come -. By default, the subject of the second part is -( most ) of the health benefits -and its verb – Inhibit.

You can see the distortion of the meaning that it is the purported health benefits that inhibit plaque rather then the anti-oxidants. This is why C is not the right choice.

In E, the pronoun they may refer to the health benefits since subject rightly takes priority over any other noun that is placed nearer than the subject, per se.
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2017, 05:50
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The 2/3 split here is right at the start of the underlined portion: do we need "comes" or "come"? The subject is "most of the purported health benefits," so we need the plural form "come".
We can eliminate E for using the pronoun "they," which could refer to antioxidants, compounds, or health benefits.

D uses parallel construction correctly:
"compounds that (are also found...) and that (inhibit the formation...)"
C does not use parallel form.
Look at choice C in its entirety:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants--compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body's blood vessels.

"And" must connect like forms. Here, we see "and inhibit," so the "and" must be linking a preceding verb to "inhibit." The only preceding verb is "come." So we get the following: Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from anti-oxidants... and inhibit the formation of plaque. The purported health benefits inhibit the formation of plaque? That doesn't make any sense.

Contrast C with the logic and parallelism of D: compounds that are x and that inhibit y. Now the compounds are inhibiting the formation of plaque. This is logical.

"Found" in C is a participle that functions as an adjective modifying "compounds," whereas "inhibit" is a simple present tense verb of which "compounds" is the subject. (The construction "are found" contains the verb "are" + the participle "found." "And" can't be used to connect two different parts of speech.
(It's worth noting that "found" can also be a simple past tense verb. "Dave found a bug in his cereal." The compounds in the previous example are not the agents of the action in the way that Dave is here.)

D. come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that
E. come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

This is a problem that deals with the structure of the sentence. D is parallel "compounds that modifier and that modifier. E does not have a legit strcuture: "compounds modifier , and they clause
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2010, 08:14
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+1 D

"compounds also found..." is a phrase. I think that you cannot mix it with a clause when you introduce the verb "inhibit". You need something to do it; in this case a relative clause (THAT) is used to introduce the verb "inhibit".
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2010, 09:15
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daagh wrote:
What is wrong with C?

When fully expanded C will read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

The subject of the first part is - most (of the health benefits)- and the verb is – come -. By default, the subject of the second part is -( most ) of the health benefits -and its verb – Inhibit.

You can see the distortion of the meaning that it is the purported health benefits that inhibit plaque rather then the anti-oxidants. This is why C is not the right choice.

In E, the pronoun they may refer to the health benefits since subject rightly takes priority over any other noun that is placed nearer than the subject, per se.


Are you sure? I think that the dash ( - ) separates the main clause from the phrase "compounds also found...". I think that the problem is not subject-verb agreement.
Your thoughts please.
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The dash (-) is a parenthetical sign (akin to a colon ) that describes the antioxidants, .
- compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C,. This is an feature of the sentence and the text will maintain the original meaning, even if the parenthetical contents are removed. All the same, the subject remains - most. -

My intent is to point out the distortion of the meaning that it is the purported health benefits that inhibit plaque rather than the anti-oxidants.

This is why C is not the right choice.

But I never said anything about S-V agreement. Have I been misunderstood?
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Originally posted by daagh on 25 Nov 2010, 09:38.
Last edited by daagh on 02 Apr 2019, 02:03, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2010, 10:47
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daagh wrote:
What is wrong with C?

When fully expanded C will read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

The subject of the first part is - most (of the health benefits)- and the verb is – come -. By default, the subject of the second part is -( most ) of the health benefits -and its verb – Inhibit.

You can see the distortion of the meaning that it is the purported health benefits that inhibit plaque rather then the anti-oxidants. This is why C is not the right choice.

In E, the pronoun they may refer to the health benefits since subject rightly takes priority over any other noun that is placed nearer than the subject, per se.


Hmm…as per your suggestion, substituting "-" for a ":" in C would read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants: compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the bodys blood vessels.

Are you saying that compounds modifies antioxidants, while inhibit modifies Most of the purported health benefits?

I would strongly agree with metallicafan that phrases and clauses cannot be parallel and hence, C is not correct.
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New post 25 Nov 2010, 11:32
@EducationAisle: I never said C is the correct answer. I am also saying C is not the correct answer.
Secondly, inhibit is the verb of the second part of the compound clause and not a modifier.

In addition, IMO. metallicafan discussed only S-V agreement and not modification or parallelism. I also never said clauses and phrases have to be parallel.

Incidentally, what will be the subject of the second clause? Unless the subject of the first clause can also act a the subject of the second clause, we can not afford to drop it. If you mean to say that the subject in the second place is antioxidants or compounds, then it has to be mentioned per se verbatim. Otherwise it is a grammatical error IMO .

Still I want to know, whether I have been misunderstood.
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New post 25 Nov 2010, 22:03
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daagh wrote:
@EducationAisle: I never said C is the correct answer. I am also saying C is not the correct answer.
Secondly, inhibit is the verb of the second part of the compound clause and not a modifier.

In addition, IMO. metallicafan discussed only S-V agreement and not modification or parallelism. I also never said clauses and phrases have to be parallel.

Incidentally, what will be the subject of the second clause? Unless the subject of the first clause can also act a the subject of the second clause, we can not afford to drop it. If you mean to say that the subject in the second place is antioxidants or compounds, then it has to be mentioned per se verbatim. Otherwise it is a grammatical error IMO .

Still I want to know, whether I have been misunderstood.


Hi!! The endeavor here is to figure out ‘why’ C is wrong. C would read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants- compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels

If instead of ‘-‘, we had a comma, then the sentence would read:

Most of the purported health benefits of tea come from antioxidants, compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels

In this case, 'compounds….vitamin C' would be a non-essential modifier and so, 'inhibit the formation…' would describe Most of the purported health benefits (and is hence, logically incorrect).

