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One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v

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One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Feb 2019, 07:21
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 48, Date : 24-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic variation in the signal, and even in very difficult listening conditions, is that the speech situation contains a great deal of redundancy—more information than is strictly necessary to decode the message. There is, firstly, our general ability to make predictions about the nature of speech, based on our previous linguistic experience—our knowledge of the speakers, subject matter, language, and so on. But in addition, the wide range of frequencies found in every signal presents us with far more information than we need in order to recognize what is being said. As a result, we are able to focus our auditory attention on just the relevant distinguishing features of the signal—features that have come to be known as acoustic cues.

What are these cues, and how can we prove their role in the perception of speech? It is not possible to obtain this information simply by carrying out an acoustic analysis of natural speech: this would tell us what acoustic information is present but not what features of the signal are actually used by listeners in order to identify speech sounds. The best an acoustic description can do is give us a rough idea as to what a cue might be. But to learn about listeners' perception, we need a different approach.
1. The first paragraph of the passage implies which of the following concerning sound and communication?

A. A lack of redundancy in certain signals does not preclude communication.
B. The excess of sound encoded in speech serves as an encumbrance to the exchange of information.
C. Many features of a sound can be lost without necessarily compromising communication between two speakers.
D. The human processing of acoustic sound does not depend on contextual factors.
E. Some languages depend on social cues in order for speakers to be mutually intelligible.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. recommend a particular means of learning about a complex phenomenon
B. point out the shortcomings in a line of research
C. explain a process and discuss why one approach will not yield desirable results
D. prescribe an approach to understand with greater specificity a physiological process
E. warn researchers against relying on a specific methodology


3. The main reason that the author of the passage discounts using a purely acoustic analysis to understand the way in which humans are able to recognize sounds is that
A. the physical properties of speech and the perception of those physical properties are qualitatively different
B. redundancy, or the excess of information, typically ensures that a signal is faithfully transmitted between two speakers
C. no two people process the same cue in exactly the same way
D. the relevant distinguishing features of a sound tend to merge different cues into a generalized sound so as to render any analysis ineffectual
E. humans ignore certain features of the acoustic sound that may figure prominently into the perception of sound



Difficulty Level: 650

Originally posted by aaba on 09 Feb 2018, 11:53.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 24 Feb 2019, 07:21, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 08:14
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All correct in 5 mins 20 seconds , including 2 mins 30 seconds to read
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 21:19
Can anyone please explain why the answer is not C for Q3?
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 23:29
csaluja wrote:
Can anyone please explain why the answer is not C for Q3?


I think this option C is not mentioned in the passage. you have to stick with the information given in the passage.

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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2018, 12:15
skywalker

Could you please explain Q1 and Q3?
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2019, 07:26
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanations of all questions
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2019, 22:04
Hi

Can anyone explain why option C is not correct for Q3.
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 07:26
For question 3 please watch this Magoosh Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znDYWWLk4hc

Hope it helps

zac123 wrote:
Hi

Can anyone explain why option C is not correct for Q3.

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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 06:28
3
Q1-
The passage says-'One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic variation in the signal, and even in very difficult listening conditions, is that the speech situation contains a great deal of redundancy—more information than is strictly necessary to decode the message. '
Out of all options, only C makes sense.

Q2-
The author is not warning, prescribing or pointing out any shortcomings. He is only explaining how we are able to understand speech even if the listening conditions are difficult. Thus the answer is C.

Q3-
The second para read in its entirety points to A as being the only logical choice, especially the last 3 lines-'The best an acoustic description can do is give us a rough idea as to what a cue might be. But to learn about listeners' perception, we need a different approach.'
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Re: One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 01:40
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 5 mins 20 seconds , including 2 mins 30 seconds to read

took 4 minutes to read the passage and to formulate paragraph summaries and main point formulation along with 5 minutes for answering the answer choice all correct.
Do you have any suggestion on how to improve time?
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One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 02:04
1
Hi,

According to me

P1: why speech is comprehensible to us and two factors that influence our understanding of it
P2: acoustic clues and their extent
MP: Discuss about factors that influence our understanding of the speech

1. The first paragraph of the passage implies which of the following concerning sound and communication?

For this question refer to paragraph 1 and focus on the redundancy and our ability to make predictions

A. A lack of redundancy in certain signals does not preclude communication. -nowhere is mentioned a lack of redundancy
B. The excess of sound encoded in speech serves as an encumbrance to the exchange of information. - there is no excess of sound but probably an excess of information(redundancy)
C. Many features of a sound can be lost without necessarily compromising communication between two speakers. - refer to this part "the wide range of frequencies found in every signal presents us with far more information than we need in order to recognize what is being said." this clearly states that there is a great part of the sound which is unnecessary. this is the correct choice in line with prethinking
D. The human processing of acoustic sound does not depend on contextual factors. -opposite. in P1 it's mentioned that context helps actually
E. Some languages depend on social cues in order for speakers to be mutually intelligible. -some languages are not discussed and this relation is not mentioned as well since contextual clues help us but are not mandatory for understanding

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

refer to MP formulation

A. recommend a particular means of learning about a complex phenomenon -there is no recommendation with regards to specific means of learning. In the end it is recommended a different approach but we don't know which one
B. point out the shortcomings in a line of research - some shortcomings are pointed out in the very last part of the passage but for sure it is not broad enough to be the main point. Plus nowhere research is mentioned
C. explain a process and discuss why one approach will not yield desirable results - "explain a process" refers to P1 and "discuss why one approach will not yield desirable results" refers clearly to P2. correct
D. prescribe an approach to understand with greater specificity a physiological process - no approach is prescribed but it is suggested. plus this choice even if correct it would encompass just the purpose of P2
E. warn researchers against relying on a specific methodology -no warning mentioned and no researchers mentioned

3. The main reason that the author of the passage discounts using a purely acoustic analysis to understand the way in which humans are able to recognize sounds is that

refer to P2 and especially to :"It is not possible to obtain this information simply by carrying out an acoustic analysis of natural speech: this would tell us what acoustic information is present but not what features of the signal are actually used by listeners in order to identify speech sounds."
Here the reasoning is that this approach would give us factual information but no way to interpret and hence to understand what we are hearing

A. the physical properties of speech and the perception of those physical properties are qualitatively different - this answer choice highlights a difference that is in line with our prethinking
B. redundancy, or the excess of information, typically ensures that a signal is faithfully transmitted between two speakers - out of context here
C. no two people process the same cue in exactly the same way -this is not what is meant by the passage and it is nowhere mentioned
D. the relevant distinguishing features of a sound tend to merge different cues into a generalized sound so as to render any analysis ineffectual - this is too extreme since we do not know whether all the analysis would be ineffectual
E. humans ignore certain features of the acoustic sound that may figure prominently into the perception of sound - human understanding of the reasons behind perception of sound is not discussed and it's irrelevant here

Hope this helps,
Any feedback on the reasoning and on paragraph summaries and main point formulation will be much appreciated!
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One reason we are able to recognize speech, despite all the acoustic v   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2019, 02:04
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