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# Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived

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Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2019, 03:29
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 481, Date: 29-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used
harrowing images derived from her Mexican heritage
to express suffering caused by a disabling accident and
a stormy marriage. Suggesting much personal and
(5) emotional content, her works—many of them self
portraits—have been exhaustively psychoanalyzed,
while their political content has been less studied. Yet
Kahlo was an ardent political activist who in her art
sought not only to explore her own roots, but also to
(10) champion Mexico’s struggle for an independent
political and cultural identity.

Kahlo was influenced by Marxism, which appealed
to many intellectuals in the 1920s and 1930s, and by
Mexican nationalism. Interest in Mexico’s culture and
(15) history had revived in the nineteenth century, and by
the early 1900s, Mexican indigenista tendencies ranged
from a violently anti-Spanish idealization of Aztec
Mexico to an emphasis on contemporary Mexican
Indians as the key to authentic Mexican culture.
(20) Mexican nationalism, reacting against contemporary
United States political intervention in labor disputes as
well as against past domination by Spain, identified the
Aztecs as the last independent rulers of an indigenous
political unit. Kahlo’s form of Mexicanidad, a romantic
(25) nationalism that focused upon traditional art uniting all
indigenistas, revered the Aztecs as a powerful pre
Columbian society that had united a large area of the
Middle Americas and that was thought to have been
based on communal labor, the Marxist ideal.

(30) In her paintings, Kahlo repeatedly employed Aztec
symbols, such as skeletons or bleeding hearts, that
were traditionally related to the emanation of life from
death and light from darkness. These images of
destruction coupled with creation speak not only to
(35) Kahlo’s personal battle for life, but also to the Mexican
struggle to emerge as a nation—by implication, to
emerge with the political and cultural strength admired
in the Aztec civilization. Self-Portrait on the Border
between Mexico and the United States (1932), for
(40) example, shows Kahlo wearing a bone necklace,
holding a Mexican flag, and standing between a highly
industrialized United States and an agricultural,
preindustrial Mexico. On the United States side are
mechanistic and modern images such as smokestacks,
(45) light bulbs, and robots. In contrast, the organic and
ancient symbols on the Mexican side—a bloodd
renched Sun, lush vegetation, an Aztec sculpture, a
pre-Columbian temple, and a skull alluding to those
that lined the walls of Aztec temples emphasize the
(50) interrelation of life, death, the earth, and the cosmos.

Kahlo portrayed Aztec images in the folkloric style
of traditional Mexican paintings, thereby heightening
the clash between modern materialism and indigenous
tradition; similarly, she favored planned economic
(55) development, but not at the expense of cultural
identity. Her use of familiar symbols in a readily
accessible style also served her goal of being popularly
understood; in turn, Kahlo is viewed by some
Mexicans as a mythic figure representative of
(60) nationalism itself.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) The doctrines of Marxist ideology and Mexican nationalism heavily influenced Mexican painters of Kahlo’s generation.
(B) Kahlo’s paintings contain numerous references to the Aztecs as an indigenous Mexican people predating European influence.
(C) An important element of Kahlo’s work is conveyed by symbols that reflect her advocacy of indigenous Mexican culture and Mexican political autonomy.
(D) The use of Aztec images and symbols in Kahlo’s art can be traced to the late nineteenth-century revival of interest in Mexican history and culture.
(E) Kahlo used Aztec imagery in her paintings primarily in order to foster contemporary appreciation for the authentic art of traditional Mexican culture.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

2. With which one of the following statements concerning psychoanalytic and political interpretations of Kahlo’s work would the author be most likely to agree?

