GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 20 Nov 2018, 09:49

LIVE NOW!

How to Quickly Solve GMAT Questions - Chat with ExamPAL. Join HERE!


Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in November
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
28293031123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
2526272829301
Open Detailed Calendar
  • All GMAT Club Tests are Free and open on November 22nd in celebration of Thanksgiving Day!

     November 22, 2018

     November 22, 2018

     10:00 PM PST

     11:00 PM PST

    Mark your calendars - All GMAT Club Tests are free and open November 22nd to celebrate Thanksgiving Day! Access will be available from 0:01 AM to 11:59 PM, Pacific Time (USA)
  • Free lesson on number properties

     November 23, 2018

     November 23, 2018

     10:00 PM PST

     11:00 PM PST

    Practice the one most important Quant section - Integer properties, and rapidly improve your skills.

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 24 Jan 2010
Posts: 90
Location: India
Schools: ISB
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 21 Oct 2018, 23:50
15
56
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  5% (low)

Question Stats:

81% (01:00) correct 19% (01:10) wrong based on 4003 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.


(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the human brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

Attachment:
01.jpg
01.jpg [ 128.38 KiB | Viewed 1355 times ]

Attachment:
02.jpg
02.jpg [ 172.22 KiB | Viewed 1357 times ]

_________________

_________________
If you like my post, consider giving me a kudos. THANKS!


Originally posted by RenukaD on 26 Jun 2010, 09:04.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Oct 2018, 23:50, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
Most Helpful Expert Reply
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 15 May 2014, 05:09
27
13
Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Image

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. In this choice, "now drawing" acts as a comma + verb-ing modifier. The focus on the main information here has shifted from " are now developing" in the original sentence to "have amassed". In the original sentence, the action that is primary is "now developing" and "amassing knowledge" comes as an additional information. This choic reverses that order by making the main action additional information and the additional information into the main action. This is a clear shift in the intended meaning.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in Choice D.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com


Originally posted by egmat on 09 May 2012, 04:50.
Last edited by egmat on 15 May 2014, 05:09, edited 1 time in total.
Most Helpful Community Reply
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 19 Oct 2011
Posts: 104
Location: India
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 May 2012, 09:48
23
5
sravanth wrote:
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,


Use the flip it technique:
Having amassed.... modifies neuroscientists hence flipping it to change the construction: 'Ing(opening modifier), subject + verb,

Having [opening modifier]amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, Neuroscientists [subject] are [verb] now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language. Hence option A is correct.

Try the flip it with other options and you will find that other options use incorrect construction and are hence awkward.
_________________

Encourage me by pressing the KUDOS if you find my post to be helpful.



Help me win "The One Thing You Wish You Knew - GMAT Club Contest"
http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-one-thing-you-wish-you-knew-gmat-club-contest-140358.html#p1130989

General Discussion
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Apr 2010
Posts: 26
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V40
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 26 Jun 2010, 11:27
10
RenukaD wrote:
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution


Im no expert but this is what I think

B. The new placement of the prepositional phrase "over the past twenty years" changes the meaning of the sentence. Instead of modifying the verb amassed it now seems to modify adulthood.

C. The way this sentence is constructed suggest a compound predicate, but the first part of the sentence has no working verb. Amassing by itself does not function as the verb of the sentence - its a modifier. If you have mahattans sc they tell you that words connected by AND should be parallel.

D. Like B. D also has a shift in meaning. By getting rid of the word ARE the phrase "now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language." acts more like a modifier. Put this phrase in front and you'll see the change in meaning.

E. E has the same problem as D.

The correct answer A is grammatical - there isnt anything wrong with it.
_________________

Ps. Kudos are always welcomed ; )


Originally posted by Detran on 26 Jun 2010, 11:07.
Last edited by Detran on 26 Jun 2010, 11:27, edited 1 time in total.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 07 Nov 2012
Posts: 280
Schools: LBS '14 (A)
GMAT 1: 770 Q48 V48
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Dec 2012, 11:09
1
1
Hi htskumar,

I'll leave the boys at egmat to explain their answer further for you, but see if I can help with your second question

OG12 says, The final descriptor in present tense, now drawing conclusions...does not fit the opening clause, which is in present perfect tense (have amassed a wealth...) ----> What does this exactly mean?

