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# On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2010, 09:28
very nice question, so much to learn here, and Ron's explanation by MGMAT is superb.

some things i learned.

rate at - idiom
believe to be - passive
believe that - active
if a sentence starts with a prepositional phrase, make sure you find the subject and verb and see if there is inversion.

C is out because, if you look at the whole sentence
On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

Sunspot cycles are not seen in the rings visible in trunks of the trees, it makes no sense. Let me know if there is still confusion.

E is correct

Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

from the previous exp we know the subject verb are reversed here.
Subject - rate
Verb - is
Prepositional phrase - Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles
the rate at is correct here
trees are where the rings are visible correctly modified.

I'm new to this Kudo's thing, haven't gotten one yet, but apparently it's a good thing. anyways thanks for the explanations guys... great question.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2010, 11:19
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Hey All,

Ron's explanation of this on the MGMAT forums is superb, but it appears a lot of people aren't going there. So I'll just do a quick rewrite of it here, so people can get the nuggets of his wisdom.

On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
PROBLEMS: Putting "On Earth" at the beginning implies that people on other planets believe different things. Also the verb "are" is the verb that goes with the subject "rate" (we know the subject can't be "indications" Or "sunspot cycles", because both of those nouns are inside prepositional phrases (beginning with "among" and "of" respectively), which doesn't match up. Finally, you can't say "the rate that trees grow", because the trees aren't growing anything. You have to say "the rate at which trees grow", because the correct form is "trees grow AT a rate of...".

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
PROBLEM: "On Earth" problem again. "are" problem again. Adding "it is believed" as a modifying phrase set off my commas is ugly, if not totally incorrect.

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
PROBLEM: "On Earth" problem again. Also "as seen in the rings..." is a prepositional modifier, which always have to touch the nouns they modify. This is not supposed to modify "sunspot cycles", but "the rate (at which trees grow)".

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
PROBLEM: Here the modifying phrase "believed to be the tree growth rate" seems to be modifying "sunspot cycles". That doesn't make sense. In reality, we don't have any main verb here. We would need to say "is believed" to make this a complete sentence.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow
CORRECT: "On Earth" is in a good place (modifying "indications", instead of the whole clause). "Is" is correct. "At which" is correct. And the final clause is modifying "the rate (at which trees grow)". Yay!

Hope that helps! (Thanks to Ron!)

-t
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2010, 19:03
Great explanation. I was thinking it was C until I saw the explanation.

Wonder if we will have the time to go through questions like these in detail during the exam.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2010, 21:59
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow[/u], as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles correct
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate misplaced modifiers
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow Wrong word placement
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2010, 13:32
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Hey Rlev,

Check the explanation. C is not correct here. : )

-t
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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21 May 2010, 22:17
It's the growth rate which is seen in the ring, not the cycles. E should be the answer!
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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22 May 2010, 15:05
E cannot be correct because if we look at the option (E).......

Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Dont we have a subject-verb problem there....

'indications' is plural and 'is' is singular......

the reason I thought E is wrong is because of the subject-verb agreement error......Can someone shed some light no this......

On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2010, 11:15
In C, "their" refer to sunspot cycles, which is incorrect, since it should refer to trees, as is clearly referred in E.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2010, 10:09
noboru wrote:
In C, "their" refer to sunspot cycles, which is incorrect, since it should refer to trees, as is clearly referred in E.

does anybody have to say something regarding this?
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2010, 13:47
C for me.

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen...

as seen is correctly referring to 'the rate'. Hence C. Thanks.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2011, 23:02
I think it should be C as well, I have several reasons to support my view

(1) The OA is C
(2) On E, "is believed to be " should be " are believed to be"
(3) Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is awkard.

sasen wrote:
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
1) On earth,among.... sentence starts with a conjunction which is suspect.Still should be immediately followed by a preposition such as "there" "it"
2)rate that trees grow is correct,rate at which is correct

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
1)same as above
2)are,it is believed,the rate.....is should be used
3)the rate of tree growth,as seen in...is incorrect structure

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
correct
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
1)"of sunspot cycles" should immediately follow indications,in turn followed by "on earth" as "one of the surest indictaion of sun spot cuycles on earth"
2)"belived to be " should not be prefixed by comma but by a verb "is"
3)Agin the structure of the sentence in the last part goes bizarre
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