(A) The psychoanalytic interpretations of Kahlo’s work tend to challenge the political interpretations.
(B) Political and psychoanalytic interpretations are complementary approaches to Kahlo’s work.
(C) Recent political interpretations of Kahlo’ s work are causing psychoanalytic critics to revise their own interpretations.
(D) Unlike the political interpretations, the psychoanalytic interpretations make use of biographical facts of Kahlo’s life.
(E) Kahlo’s mythic status among the audience Kahlo most wanted to reach is based upon the psychoanalytic rather than the political content of her work.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

3. Which one of the following stances toward the United States does the passage mention as characterizing Mexican nationalists in the early twentieth century?

(A) opposition to United States involvement in internal Mexican affairs
(B) desire to decrease emigration of the Mexican labor force to the United States
(C) desire to improve Mexico’s economic competitiveness with the United States
(D) reluctance to imitate the United States model of rapid industrialization
(E) advocacy of a government based upon that of the Marxist Soviet Union rather than that of the United States

Spoiler: :: OA
B

4. In the context of the passage, which one of the following phrases could best be substituted for the word “romantic” (line 24) without substantially changing the author’s meaning?

(A) dreamy and escapist
(B) nostalgic and idealistic
(C) fanciful and imaginative
(D) transcendental and impractical
(E) overwrought and sentimental

Spoiler: :: OA
C

5. The passage mentions each of the following as an Aztec symbol or image found in Kahlo’s paintings EXCEPT a

(A) skeleton
(B) sculpture
(C) serpent
(D) skull
(E) bleeding heart

Spoiler: :: OA
E

6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

(A) contrast of opposing ideas
(B) reconciliation of conflicting concepts
(C) interrelation of complementary themes
(D) explication of a principle’s implications
(E) support for a generalization by means of an example

Spoiler: :: OA
C

7. The passage implies that Kahlo’s attitude toward the economic development of Mexico was

(A) enthusiastic
(B) condemnatory
(C) cautious
(D) noncommittal
(E) uncertain

Spoiler: :: OA
D

8. The main purpose of the passage is to

(A) critique an artist’s style
(B) evaluate opposing theories
(C) reconcile conflicting arguments
(E) reconsider an artist in light of new discoveries

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 22 (June 1997)
• Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2019, 00:06
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2019, 23:01
3
Rishbha wrote:

Explanation

6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

Explanation

Reading for structure and summarizing paragraph topics in our initial reading of the passage makes questions like this easier. In particular, knowing that para 2 is devoted to an extended discussion of Kahlo’s political influences helps place para 3 in context. para 3 begins with “In her paintings,” a clear transition to the topic of how her art internalized her political beliefs. Midway through Para 3 we get the awesome Keyword phrase “for example,” clarifying why the author brings in the 1932 Self-Portrait in the first place: to illustrate the point made in lines 30-38, and especially in the second sentence of the para, which is the “generalization” to which (E) refers. All four wrong answers omit something key—i.e., the use of the 1932 work as an extended example. Each commits errors of commission as well:

(A), (B) The only “contrast” or “conflict” in para 3 is between the U.S. and Mexican images. And those aren’t “ideas” (A) or “concepts” (B), and they aren’t “reconciled” (B).

(C) Only one theme is present in para 3, that of how Kahlo’s art was influenced by politics.

(D) To explicate means to render understandable or intelligible that which is unclear. That’s not the function of the Self-Portrait details (that’s not what an “example” does); and in any case they are not in the service of an abstract “principle,” but rather a hard generalization about the effect of Aztec imagery on Kahlo’s artwork. One has to work hard to make (D) fit, quite the contrary with (E).

Hope it helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2019, 08:15
Explanation for Q4 and Q8 please. Thank You.
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2019, 08:32
Explanation for Q4 and Q8 please. Thank You.

Explanation

4. In the context of the passage, which one of the following phrases could best be substituted for the word “romantic” (line 24) without substantially changing the author’s meaning?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

What’s “romantic” (line 24) is Kahlo’s “nationalism” (line 25), and the context both above and below that phrase marks Mexicanidad as a nationalism that both reveres and makes use of Aztec imagery, linking past Aztec greatness to future Marxist ideals. The sense of looking simultaneously backward to pre-Columbian greatness (“nostalgic”) and ahead to true Marxist communality (“idealistic”) is what makes (B) such a splendid choice.