This means that 'have amassed a wealth' is an event that happened in the past in an action that is completed(past perfect tense if you will), but the 'now drawing conclusions' is happening now (present tense). In interpreting the meaning of the sentence, this does not make sense.

The correct answer (A) moves from 'having amassed' to 'now drawing' this is more correct, 'having done some thing I now do something else'

Does that help?

James
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 22 Nov 2010
Posts: 228
Location: India
GMAT 1: 670 Q49 V33
WE: Consulting (Telecommunications)
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2013, 06:32
1
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are
No verb for Neuroscientists
C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are. No verb for Neuroscientists

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, "drawing " is modifying what "adulthood"

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood , "drawing " is modifying what "adulthood"



Note correct SV pair: Neuroscientists are
_________________

YOU CAN, IF YOU THINK YOU CAN

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Sep 2013, 06:01
1
Image


Hi Mugdha,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Once again, I would say that you have done a good job in analyzing this one. However, the clause split for this one is not accurate. Let's look at the clauses in this sentence:

Cl. 1: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
Cl. 2: how the human brain grows and
Cl. 3: how babies acquire language.

Since we cannot have a clause without an SV pair, the additional information cannot be identified as a clause because it does not have a Subject and a Verb.

I would never advise to skip the additional information completely while doing the PoE. The best way to answer questions where answer choices confuse us is to stay focused on the meaning of the sentence. You have understood the intended meaning of this sentence alright. Now let's compare that meaning with the meaning that we get from choices D and E.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Per this choice, now the focus (main point) of the sentence is that Neuroscientists have amassed a lot of knowledge... However, per the original sentence, the focus of the sentence is that Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions... This choice shifts the focus of the sentence completely. The main point of the sentence in Choice A is now an additional information in this choice. On this basis, we can eliminate this answer choice.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Incorrect for the same reason as explained above.

So keep the intended logical meaning of the sentence as the main guide while doing the PoE.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Sep 2013
Posts: 8
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Oct 2013, 20:31
1
Hi Meghna,

Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

This sentence has three clause.
clause 1 : Neuroscientists,(subject)
having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,(verb-ing modifier that modifies Neuroscientists)
are (verb) now drawing solid conclusions about
Clause 2 : how the human brain grows and
Clause 3 : how babies acquire language.(clause 2 and 3 are parallel)

there is nothing wrong with the above sentence. but we should reject all the other choices for good reasons.
Choice B) this choice is wrong because a comma +and is used before "are", implying that there is another verb before "are" in the sentence. however, there is no other verb in the sentence.
choice C) it has the same problem as choice B. In addition the placing of the modifier "over the past twenty years" changes the meaning. Now the reader conclude that the development of the brain was over past twenty years
choice D) I do not find any thing wrong with this choice. this choice says that Neuroscientists
have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
In this sentence the verb -ing form modifies entire preceding clause and expresses the result of Neuroscientists action which is having amassed a wealth of knowledge.
Choice E) Same analysis as for choice D.

what is wrong with my analysis for choices D and E?
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Oct 2013, 12:13
Hi there,

Thanks for posting your query here, as suggested. :-)

I'm happy you brought up this question, because it’s a very pertinent doubt and it shows that your thinking is thorough.

The problem with options D and E is in the use of present perfect tense. Note that the original sentence is in the present tense: Neuroscientists... are now drawing solid conclusions. In the original sentence, there is no verb in the present perfect tense. However, options D and E change ‘amassed’ into ‘have amassed’. ‘Have amassed’ is only referring to the period of twenty years, not to what is happening ‘now’. The present tense verb ‘are’ is necessary to make the meaning clear, but it’s missing from these two options. We’re talking about two separate actions here: what scientists have done over the past twenty years (amassed knowledge), and what they are doing now (drawing conclusions).

