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# Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over

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Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2010, 10:04
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Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about how the human brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Skywalker18 on 18 Sep 2016, 11:27, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the non-underlined part

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2010, 12:07
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Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution

Im no expert but this is what I think

B. The new placement of the prepositional phrase "over the past twenty years" changes the meaning of the sentence. Instead of modifying the verb amassed it now seems to modify adulthood.

C. The way this sentence is constructed suggest a compound predicate, but the first part of the sentence has no working verb. Amassing by itself does not function as the verb of the sentence - its a modifier. If you have mahattans sc they tell you that words connected by AND should be parallel.

D. Like B. D also has a shift in meaning. By getting rid of the word ARE the phrase "now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language." acts more like a modifier. Put this phrase in front and you'll see the change in meaning.

E. E has the same problem as D.

The correct answer A is grammatical - there isnt anything wrong with it.
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Last edited by Detran on 26 Jun 2010, 12:27, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2010, 18:52
Detran, Gurpreet , thanks a ton . +1 kudos to both of you .
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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06 May 2012, 10:48
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sravanth wrote:
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

Use the flip it technique:
Having amassed.... modifies neuroscientists hence flipping it to change the construction: 'Ing(opening modifier), subject + verb,

Having [opening modifier]amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, Neuroscientists [subject] are [verb] now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language. Hence option A is correct.

Try the flip it with other options and you will find that other options use incorrect construction and are hence awkward.
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 05:50
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Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. In this choice, "now drawing" acts as a comma + verb-ing modifier. The focus on the main information here has shifted from " are now developing" in the original sentence to "have amassed". In the original sentence, the action that is primary is "now developing" and "amassing knowledge" comes as an additional information. This choic reverses that order by making the main action additional information and the additional information into the main action. This is a clear shift in the intended meaning.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in Choice D.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 15 May 2014, 06:09, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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15 May 2012, 04:41
Hi e-GMAT,

Option D - Error Analysis

Quote:
the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense

Since this is an ING modifier followed by comma, should it not modify the preceding clause and not the noun?

OG12 says, The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions...does not fit the opening clause, which is in present perfect tense (have amassed a wealth...) ----> What does this exactly mean?

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2012, 05:01
on SC, we normally face least 2 answer choices which are grammatical but have meaning problem and the focus on meaning helps us a lot.

D and E contain typical meaning error on gmat sc- the relation between 2 verbs/actions is distorted . This error appears offten on the all -is -underlinded question, a very hard one. be ready for this kind of error.

the time order of 2 actions verbs/action can be distorted ( as in this cases)

the meaning realation of 2 actions/verbs can be distorted. modifier relation is changed in to dependent relation or vice versa. "do and do" is changed into "do +comma+doing"
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2012, 12:09
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Hi htskumar,

I'll leave the boys at egmat to explain their answer further for you, but see if I can help with your second question

OG12 says, The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions...does not fit the opening clause, which is in present perfect tense (have amassed a wealth...) ----> What does this exactly mean?

This means that 'have amassed a wealth' is an event that happened in the past in an action that is completed(past perfect tense if you will), but the 'now drawing conclusions' is happening now (present tense). In interpreting the meaning of the sentence, this does not make sense.

The correct answer (A) moves from 'having amassed' to 'now drawing' this is more correct, 'having done some thing I now do something else'

Does that help?

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 07:45
in D and E,
comma+drawing
modifies the preceding clause. T

this is grammatical

but

comma+doing modifying preceding clause say about effect of or how the preceding clause happen. This meaning has no sense in here . D and E are wrong
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2013, 00:24
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The construction is having done this... are now. This is more of a meaning based question.
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2013, 06:51
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All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything in the forum.

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2013, 08:04
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From the way it is going on, I think we are going to need more merger specialists like you
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2013, 08:23
daagh wrote:
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From the way it is going on, I think we are going to need more merger specialists like you

Thank you, daagh, for your support.

I personally feel that it is very uncomfortable for anybody to go through some 15 or 20 topics on the same question to get answer to his/her doubt/question. I am trying my best to help the community by streamlining the questions.

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 19:47
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, just like choice D, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I am getting confused with this statement in B and C
"The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment"
Can somebody please explain me clearly what is the clause here and which and we are talking.

