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OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had ....

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For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades—blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern—but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade—including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker—that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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Over 2 centuries - No one has been able to make DB(damascus blade)
Contemp swrd mkr has rediscovered how to make
Iron + TI(trace impurities) --> Produce a blade similar to a true DB.

We have to strengthen the argument.

Prethink: There was some requirement for adding the trace impurities to make it appear original.

D aligns with the prethinking.

Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted - The iron which was exquisitely used in the DB got exhausted. So in order to replicate the properties of the iron used in DB, some impurities are added now to the currently available iron. This strengthens the argument.

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alphaseeker wrote:
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades - blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern - but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.



Premises:
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make D blades - blades with a specific surface pattern.
A sword maker may just have rediscovered how to make D blades now.
He used iron with trace impurities (that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic D blades) and an intricate process.

Hypothesis: Trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades

We want to strengthen it. We need to show that D Blades are always made with iron with impurities. You cannot make a D Blade without the trace impurities.

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
This says that every D blade is unique. It doesn't say that trace impurities are essential.

B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
The iron source used today was unknown to D Blade makers. This information is apparent from the argument too. The contemporary sword maker had to add trace impurities to make the iron same as that used in making D blades. It doesn't tell us that the impurities are essential and that the sword maker could not have made the D-Blade without adding the impurities.

C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.

The contemporary sword maker used updated tools. No reference to what kind of iron was used.

D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.

This tells you that when the original source of iron was exhausted, production of D-blades stopped. This means that the sword makers could not make D-Blades with some other source of iron. So then, the iron from the original source was special and was required to make the D-blades. This gives more credibility to the theory that the trace impurities found in that iron were essential to making D-blades. Hence this option is correct.

E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.

Comparison of D blade edge with edges of modern blades is out of scope.

Answer (D)
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Conclusion : Trace impurities are essential to Damascus blades.

if Damascus blades, then Trace impurities.

if no trace impurities , then no Damascus blades.

D just states this contrapositive.

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Here we need to support the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades

This is cause and effect pattern problem. Here

Cause: Impurities in iron
Effect: Damascus blade.

So to strengthen it we can say that

1. no cause ---> no effect
2. whenever cause ---> effect
3. effect did not cause the cause.

D fits the first pattern i.e. no impurities in iron ---> no damascus blade
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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still unclear with the explanations for B and D. Can any other expert answer this question?

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 10:08
One of the toughest question i have seen from OG
So lets get on with it
The correct answer is D
If the production of the blades stopped because the original source of iron was exhausted , then not other source of iron was utilized to produce the Damascus blades . Hence it is absolutely necessary for impurities to be there in iron.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 14:29
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades - blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern - but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
out of scope.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
weakens the argument
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
tools are out of scope.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
special ore with special impurity once exhausted casued the end of the manufacturing of the sword.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.The sharpness is out of scope because the manufacturing process is talked about and not the qualities

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 00:05
this question belongs to a reading comprehensive.
the stem helps to eliminate A,C,E
Only D can be the strengthener.

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 01:02
I am still NOT convinced why option D is the correct answer. Can someone explain this option in more detail? Also, option B as well, as I picked B as the answer. (Reason for picking B : as I eliminated all the other options)

For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades - blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern - but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.

My Understanding :
Option D : Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted
This option is talking about sword makers' original source of iron, which was used for making the D-blades. But we are not concerned with the source of iron, we have to support that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades. Just by knowing the source, we cannot predict that the impurities are essential?? That's why I rejected this option.

The question that comes after reading option D is that Damascus blades could not be produced from iron that was from some other sources. Otherwise the production could have continued. So, there is something different in the iron that is obtained from the original source as compared to the iron from the other available sources. What could be that difference?? :?: :?: :?: :? :?

