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On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 15:08
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Hi all, here is my analysis.

On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Reverse Construction:

_On the table there is one pen. This sentence is equivalent to:

_One pen is on the table.

Subject = one pen

Verb = is

Note that: The prepositional phrase = "on the table" CANNOT be the SUBJECT of the sentence.

The reverse construction is applied to A, B, C, & E.

_Prepositional phrase = [Among........] CANNOT be the Subject

_Subject = the rate

_Verb = is

Hence, A & B are out since Subject & Verb do not agree.

We are down to C, D, & E.

_D is a FRAGMENT because D has NO MAIN VERB.

Now, between C & E, which of of them is correct?

Lets observe the portion that is NOT underlined:

_[as seen in the rings.....]= a MODIFIER

_What does it modify?

_It modifies THE RATE.

_In (E) THE RATE is close to its MODIFIER = [as seen......], while in (C) those two are FAR AWAY from each other --> E is better than C, and thus E is the correct choice.

In addition, "On Earth" is moved around in C & E. Once gain, the same question: What does " On Earth" modify?

_It modifies "Indications".

_As seen in E, "On Earth" is right next to "Indications", whereas in C those two are FAR AWAY from each other. Once again, E is better than C.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 20:19
Is this really a Gmat Prep question?

I am still not convinced about why C is not the answer.

Close call between C and E.

What exactly does "as seen in the rings" modify?- Sunspot cycles or rate at which trees grow?

In E isn't it modifying the "rate" at which trees grow, which is nonsensical IMO. Ugh I'm indeed confused !
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 14:19
Contenders C and E

C) On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

Issue 1: Meaning

Essentially, in the first part of the sentence, On earth, <A> is believed to be <B>....,
which illogically implies that
On earth A is believed to be B, but somewhere else it could be C
the true meaning intended is: Surest indication of <something> on earth is believed to be <something>....

Issue 2: Modifier touch rule

"...sunspot cycles, as seen..."
Sunspot cycles, cannot be seen in trees.

For both of these issues, C is OUT

(E) Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

It is implying the true meaning
Among the surest indications on Earth of <something> is believed to be <something>
Modifier - as seen - is touching the correct noun - the rate at which trees grow

E is Correct




johnycute wrote:
[u]On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

(A) On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
(B) On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
(C) On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
(D) Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
(E) Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 04:23
T700ISB wrote:
Is this really a Gmat Prep question?

I am still not convinced about why C is not the answer.

Close call between C and E.

What exactly does "as seen in the rings" modify?- Sunspot cycles or rate at which trees grow?

In E isn't it modifying the "rate" at which trees grow, which is nonsensical IMO. Ugh I'm indeed confused !


Your query 1:
The following post explains why C is incorrect:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/on-earth-amo ... l#p1808827

Your query 2:
The part "as seen in the rings" modifies neither "sunspot cycles" nor "rate at which trees grow" - it is a prepositional phrase referring to the entire previous clause (recollect the use of comma + present participle - comma +prepositional phrases can also be used in the same way, i.e., to refer to an entire previous clause.)
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 11:48
daagh wrote:
The important thing here is to note what the pronoun ‘their’ in the un-underlined part points to. Unfortunately, in C it refers to the sunspot cycles by virtue of proximity, while it should refer to the trees, which is what E does and thus outdoes C.


daagh sir,

I am finding it a bit difficult to accept the reasoning that you provided. How could "their" in the expression "their trunks" refer to sunspot cycles even though it is in proximity of the pronoun "their". That would convey a nonsensical meaning as sunspot cycles donot have trunks. The pronoun "their" has to refer to trees.

Thanks
Prateek
GMAT Club Bot
Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed &nbs [#permalink] 01 Sep 2018, 11:48

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