1) indications should be followed immediately by "of sunspot cycles" rather than "on earth"
2) X is believed to be Y is a correct strructre.
what is X,Y here? X is "Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles" and Y is "the rate at which trees grow" doesnt make sense,should be other way around
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2011, 04:15
nice question
but i got it wrong. good explanation guys.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2011, 05:23
The important thing here is to note what the pronoun ‘their’ in the un-underlined part points to. Unfortunately, in C it refers to the sunspot cycles by virtue of proximity, while it should refer to the trees, which is what E does and thus outdoes C.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2011, 20:01
sondenso already pointed out the subject/verb agreement issue with A and B, but I wanted to point out the (hilarious) implications of the placement of the phrase "on earth." In A, B, and C the meaning is slightly different from what we want-- these choices imply that "here on earth" we believe something (...as opposed to the Martians who believe something else?). Often if you see an entire phrase lifted and placed somewhere different in the other answer choices, it's a red flag to check for modifier issues.

The intended meaning is that "out of all of the indications on Earth, this particular indication is the surest." Both D and E correctly place the phrase "on Earth" after "indications," where it belongs.

As several others pointed out above, the non-underlined pronoun "their" means that we must have the plural antecedent "trees." Additionally, D is missing a verb! The past participle "believed," while it looks exactly like the simple past tense "believed" CANNOT function as a verb in this situation. We use the idiom "believed to be" in the following situation:

She is believed to be the best runner in the class.
(OTHER PEOPLE--who are unspecified in this sentence-- believe that SHE is the best runner)

...or...
Stella, believed to be the best runner in her class, won the competition.
(Here "believed" functions as it does in choice D--as a modifier describing Stella)

If we use "believed" as a simple past-tense verb, the function of that verb and the required structure changes:

She believed Carl.
(SHE is the one doing the believing, and CARL is the one being believed)

Choice E (while to my ear horribly wordy) correctly matches the subject/verb, uses the correct pronoun antecedent, and places modifiers correctly. This is another great case for "get rid of the wrong ones" instead of "find the one that sounds good."
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2011, 22:13
Since we are talking about 'one in many', the verb should be singular - 'among many things...one is...'. Also 'rate at' is correct idiom!
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 03:25
Inverted statement – Subject is rate. Verb needs to be singular.
A – rate that trees grow. Wrong usage. Rate is singular. S-V error because of are. Eliminate
B – Rate of tree growth is correct. In the Sentence after comma “their trunks” clearly refers to the trees. But we don’t have tree as a subject in the sentence before comma. is singular. S-V error because of are. Eliminate
C – No S-V error. Clear reference to trees. Keep
D – Fragment. Sentence lacks verb. Eliminate
E –Surest indications needs to be as close as possible to sunspot cycles. Eliminate
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2013, 05:36
Can someone provide a detailed analysis on this question? I picked C in the end over E...

Not sure what the OA is
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2013, 06:23
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone provide a detailed analysis on this question? I picked C in the end over E...

Not sure what the OA is

On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

On Earth, among the surest indications (...)
Among the surest indications on Earth (...)

The two sentences seem to say the same thing, but actually there is a difference.
"On Earth," refers to the whole thing after, not only to the indicator, as it should.

So "among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be (...)" <== all this is modified by "On Earth", so it seems that on another planet this indicators are not believed to be accurate.
On the other hand "Among the surest indications on Earth (...)" says that on Earth we have some indications, and among those tree growth is accurate.

Hope I've explained myself well!
The OA is E.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2013, 08:31
(A) and (B) are out as "is" should be used instead of "are".
D is bizarre.
The problem in (C) is that second part of the sentence (after comma) seems to modify the sun whereas it should modify the trees which is best done in (E).
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2013, 10:56
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

I was confuse with the answer E! I could not be!

But the OA is C which is the answer I have chosen.

E and D and A and B easily eliminate.

But watch out, 1000 Brutal SC is NOT RELIABLE!

If you want to have good SC look at the SC posted by administrators of this website!

Hope it helps!
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed   [#permalink] 01 Nov 2013, 10:56

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