After further thinking :idea: :idea: , that difference can be something other than impurities as well. Then, how does option D strengthens?? :?: :?: :?: :?: :?:

Option B : The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
Even this option is talking about the source of iron. :shock: But the source of iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades. This source of iron was unknown when sword makers of the past made Damascus blades. So, if this source of iron was known at that time, then Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past might not be ceased abruptly. As using this source of iron the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades; This supports the conclusion. The trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades : these impurities are present in this source of iron, that's why cont. sword maker was able to make the D-blades.

Can someone review my explanation? mikemcgarry chetan2u chiranjeev VeritasPrepKarishma
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I am still NOT convinced why option D is the correct answer. Can someone explain this option in more detail? Also, option B as well, as I picked B as the answer. (Reason for picking B : as I eliminated all the other options)

For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades - blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern - but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.

My Understanding :
Option D : Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted
This option is talking about sword makers' original source of iron, which was used for making the D-blades. But we are not concerned with the source of iron, we have to support that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades. Just by knowing the source, we cannot predict that the impurities are essential?? That's why I rejected this option.

The question that comes after reading option D is that Damascus blades could not be produced from iron that was from some other sources. Otherwise the production could have continued. So, there is something different in the iron that is obtained from the original source as compared to the iron from the other available sources. What could be that difference?? :?: :?: :?: :? :?

After further thinking :idea: :idea: , that difference can be something other than impurities as well. Then, how does option D strengthens?? :?: :?: :?: :?: :?:

Option B : The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
Even this option is talking about the source of iron. :shock: But the source of iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades. This source of iron was unknown when sword makers of the past made Damascus blades. So, if this source of iron was known at that time, then Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past might not be ceased abruptly. As using this source of iron the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades; This supports the conclusion. The trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades : these impurities are present in this source of iron, that's why cont. sword maker was able to make the D-blades.

Can someone review my explanation? mikemcgarry chetan2u chiranjeev VeritasPrepKarishma


While evaluating option (B), you are assuming that option (D) is given in the argument.

Premises:
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make D blades - blades with a specific surface pattern.
A sword maker may just have rediscovered how to make D blades now.
He used iron with trace impurities (that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic D blades) and an intricate process.

Hypothesis: Trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades

You have only this.

B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
Whether two centuries ago this source was known or unknown is immaterial. Note that if you really think about it, this is clearly out of scope. Even if this source was known, it may not have been used. Hence, KNOWING this source has no bearing on our argument. Even if it was used, note that the contemporary sword maker used "iron with trace impurities". We don't know whether the source already had trace impurities or the sword maker added impurities to the iron to match those found in a D-Blade.
Hence this option is not correct.

(D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.

This tells you that when one particular source of iron exhausted, no more D blades were produced. So iron from other sources could not be used. Probably because the iron from only that particular source had trace impurities in it which helped make the D-Blade. Note that two centuries ago, perhaps the refining process was not that perfect. Hence, trace impurities could have been a part of iron in that source.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 05:30
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
vnigam21 wrote:
I am still NOT convinced why option D is the correct answer. Can someone explain this option in more detail? Also, option B as well, as I picked B as the answer. (Reason for picking B : as I eliminated all the other options)

For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades - blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern - but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade-including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker-that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.

My Understanding :
Option D : Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted
This option is talking about sword makers' original source of iron, which was used for making the D-blades. But we are not concerned with the source of iron, we have to support that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades. Just by knowing the source, we cannot predict that the impurities are essential?? That's why I rejected this option.

The question that comes after reading option D is that Damascus blades could not be produced from iron that was from some other sources. Otherwise the production could have continued. So, there is something different in the iron that is obtained from the original source as compared to the iron from the other available sources. What could be that difference?? :?: :?: :?: :? :?

After further thinking :idea: :idea: , that difference can be something other than impurities as well. Then, how does option D strengthens?? :?: :?: :?: :?: :?:

Option B : The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
Even this option is talking about the source of iron. :shock: But the source of iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades. This source of iron was unknown when sword makers of the past made Damascus blades. So, if this source of iron was known at that time, then Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past might not be ceased abruptly. As using this source of iron the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades; This supports the conclusion. The trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades : these impurities are present in this source of iron, that's why cont. sword maker was able to make the D-blades.