(A),(C), and (E) all share adjectives more appropriately applied to “romantic” in the sense of romantic music like Clair de lune or romantic novels like the works of Danielle Steel. Whether at their worst, (E)’s “overwrought,” (A)’s “escapist,” or at their best—(C)’s “imaginative,” (A)’s “dreamy”—these three choices lose sight of the passion for Mexico’s Aztec forebears and potential Marxist communal state that characterize Kahlo’s thinking, not just in para 3 but throughout the passage.

(D) As reported by the author, Mexicanidad does tend to convey a sense of “transcending” earthly cares and struggle, but “impractical” is a far cry from a synonym for “idealistic.” We get no sense of Kahlo’s feeling that she and the movement are tilting at windmills. In short, (D)’s adjectives are problematic while (B)’s fit like a glove.

Hope it helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2019, 08:37
Explanation for Q4 and Q8 please. Thank You.

Explanation

8. The main purpose of the passage is to

Difficulty Level: 700

Relatively easy to pre-phrase IF you have noted the author’s suggestion of the political view as a supplement to the already ubiquitous personal interpretation of Kahlo’s art.

(A) Content rather than style is the author’s main interest here—or, rather, the confluence between the two. It’s not so much a “critique” as an examination, anyway.

(B), (C) Two different ways to approach an artist’s work cannot properly be called “theories” or “arguments.” One has to be rigorous with language. As noted above with regard to Q. 6 (B), there is no “reconciliation” going on in this passage.

(E) Nothing new about Kahlo has been discovered, though it is a new slant, which supports (D) rather than (E).

Hope it helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2019, 09:05

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2019, 22:14
Psyllium9 wrote:

Posted from my mobile device

Line 20 onwards of the passage states:

"Mexican nationalism, reacting against contemporary United States political intervention in labor disputes as well as against past domination by Spain...."

Moreover, line 16 of the passage makes it clear that the period under discussion is the early 1900s ie; early 20th century. Therefore, the correct answer option will be (A).

Hope this clarifies.
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13 Dec 2019, 23:45
please give the explanations for 1 & 2
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14 Dec 2019, 03:18
Psyllium9 wrote:

Posted from my mobile device

Explanation

3. Which one of the following stances toward the United States does the passage mention as characterizing Mexican nationalists in the early twentieth century?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

If you were hip to the structure here—if you noted “Political Background” in your head or in the margin of para 2—then re-locating the relevant details shouldn’t have been too difficult, and could’ve helped you to avoid the temptation to move to para 3. Scanning para 2 for the phrase “early 20th century” or “Mexican nationalism” yields lines 12-16, then lines 20-22, which then leads to (A). The labor disputes are one of the “internal Mexican affairs” of which (A) speaks.

(B), (C) A staunch nationalist might plausibly want to keep the nation’s best workers from emigrating to another country (B), or to make the nation competitive with a major neighbor (C), but the passage never cites either. (D) One might conceivably take lines 54-56, combine that idea with the U.S. imagery from Kahlo’s painting in para 3, and come up with (D). But even with all that stretching (of dubious value), (D) would at best be a Kahlo view, not in and of itself one held by Mexican nationalists.

(E) uses some of the passage’s language, but distorts its ideas. (E) takes a brief reference to Kahlo’s having been “influenced by Marxism,” blows that up into a preference for Soviet government, and then ascribes that view to Mexican nationalists in general.

Hope it helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2019, 03:30
1
Bikramjeet wrote:
please give the explanations for 1 & 2

Explanation

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

Difficulty Level: 550

Explanation

The phrase “main point” in the question stem indicates a Global question, and here, no Global answer would be complete without including these elements: Kahlo’s art, its use of Aztec imagery, and the connection between that imagery and Mexican politics. Only (C) conveys all of that.