I hope this helps! :-)

Regards,
Meghna
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 07 Apr 2012
Posts: 100
Location: United States
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Operations
Schools: ISB '15
GMAT 1: 590 Q48 V23
GPA: 3.9
WE: Operations (Manufacturing)
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Nov 2013, 04:20
egmat wrote:
Image


Hi Mugdha,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Once again, I would say that you have done a good job in analyzing this one. However, the clause split for this one is not accurate. Let's look at the clauses in this sentence:

Cl. 1: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
Cl. 2: how the human brain grows and
Cl. 3: how babies acquire language.

Since we cannot have a clause without an SV pair, the additional information cannot be identified as a clause because it does not have a Subject and a Verb.

I would never advise to skip the additional information completely while doing the PoE. The best way to answer questions where answer choices confuse us is to stay focused on the meaning of the sentence. You have understood the intended meaning of this sentence alright. Now let's compare that meaning with the meaning that we get from choices D and E.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Per this choice, now the focus (main point) of the sentence is that Neuroscientists have amassed a lot of knowledge... However, per the original sentence, the focus of the sentence is that Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions... This choice shifts the focus of the sentence completely. The main point of the sentence in Choice A is now an additional information in this choice. On this basis, we can eliminate this answer choice.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Incorrect for the same reason as explained above.

So keep the intended logical meaning of the sentence as the main guide while doing the PoE.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi e-GMAT experts,

In the question here, option A

The ing-modifier is supposed to modify subject-verb pair. So where is the verb here ?
Is "having" a noun modfier and not a ing modifier , Please clarify ?

Regards,
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Nov 2013, 00:03
ygdrasil24 wrote:

Hi e-GMAT experts,

In the question here, option A

The ing-modifier is supposed to modify subject-verb pair. So where is the verb here ?
Is "having" a noun modfier and not a ing modifier , Please clarify ?

Regards,


Hi ygdrasil24,

Note that, when placed adjacent to the subject of the clause, a "comma + verb-ing modifier" can modify either the subject or the entire clause. The modification is based on the context.

In this sentence the verb-ing modifier "having amassed..." is modifying the subject "Neuroscientists".

On a different note, the verb for the subject "neuroscientists" is "are drawing".

This question has already been addressed in detail in the following thread. neuroscientists-having-amassed-a-wealth-of-knowledge-over-96386.html#p1083520

Hope this helps :)

Regards,
Krishna
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 17 Apr 2013
Posts: 486
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 750 Q51 V41
GMAT 3: 790 Q51 V49
GPA: 3.3
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Apr 2014, 07:31
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how the babies acquire language.

Image

Error Analysis:

1) Plural subject “neuroscientists” has the plural verb “are”.
2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

POE:

Choice A: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are : Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

Choice B: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are : Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice C: Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are: Incorrect. 1) The phrase “over the past twenty years” seems to talk about the development of the brain from birth to adulthood that took twenty years to develop. However, it is the neuroscientists who took twenty years to study about the development of the brain. Thus, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence.
2) The clause preceding conjunction “and” does not have a main verb. Thus this choice is a fragment.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. 1) In this choice, just like choice D, the second clause preceded by comma does not have a main verb making it a fragment.
2) Generally, a clause is introduced after the comma. But here, there is neither any subject nor any verb for the clause. Moreover, the clause is a fragment.
3) Also, the modifier “now drawing” seems to modify “adulthood” which makes no sense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha


I am also your Verbal Live student.

in the above mentioned question OA is A. I did it right.

but I reasoned it on this line to eliminate D and E.

let suppose D is right for a Moment in that case Neuroscientists will have two subjects have and are so D and E cannot be correct. Is my line of thought correct?
_________________

Like my post Send me a Kudos :) It is a Good manner.
My Debrief: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-score-750-and-750-i-moved-from-710-to-189016.html

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 May 2014, 02:45
1
honchos wrote:
I am also your Verbal Live student.

in the above mentioned question OA is A. I did it right.

but I reasoned it on this line to eliminate D and E.

let suppose D is right for a Moment in that case Neuroscientists will have two subjects have and are so D and E cannot be correct. Is my line of thought correct?