However, since in the actual sentence, we have ‘-‘ and not comma, we are wondering if 'inhibit the formation…' still describes Most of the purported health benefits.

p.s. Modifiers are not a ‘part of speech’ but an ‘umbrella category’, if you will. Perhaps you would be aware that adjectives, adverbs and all adjective and adverb phrases fall into this ‘category’ of modifiers.
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New post 26 Nov 2010, 09:18
@EducationAisleh: 1.I am saying that C is wrong. Are you saying that C is right?
2. According to your averment, because a comma is absent and only a hyphen is there, the word “inhibit” will be verbing the antioxidants.
3. In other words, IYO, the use of comma would turn the sentence illogical while the use of a hyphen renders it logical. Is my understanding right? Then, if the verb “inhibit” is referring to the antioxidants- compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C ( here found is a participle ) and inhibit ( inhibit is a verb), the paramount question is whether we can we have a participle on one side of the coordinating conjunction and a present tense verb on the other side. This is a grammatical blunder, because a coordinating conjunction such as “and” will conjunct only equal things. If indeed the antioxidants are acting as the subject of inhibit, then the right structure should be: the antioxidants- compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and inhibiting the formation (here both found and inhibiting are participles)

IMO, the plural verb “inhibit” is parallel to the verb “come” in the earlier portion of the sentence and thus renders the whole logic a fallacy.
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New post 26 Nov 2010, 09:47
Not really sure what 'bluder' you are referring to. For example, following is a perfectly valid sentence:

US always participates in Olympics and has often emerged at the top in Olympics.

First clause is Present tense, the second (after 'and') uses Past Participle 'emerged'.
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New post 26 Nov 2010, 10:36
Has often emerged is the present perfect tense using the past participle form of the verb emerge. (How else can one create a perfect tense)?

But please look at the problem in your example. On the one hand, the first part says that the US always participates in the Olympics( meaning that it participated in the past , participates in the present and will also participate in the future- a routine phenomenon) while the second part says that (the US) has often emerged at the top in Olympics. This means that it emerged at the top in Olympics in the past, and has emerged in the present. By using the present perfect, it is not clear whether the US will continue to do so in the future. If you have to include the future into the scheme, then you have to say: The US always participates in Olympics and emerges often at the top in Olympics. If you still think that your example is a perfectly valid one, in spite of using the perfect tense, I am none to stop you.
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New post 26 Nov 2010, 18:27
daagh wrote:
If you have to include the future into the scheme, then you have to say:

The US always participates in Olympics and emerges often at the top in Olympics.



While we have definitely digressed from the original topic, this example definitely does not mean that US will 'continue to win' in future as well.
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New post 26 Nov 2010, 19:32
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EducationAisle: IMO, the use of the present tense emerges does indicate that it will continue to do so in the future. When we say, "The Sun rises in the east", we do not just mean that it rises only as of now but also in the future. When we say Tom goes for jogging every morning, it means that he went in the past, he goes at present and will continue to go in the future.

If you think otherwise, you are welcome. But before that, pl. have a look at the link below

http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/tensesimpresfut.htm
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2013, 08:07
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My two cents. For someone who wishes to find the issue in these options.

Rule 1 :
And is used as a co-ordinating conjunction to join two independent clauses (may be related in ideas)
Construction 1: clause 1 + comma + and + clause 2

Rule 2 :
And is used for connecting two or more items in a series. While connecting two items, we need not use a comma, but while connecting more than two items, we need to use the comma separator.

Construction 2: entity 1 + and + entity 2
Ex: My puppy has too much hair and too many fleas.

Construction 3: entity 1, entity 2, and entity 3
Ex: I love orange, mangoes, and pineapples.
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New post 26 Sep 2014, 11:39
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The 2/3 split here is right at the start of the underlined portion: do we need "comes" or "come"? The subject is "most of the purported health benefits," so we need the plural form "come".

We can eliminate E for using the pronoun "they," which could refer to antioxidants, compounds, or health benefits.

D uses parallel construction correctly:

"compounds that (are also found...) and that (inhibit the formation...)"

C does not use parallel form.
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Re: Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2015, 06:52
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A. comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that
B. comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

A&B out comes should be plural

C. come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and ', and' is incorrect
D. come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that
E. come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they ', and they' is incorrect
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New post 29 Nov 2017, 01:42
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[quote="souvik101990"]

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 167: Sentence Correction


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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

(A) comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that

(B) comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

(C) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and

(D) come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that

(E) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they


ANSWER OPTION D


OPTION A-Subject Verb Agreement Problem----(BEnefits-come) is right and not benefits-comes, which is wrong.
OPTION B-Subject Verb Agreement Problem----(BEnefits-come) is right and not benefits-comes, which is wrong.
OPTION C-Sub-Verb agreement rectified. Parallelism issue-compounds also found and inhibit not matching.
OPTION D-Sub-Verb agreement rectified.PArallelism issue solved-compounds that are also found and compounds that inhibit.(Relative pronoun used correctly )
OPTION E-They is referring to whom???not clear
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QOTD: Most of the purported health benefits of tea  [#permalink]

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souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 167: Sentence Correction


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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

(A) comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that

(B) comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they

(C) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and

(D) come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that

(E) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they


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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that inhibit the formation of plaque along the body’s blood vessels.

(A) comes from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that - SV Error
(B) comes from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they - SV Error
(C) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and - Meaning Error, benifits can not be subject for inhibit
(D) come from antioxidants—compounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that - Correct choice
(E) come from antioxidants—compounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they - Use of pronoun they is incorrect
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QOTD: Most of the purported health benefits of tea   [#permalink] 29 Nov 2017, 09:00

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Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidants

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