(A) broadens out the topic too far to Kahlo’s generation. Also, (A)’s doctrines are front and center only in the background Para, Para 2; (A) leaves out all the Aztec symbolism that truly connects Kahlo’s politics to her art.

(B) distorts the role of Aztec culture in Kahlo—not merely as a point of reference, but as a whole style, a way of using ancient symbols to spotlight modern concerns.

(D), like (A), focuses on the background para, Para 2, and even on just a small part of that (lines 14-15).

(E) is wholly culture-based, and explicitly leaves out any political purpose to Kahlo’s art. But if a Global question for this passage leaves out politics, how can it possibly be right?

2. With which one of the following statements concerning psychoanalytic and political interpretations of Kahlo’s work would the author be most likely to agree?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

We’ve said several times that the author wants to add politics to the list of “Aspects Of Kahlo That Need Studying,” not to replace the personal/psychoanalytic dimension that has reigned up to now. So the answer to Q. 2 must suggest that these two facets can coexist. (B) therefore is right on the money. As but one example of the two interpretations’ “complementarity,” note that the author explicitly shows, in lines 33-38, how Aztec imagery is useful to illuminate both Kahlo’s personal concerns and her political agenda.

(A) Opposite. Tempting to those who make a knee-jerk assumption that because the author is pushing a new slant on Kahlo, he must be rejecting the old one. No evidence of that; quite the contrary (see para above).

(C), less blatantly than (A) but in the same vein, improperly implies—and with no support—that exploring Kahlo’s politics somehow knocks out or invalidates the personal view that has been in effect for years.

(D) What’s a “biographical fact”? It’s not entirely clear that biography is wholly out of the scope of Kahlo’s political art, as (D) would have it. In any case, (D) implies some sort of disjunction between the personal and political view of Kahlo, reason enough to dismiss it from consideration.

(E) Yet again, a reference to a bogus disjunction between the two interpretations of Kahlo’s work, rendered even worse by its focus on the mythic, a side issue brought up only in Para 4.

Hope it helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 08:56
for question 4 :
How can OA be B .
romantic can refer to idealistic ( from the Marxist Ideal explicit mentions ) but how it is going to be nostalgic where as in C Imaginative and D Impractical can properly get a notion from the mentioned line 'had united a large area of the
Middle Americas and that was thought to...' -

for question 8 :
Why is it not A / E ( Full passage clearly elucidates Painter Frida Kahlo's thinking and style in the context of author's sense ) but D ?
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 10:26
soumya170293 wrote:
for question 4 :
How can OA be B .
romantic can refer to idealistic ( from the Marxist Ideal explicit mentions ) but how it is going to be nostalgic where as in C Imaginative and D Impractical can properly get a notion from the mentioned line 'had united a large area of the
Middle Americas and that was thought to...' -

for question 8 :
Why is it not A / E ( Full passage clearly elucidates Painter Frida Kahlo's thinking and style in the context of author's sense ) but D ?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/painter-frid ... l#p2423652

https://gmatclub.com/forum/painter-frid ... l#p2423653

Hope they helps
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2020, 10:33
3
1
P1: Frida Kahlo’s work is highly psychoanalysed for biological elements; its political elements have been studied way less.
P2: Kahlo’s art saw Marxist traditional & modern influences. Mexico culture revival evolved in 1900s.
P3: A painting of Kahlo’s shows this traditional & modern influence via symbols.
P4: This contrast is intensified via Kahlo’s portrayal of Aztec images. Kahlo believed in economic development without hurting culture. Often seen as nationalism symbol herself.
MP: Kahlo’s work shows not only biographical but heavy political & cultural influences.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

Pre-Thinking: To express how Frida Kahlo’s art should not be solely psychoanalysed because of its deep ties to advocating for her & Mexico’s identify/cultural/political struggle.

