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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are

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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Sep 2019, 07:59
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 332, Date : 15-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are necessary for many plants to thrive, but they have escaped widespread investigation until recently for two reasons. First, the symbiotic association is so well-balanced that the roots of host plants show no damage even when densely infected. Second, the fungi cannot as yet be cultivated in the absence of a living root. Despite these difficulties, there has been important new work that suggests that this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly superphosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal benefits are not limited to improved phosphate uptake in host plants. In legumes, mycorrhizal inoculation has increased nitrogen fixation beyond levels achieved by adding phosphate fertilizer alone. Certain symbiotic associations also increase the host plant's resistance to harmful root fungi. Whether this resistance results from exclusion of harmful fungi through competition for sites, from metabolic change involving antibiotic production, or from increased vigor is undetermined.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

1. Which of the following most accurately describes the passage?

(A) A description of a replicable experiment
(B) A summary report of new findings
(C) A recommendation for abandoning a difficult area of research
(D) A refutation of an earlier hypothesis
(E) A confirmation of earlier research


Spoiler: :: OA
E

2. The level of information in the passage above is suited to the needs of all of the following people EXCEPT

(A) a researcher whose job is to identify potentially profitable areas for research and product development
(B) a state official whose position requires her to alert farmers about possible innovations in farming
(C) an official of a research foundation who identifies research projects for potential funding
(D) a biologist attempting to keep up with scientific developments in an area outside of his immediate area of specialization
(E) a botanist conducting experiments to determine the relationship between degree of mycorrhizal infection and expected uptake of phosphate


Spoiler: :: OA
D

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following has been a factor influencing the extent to which research on mycorrhizal fungi has progressed?

(A) Lack of funding for such research
(B) Lack of immediate application of such research
(C) Lack of a method for identifying mycorrhizal fungi
(D) Difficulties surrounding laboratory production of specimens for study
(E) Difficulties ensuing from the high cost and scarcity of superphosphate fertilizers


Spoiler: :: OA
A

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the increased resistance to harmful root fungi that some plants infected with mycorrhizal fungi seem to exhibit?

(A) There are at least three hypotheses that might account for the increase.
(B) An explanation lies in the fact that mycorrhizal fungi increase more rapidly in number than harmful root fungi do.
(C) The plants that show increased resistance also exhibit improved nitrogen fixation.
(D) Such increases may be independent of mycorrhizal infection.
(E) It is unlikely that a satisfactory explanation can be found to account for the increase.


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Originally posted by carcass on 22 Jun 2019, 12:58.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Sep 2019, 07:59, edited 1 time in total.
Updated.
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2019, 23:10
Passage Summary:
1. Mycorrhizal fungi (MF) - is needed for plant but researchers have not been able to do much study on it (untill now)
2. why researchers were not doing much - two reasons are given
3. but now a new study has been able to make some progress.
4. findings of the study are discussed
5. however, due to some inconclusive research, there is scope of further study.

1. Which of the following most accurately describes the passage?

(A) A description of a replicable experiment - replicable word is problematic as it constrained the entire para
(B) A summary report of new findings - yep
(C) A recommendation for abandoning a difficult area of research - no reco has been given
(D) A refutation of an earlier hypothesis - refutation - nope
(E) A confirmation of earlier research - confirmation - nope

2. The level of information in the passage above is suited to the needs of all of the following people EXCEPT

(A) a researcher whose job is to identify potentially profitable areas for research and product development - yes, since the study still has some inconclusive areas.
(B) a state official whose position requires her to alert farmers about possible innovations in farming - yes,
refer line"there has been important new work that suggests that this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly superphosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate. "

(C) an official of a research foundation who identifies research projects for potential funding - yes, since the study still has some inconclusive areas.

(D) a biologist attempting to keep up with scientific developments in an area outside of his immediate area of specialization - yes, because, while inconclusive, there is a new study done for partial correctness.

(E) a botanist conducting experiments to determine the relationship between degree of mycorrhizal infection and expected uptake of phosphate - only mentioned line is "Mycorrhizal benefits are not limited to improved phosphate uptake in host plants". it doesnt show the relationship degree. so correct.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following has been a factor influencing the extent to which research on mycorrhizal fungi has progressed?

(A) Lack of funding for such research
(B) Lack of immediate application of such research
(C) Lack of a method for identifying mycorrhizal fungi
(D) Difficulties surrounding laboratory production of specimens for study - refer the reasons why researchers have not been able to do much untill now, reason number 2. the fungi cannot as yet be cultivated in the absence of a living root.
(E) Difficulties ensuing from the high cost and scarcity of superphosphate fertilizers


4. The passage suggests which of the following about the increased resistance to harmful root fungi that some plants infected with mycorrhizal fungi seem to exhibit?

last line "this resistance results from a. exclusion of harmful fungi through competition for sites, b. from metabolic change involving antibiotic production, or c. from increased vigor is undetermined.

(A) There are at least three hypotheses that might account for the increase. yes, atleast 3.
(B) An explanation lies in the fact that mycorrhizal fungi increase more rapidly in number than harmful root fungi do. - partially true.
(C) The plants that show increased resistance also exhibit improved nitrogen fixation.- nope.
(D) Such increases may be independent of mycorrhizal infection. - may be, - partially true.
(E) It is unlikely that a satisfactory explanation can be found to account for the increase. - not true. as it is still inconclusive.
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 07:59
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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2019, 15:30
In Q4 option A we cannot confirm to at least. The passage only talks of three and there is no indication that there can be more explanations to the phenomenon.

daagh Please guide.
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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2020, 16:48
Can someone explain question 2? (I have read deepshikha12's explanation, but still unclear)
Why E and not D? I chose D because it looks like an irrelevant answer choice. The reason is because the passage does not mention anything about the potential of the research topic for other researchers in other fields
For E, it's totally relevant to the passage. The passage was about mycorrhizal infection and the uptake of phosphate, so botanist can further develop it by researching about the degree of relationship
Thank you
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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are   [#permalink] 26 Jan 2020, 16:48
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