Hi @honchos,

I'm assuming you meant that the subject 'neuroscientists' would have two verbs. However, 'are' is not present in options D and E, so the verb 'are drawing' becomes the modifier 'drawing' in these options.

Before we get to the problem in options D and E, let’s look at the intended meaning of choice A. Remember we need to first thoroughly understand the original sentence so that we can properly gauge the other answer choices.

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

This sentence indicates the following:
• Over the past 20 years, neuroscientists have collected a lot of knowledge about 2 things - brain and its development
• Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions about 2 things - growth of human brain and acquiring language.
Key things to notice:

Two actions are being discussed:
a. In the past, scientists collected information
b. Now in the present context, scientists are drawing conclusions

Now let’s take a look at choice D:

Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Let’s focus on the sequencing of tenses in this sentence. For this, I will omit “now” for now. We will bring this back after this bit of discussion.

Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Let’s read this sentence now and see what meaning it communicates.
• Over the past 20 years, neuroscientists have collected a lot of knowledge about 2 things.
• The verb-ing modifier can either present result of preceding clause or elaborate on the preceding clause. Let’s see which meaning is logical here:

o Elaborating - They collected a lot of knowledge in the past by drawing solid conclusions about 2 things.
 This seems illogical since one does not collect information by drawing conclusions.

o Result - They collected a lot of knowledge in the past and this led to them drawing solid conclusions.
 This seems rather logical. After they collected knowledge, they were able to draw solid conclusions.

But notice one very important thing. In this sentence, both the actions appear to have taken place in the past. The information was collected in the past and the conclusions were also drawn in the past.

Now bring back your understanding of choice A. Per choice A, collection took place in the past but the conclusions were being drawn in the present.

So this is the first reason for rejecting choice D - the shift in the meaning of the sentence.

Now let’s bring back the word “now”. This word interferes with the logical sequence of actions established in choice D. The logical sequence as we determined was that both actions took place in the past, but the presence of “now” forces the second action to take place in present, thereby creating a conflict.

And lastly, there is a focus shift in choice D.

Note that modifiers typically do not present the main point of the sentence: they only give additional information. In the original sentence, the subject of the main clause is “Neuroscientists” and the verb is “are drawing”. So, the intended focus is to say that neuroscientists are now drawing solid conclusions about something. This focus is now shifted to the collection of information.

So, in conclusion:

It’s very important to understand the meaning of the original sentence so that you can assess answer choices in the appropriate light. Remember, grammar is a tool to help you communicate ideas. But there is no use of learning about grammar rules if you do not pay attention to what it is that you have to communicate using these tools.

I hope this helps! :-)

Regards,
Meghna
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 744
Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Premium Member
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Jun 2014, 22:52
Although it is already explained, I am not clear with it. And I also posted the same query before.

OE for Option (D).

The final descriptor in present tense, now
drawing conclusions ... does not fit the
opening clause, which is in present-perfect
tense {have amassed a wealth ...) and seems
to modify adulthood.

Scientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge, now drawing solid conclusions.......

What is the problem with having Present perfect as main clause and a descriptor in present tense?

Second,

As in GMAT lingo, we know that -ING modifier is used for two things (1). Additional info about preceding clause (2). Result of preceding clause.

Then why OE /OG rejects option (D) saying that final descriptor seems to modify ADULTHOOD

PPS: I have read the above explanation by MEGHNA, but still there is doubt.
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 01 Oct 2014, 01:36
1
TGC wrote:
Although it is already explained, I am not clear with it. And I also posted the same query before.

OE for Option (D).