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2013, 07:32
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Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are
No verb for Neuroscientists
C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are. No verb for Neuroscientists

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, "drawing " is modifying what "adulthood"

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood , "drawing " is modifying what "adulthood"

Note correct SV pair: Neuroscientists are
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 21:08
regarding D and E

doing phrase here as participle phrase modifies the previous clause/main clause. there must be meaning relation between the two actions , one by doing and one by main verb. they are not independent action.

D and E satify this meaning relation.

the main problem with D and E is "now"

doing take the tense of main clause, "have massed" but "have massed" can not go with "now' . NOT LOGIC.
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2013, 00:50
plumber250 wrote:
Hi htskumar,

I'll leave the boys at egmat to explain their answer further for you, but see if I can help with your second question

OG12 says, The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions...does not fit the opening clause, which is in present perfect tense (have amassed a wealth...) ----> What does this exactly mean?

This means that 'have amassed a wealth' is an event that happened in the past in an action that is completed(past perfect tense if you will), but the 'now drawing conclusions' is happening now (present tense). In interpreting the meaning of the sentence, this does not make sense.

The correct answer (A) moves from 'having amassed' to 'now drawing' this is more correct, 'having done some thing I now do something else'

Does that help?

James

Somehow unclear as to why OG explained the Option D as incorrect

"The final descriptor in present tense, now
drawing conclusions … does not fit the
opening clause, which is in present-perfect
tense (have amassed a wealth …) and seems

What is the issue with this as per meaning.

Over the past 20 years Neuroscientists have amassed.... Blah Blah, Now drawing ........Blah Blah

Time sequence :

In the time of 20 years they have amassed a wealth of knowledge,(Effect of the amassing of knowledge and thereby what they are doing now)Now drawing ........Blah Blah......

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2013, 15:43
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, just like choice D, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.

Is it essential that comma should be followed by clause not fragment (Phrase)
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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2013, 16:28
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain
and its development from birth to adulthood, are
now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth
to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the
brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

Ans: A

Step 1: Meaning- Neuroscientists have gathered a lot of knowledge about brain and its development from birth to adulthood more than 20 years and Neuroscientists are now concluding about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Step 2: C1: Neuroscientists, - Subject
C2: having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - additional information about Neuroscientists
C3: are now drawing solid conclusions about how - Verb for Subject in C1
C4: the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

My question is that can we skip the additional information while doing POE.
in starting i was sure that A should be the correct answer by skipping the additional information, as "now drawing" indicates the verb is/are for present continuous tense. But while checking the options D (and E) i got confused. so Please help me for the same.

Thanks,
Mugdha.

Last edited by Narenn on 08 Sep 2013, 20:19, edited 1 time in total.
Topic Merged in similar topic :- 1) Please post the topic in relevant forum i.e. SC question should be posted in SC Forum and not in General Verbal Forum. 2) Search the forum once before posting a new question. Help us fight with Spam

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Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over [#permalink]

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Hi Mugdha,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Once again, I would say that you have done a good job in analyzing this one. However, the clause split for this one is not accurate. Let's look at the clauses in this sentence:

Cl. 1: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
Cl. 2: how the human brain grows and
Cl. 3: how babies acquire language.

Since we cannot have a clause without an SV pair, the additional information cannot be identified as a clause because it does not have a Subject and a Verb.

I would never advise to skip the additional information completely while doing the PoE. The best way to answer questions where answer choices confuse us is to stay focused on the meaning of the sentence. You have understood the intended meaning of this sentence alright. Now let's compare that meaning with the meaning that we get from choices D and E.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Per this choice, now the focus (main point) of the sentence is that Neuroscientists have amassed a lot of knowledge... However, per the original sentence, the focus of the sentence is that Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions... This choice shifts the focus of the sentence completely. The main point of the sentence in Choice A is now an additional information in this choice. On this basis, we can eliminate this answer choice.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Incorrect for the same reason as explained above.

So keep the intended logical meaning of the sentence as the main guide while doing the PoE.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Kudos [?]: 9037 [1], given: 335

Re: Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over   [#permalink] 06 Sep 2013, 07:01

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