Can someone review my explanation? mikemcgarry chetan2u chiranjeev VeritasPrepKarishma


While evaluating option (B), you are assuming that option (D) is given in the argument.

Premises:
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make D blades - blades with a specific surface pattern.
A sword maker may just have rediscovered how to make D blades now.
He used iron with trace impurities (that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic D blades) and an intricate process.

Hypothesis: Trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades

You have only this.

B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
Whether two centuries ago this source was known or unknown is immaterial. Note that if you really think about it, this is clearly out of scope. Even if this source was known, it may not have been used. Hence, KNOWING this source has no bearing on our argument. Even if it was used, note that the contemporary sword maker used "iron with trace impurities". We don't know whether the source already had trace impurities or the sword maker added impurities to the iron to match those found in a D-Blade.
Hence this option is not correct.

(D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.

This tells you that when one particular source of iron exhausted, no more D blades were produced. So iron from other sources could not be used. Probably because the iron from only that particular source had trace impurities in it which helped make the D-Blade. Note that two centuries ago, perhaps the refining process was not that perfect. Hence, trace impurities could have been a part of iron in that source.


Nice Explanation! Thanks VeritasPrepKarishma ! :)
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 06:01
Solution: A sword maker may have recently rediscovered how to make Damascus blades using iron with trace impurities matching those in the iron from which historic Damascus blades were wrought.

Reasoning: What evidence would suggest that the trace impurities are essential for producing Damascus blades?

D is correct - The statement suggests that when the historic sword makers lost access to the special iron with its trace impurities, they could no longer make Damascus blades. Thus, it supports the hypothesis that the trace impurities are necessary for manufacturing Damascus blades.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2017, 22:11
For over two centuries, no one had been able to make Damascus blades—blades with a distinctive serpentine surface pattern—but a contemporary sword maker may just have rediscovered how. Using iron with trace impurities that precisely matched those present in the iron used in historic Damascus blades, this contemporary sword maker seems to have finally hit on an intricate process by which he can produce a blade indistinguishable from a true Damascus blade.

Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that trace impurities in the iron are essential for the production of Damascus blades?

A) There are surface features of every Damascus blade—including the blades produced by the contemporary sword maker—that are unique to that blade.
B) The iron with which the contemporary sword maker made Damascus blades came from a source of iron that was unknown two centuries ago.
C) Almost all the tools used by the contemporary sword maker were updated versions of tools that were used by sword makers over two centuries ago.
D) Production of Damascus blades by sword makers of the past ceased abruptly after those sword makers' original source of iron became exhausted.
E) Although Damascus blades were renowned for maintaining a sharp edge, the blade made by the contemporary sword maker suggests that they may have maintained their edge less well than blades made using what is now the standard process for making blades.

answer
A. There could be many factors including material or process to make so ruled out
B. Could be an answer keeping it at hand till we find a better solution.
C. Out of context.
D. comparing with option B D seems to be a better option as it suggests that there might be something odd with the steel found at that time because after resources for making it diminished the blade could not be made , hence we get that there might be something with the material.
E. Same reason as A , the reason for new blades in maintaining sharpness could be anything material , process and any other thing you could think of.

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had .... [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2017, 07:35
AnubhavK wrote:
Solution: A sword maker may have recently rediscovered how to make Damascus blades using iron with trace impurities matching those in the iron from which historic Damascus blades were wrought.

Reasoning: What evidence would suggest that the trace impurities are essential for producing Damascus blades?

D is correct - The statement suggests that when the historic sword makers lost access to the special iron with its trace impurities, they could no longer make Damascus blades. Thus, it supports the hypothesis that the trace impurities are necessary for manufacturing Damascus blades.



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Kudos [?]: 70 [0], given: 66

Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - For over two centuries, no one had ....   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2017, 07:35
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