The final descriptor in present tense, now
drawing conclusions ... does not fit the
opening clause, which is in present-perfect
tense {have amassed a wealth ...) and seems
to modify adulthood.

Scientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge, now drawing solid conclusions.......

What is the problem with having Present perfect as main clause and a descriptor in present tense?

Second,

As in GMAT lingo, we know that -ING modifier is used for two things (1). Additional info about preceding clause (2). Result of preceding clause.

Then why OE /OG rejects option (D) saying that final descriptor seems to modify ADULTHOOD

PPS: I have read the above explanation by MEGHNA, but still there is doubt.



Hi Saurabh,
Thank you for posting your query here. :)


There are two problems with option D, as Meghna explained above:

1. Shift in Focus: In the original sentence the information that neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge is given in the form of a modifier. Also, it seems that the main point that the sentence wants to convey is what scientists are doing now after they have already amassed a wealth of knowledge. Now, option D shifts the focus of the sentence to the modifier part. So, this is an error.

2. Also, per the original sentence the neuroscientists have completed the action of amassing the wealth over a duration of 20 years. The verb-ing modifier "drawing" presents the result of this clause that the action of amassing the wealth of knowledge has resulted in drawing some conclusions. As we know, the verb-ing modifier takes the tense of the preceding clause in such cases. So, per this choice the conclusions are being drawn for the last 20 years. However, the presence of the word "now" interferes with the logical sequence of the actions because it indicates that the action of drawing conclusions is taking place in the present. So, there is a conflict in the meaning.


Now, the explanation provided by the OG in this case states something else. Here, the verb-ing modifier "drawing" modifies the preceding clause, not the preceding noun "adulthood".



Hope this helps! :)
Regards,
Deepak
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
S
Joined: 08 Dec 2015
Posts: 294
GMAT 1: 600 Q44 V27
Reviews Badge
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Apr 2016, 03:16
egmat,

A question, in the course you say that , -ing mod modifies the preceding CLAUSE. However "Neuroscientists" is not a clause, its a Subject\noun, so is the ,-ing construction correct?.. I eliminated A because of it. I thought that construction without comma would be the correct one since if there is no comma, then -ing modifies the preceding noun.

Thank you!
Retired Moderator
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2990
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Apr 2016, 00:45
iliavko wrote:
egmat,

A question, in the course you say that , -ing mod modifies the preceding CLAUSE. However "Neuroscientists" is not a clause, its a Subject\noun, so is the ,-ing construction correct?.. I eliminated A because of it. I thought that construction without comma would be the correct one since if there is no comma, then -ing modifies the preceding noun.

Thank you!


Present participle modifiers (-ing modifiers) can work the same way any other modifier does: modifying the noun touching the modifier. In addition, these modifiers may also be used to modify either the preceding clause or the subject of the preceding clause.
VP
VP
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 1022
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Apr 2016, 02:04
iliavko wrote:
A question, in the course you say that , -ing mod modifies the preceding CLAUSE. However "Neuroscientists" is not a clause, its a Subject\noun, so is the ,-ing construction correct?

Well, since this is an official question, it is obviously correct.

Quote:
I thought that construction without comma would be the correct one since if there is no comma, then -ing modifies the preceding noun.

Yes, but that is only true if there is a clause before the present participial phrase.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
S
Joined: 08 Dec 2015
Posts: 294
GMAT 1: 600 Q44 V27
Reviews Badge
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Apr 2016, 02:51
Thank you for the replies.

Does it mean that the comma after Neuroscientists is optional?
VP
VP
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 1022
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Apr 2016, 03:40
iliavko wrote:
Thank you for the replies.

Does it mean that the comma after Neuroscientists is optional?

Oh no; without a comma, the having + past-participle structure is always incorrect on GMAT.

You might want to remember this. Let me know and I can dig out an official example in this regard.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

GMAT Club Bot
Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past &nbs [#permalink] 26 Apr 2016, 03:40

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 25 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.