(A) The doctrines of Marxist ideology and Mexican nationalism heavily influenced Mexican painters of Kahlo’s generation. [Too general!]

(B) Kahlo’s paintings contain numerous references to the Aztecs as an indigenous Mexican people predating European influence. [Not the main point!]

(C) An important element of Kahlo’s work is conveyed by symbols that reflect her advocacy of indigenous Mexican culture and Mexican political autonomy. [True]

(D) The use of Aztec images and symbols in Kahlo’s art can be traced to the late nineteenth-century revival of interest in Mexican history and culture.
[Too narrow.]

(E) Kahlo used Aztec imagery in her paintings primarily in order to foster contemporary appreciation for the authentic art of traditional Mexican culture. [Too specific.]

(35) Kahlo’s personal battle for life, but also to the Mexican
struggle to emerge as a nation

2. With which one of the following statements concerning psychoanalytic and political interpretations of Kahlo’s work would the author be most likely to agree?

Pre-Thinking: For an inference question, we are looking for an answer that is completely supported by the passage. Or better yet, what does the author actually say about “psychoanalytic and political interpretations”?

Author mentions that the political side should also be studied since Kahlo was an ardent political activist who in her art sought not only to explore her own roots, but also to (10) champion Mexico’s struggle for an independent political and cultural identity.

(A) The psychoanalytic interpretations of Kahlo’s work tend to challenge the political interpretations.
[No mention that one view “challenges” the other.]

(B) Political and psychoanalytic interpretations are complementary approaches to Kahlo’s work. [True. Passage says: Yet Kahlo was an ardent political activist who in her art
sought not only to explore her own roots, but also to (10) champion Mexico’s struggle for an independent political and cultural identity.]

(C) Recent political interpretations of Kahlo’ s work are causing psychoanalytic critics to revise their own interpretations. [Out of scope. Not mentioned. In fact, the author wants psychoanalytic critics to look at political aspects…no statement of “revising” interpretations.]

(D) Unlike the political interpretations, the psychoanalytic interpretations make use of biographical facts of Kahlo’s life. [False. We don’t know for fact that Kahlo doesn’t use biographical facts in her political interpretations.]

(E) Kahlo’s mythic status among the audience Kahlo most wanted to reach is based upon the psychoanalytic rather than the political content of her work. [Her mythic status is mentioned in P4 but there is not mention of the “audience Kahlo most wanted to reach” was for psychoanalysis. Passage states her ethic status is because of her “use of familiar symbols in a readily accessible style.”]

3. Which one of the following stances toward the United States does the passage mention as characterizing Mexican nationalists in the early twentieth century?

Pre-Thinking: We’re looking at P2, since that discusses Mexican nationalists. In the paragraph, it says:

Mexican nationalism, reacting against contemporary United States political intervention in labor disputes as well as against past domination by Spain, identified the Aztecs as the last independent rulers of an indigenous
political unit.

We’re looking for an answer that describes nationalists being “against” United States’ interventions.

(A) opposition to United States involvement in internal Mexican affairs [True. Passage states exactly that they reacted against US itntervention in labor disputes, which can be loosely considered “internal Mexican affairs”. Let’s keep checking though!]

(B) desire to decrease emigration of the Mexican labor force to the United States [Not mentioned. Might be a trap if you focus on “intervention in labor disputes” BUT there is no proof of “decreas[ing] emigration.”]

(C) desire to improve Mexico’s economic competitiveness with the United States
[Not mentioned.]

(D) reluctance to imitate the United States model of rapid industrialization
[Not mentioned.]

(E) advocacy of a government based upon that of the Marxist Soviet Union rather than that of the United States
[Not mentioned.]

4. In the context of the passage, which one of the following phrases could best be substituted for the word “romantic” (line 24) without substantially changing the author’s meaning?

Pre-Thinking: In this sentence (Kahlo’s form of Mexicanidad, a romantic
(25) nationalism that focused upon traditional art uniting all indigenistas…), Kahlo marries all the different tendencies that were anti-Spanish idealisation AND emphasising contemporary Mexican Indians. This “romantic” aspect seems to be one that the author regards as too idealistically all-encompassing.

(A) dreamy and escapist [“Dreamy” could work but “escapist” is not correct. The passage would have include something like: art as a way to diverge from both tendencies.]
(B) nostalgic and idealistic [Match. But let’s keep looking.]
(C) fanciful and imaginative [Not relevant. “Fanciful” is not the right tone.]
(D) transcendental and impractical [Hm, also match. “Transcendental” is more like all encompassing (works for “uniting all indigenistas”) and “impractical” seems to fit too! — Edit: “Impractical” seems like too much of a derogatory/sarcastic tone. “Idealistic” matches the “romantic” better.]
(E) overwrought and sentimental [Nope! While “sentimental” does mean “romantic”, there is no evidence of being “overwrought”]

5. The passage mentions each of the following as an Aztec symbol or image found in Kahlo’s paintings EXCEPT a

Pre-Thinking: Since this is a detail question, we just check P3 and go down the line and make sure we find proof.

(A) skeleton [such as skeletons or bleeding hearts…]
(B) sculpture [an Aztec sculpture, a pre-Columbian temple,]
(C) serpent
(D) skull [and a skull alluding to those]
(E) bleeding heart [such as skeletons or bleeding hearts…]

6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

Pre-Thinking: Since this is general structure question, we can go to our summary of P3. P3 discuss her specific painting as an example of the author’s point in P2 (“romantic nationalism that focused upon traditional art uniting all indigenistas…”]. We are looking for an answer that describes an example being brought up and how it examines those implications.

(A) contrast of opposing ideas [Eh. But I’d be more inclined to expect it to be structured like: Idea A says one thing, however Idea B says another.]
(B) reconciliation of conflicting concepts [There is no reconciliation.]
(C) interrelation of complementary themes [“Interrelation” is mentioned but there are no complementary themes.]
(D) explication of a principle’s implications [What “principle”? Yes, “implication” is mentioned but not “a principle”!]
(E) support for a generalization by means of an example [Yes, there is an example of the artwork. The generalisation is that “the images of destruction coupled with creation speak to Kahlo’s personal battle for life but also to the Mexican struggle…]

7. The passage implies that Kahlo’s attitude toward the economic development of Mexico was

Pre-Thinking: Implies signals an inference of the tone question. We’re looking at P4:

….similarly, she favored planned economic
(55) development, but not at the expense of cultural
identity.

Kahlo seems to support it AS LONG AS It doesn’t hurt culture. So I’d say, she’s like warily supportive?

(A) enthusiastic [Too “positive”. Doesn’t account for the “AS LONG AS” piece.]
(B) condemnatory [Too negative!]
(C) cautious [Possible. Match!]
(D) noncommittal [Hmm, no, she seems to have an idea. This answer is too ambiguous.]
(E) uncertain [No, too ambiguous.]

8. The main purpose of the passage is to

Pre-Thinking: Author wants to share that we shouldn’t solely psychoanalyse her work from a biographical perspective. We need to examine it from a cultural/political perspective too!

(A) critique an artist’s style [No!]
(B) evaluate opposing theories [There are no “opposing theories”.]
(C) reconcile conflicting arguments [No arguments mentioned.]
(E) reconsider an artist in light of new discoveries [What new discoveries? To be correct, the author would have had to say that no one ever considered her work from a political view before.]

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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2020, 10:48
6 of 8 correct. I took 13:43 for all 8. Took 5:00 to read&map.

For #3 I got stuck and just ended up making a guess. I didn't think the US was involved in internal affairs, I just knew they were involved with labor disputes. I timed out and made a guess.

#6 was tough as well.
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Re: Painter Frida Kahlo (1910–1954) often used harrowing images derived   [#permalink] 21 Jun 2020, 10:48