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# passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases

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Joined: 09 Jun 2003
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passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2004, 06:20
passage 32
increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the old world for the staggering disparity between the indigenous population of america in 1492тАФnew estimates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approxi-<b>(5)</b> mately one-sixth of the human race at that timeтАФand the few million full-blooded native americans alive at the end of the nineteenth century. there is no doubt that chronic disease was an important factor in the precipi- tous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest <b>(10)</b> killer was epidemic disease, especially as manifested in virgin-soil epidemics.
virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the popula- tions at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi-<b>(15)</b> cally almost defenseless. that virgin-soil epidemics were important in american history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladiesтАФsmall- pox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several moreтАФwere unknown in the pre-columbian <b>(20)</b> new world. the effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of america, which contain reports of orrendous epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative analyses of spanish tribute records and <b>(25)</b> other sources. the evidence provided by the documents of british and french colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century, by which time the <b>(30)</b> worst epidemics had probably already taken place. furthermore, the british tended to drive the native populations away, rather than enslaving them as the spaniards did, so that the epidemics of british america occurred beyond the range of colonists' direct <b>(35)</b> observation. even so, the surviving records of north america do contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige nous population. in 1616-1619 an epidemic, possibly of bubonic or pneumonic plague, swept coastal new <b>(40)</b> england, killing as many as nine out of ten. during the 1630's smallpox, the disease most fatal to the native
american people, eliminated half the population of the huron and iroquois confederations. in the 1820's fever devastated the people of the columbia river area,<b>(45)</b> killing eight out of ten of them. unfortunately, the documentation of these and other epidemics is slight and frequently nreliable, and it is ecessary to supplement what little we do know with evidence from recent epidemics among native ameri<b>(50)</b> cans. for example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles among the native american inhabitants of ungava bay. quebec, affected 99 percent of the population and killed 7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern medicine. cases such as this demonstrate that even <b>(55)</b> diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating consequences when they strike an immunologically defenseless community.

1. the primary purpose of the passage is to
(a) refute a common misconception
(b) provide support for a hypothesis
(c) analyze an argument
(d) suggest a solution to a dilemma
(e) reconcile opposing viewpoints

2. according to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics
(a) recur more frequently than other chronic diseases
(b) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population
(c) involve populations with no prior exposure to a disease
(d) usually involve a number of interacting diseases
(e) are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases

3. according to the passage, the british colonists wereunlike the spanish colonists in that the british colonists
(a) collected tribute from the native population
(b) kept records from a very early date
(c) drove native americans off the land
(d) were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease
(e) enslaved the native populations in america

4. which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning spanish tribute records?
(a) they mention only epidemics of smallpox.
(b) they were instituted in 1492.
(c) they were being kept prior to the seventeenth century.
(d) they provide quantitative and qualitative evidence about native american populations.
(e) they prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-columbian new world.

5. the author implies which of the following about measles?
(a) it is not usually a fatal disease.
(b) it ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.
(c) it is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-soil epidemics.
(d) it was not a significant problem in spanish colonies.
(e) it affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it.

6. which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the native american inhabitants of ungava bay?
(a) they were almost all killed by the 1952 epidemic.
(b) they were immunologically defenseless against measles.
(c) they were the last native people to be struck by a virgin-soil epidemic.
(d) they did not come into frequent contact with white americans until the twentieth century.
(e) they had been inoculated against measles.

7. the author mentions the 1952 measles outbreak most probably in order to
(a) demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on epidemic disease
(b) corroborate the documentary evidence of epidemic disease in colonial america
(c) refute allegations of unreliability made against the historical record of colonial america
(d) advocate new research into the continuing problem of epidemic disease
(e) challenge assumptions about how the statistical evidence of epidemics should be interpreted

8. which of the following, if newly discovered, would most seriously weaken the author's argument concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in the depopulation of native americans?
(a) evidence setting the pre-columbian population of the new world at only 80 million
(b) spanish tribute records showing periodic population fluctuations
(c) documents detailing sophisticated native american medical procedures
(d) fossils indicating native american cortact with smallpox prior to 1492
(e) remains of french settlements dating back to the sixteenth century

Intern
Joined: 09 Mar 2004
Posts: 34
Location: Bombay

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2004, 07:47
1
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. E
7. B
8. B
Senior Manager
Joined: 23 Sep 2003
Posts: 282
Location: US

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2004, 08:20
1
1) B
2) C
3) C
4) C
5) A
6) B
7) B
8) D
Director
Joined: 03 Jul 2003
Posts: 636

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17 Mar 2004, 05:06
1) B
2) C
3) C
4) D
5) A
6) B
7) B
8) B

SVP
Joined: 06 Sep 2013
Posts: 1694
Concentration: Finance
Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2013, 14:50
passage 32
increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the old world for the staggering disparity between the indigenous population of america in 1492тАФnew estimates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approxi-<b>(5)</b> mately one-sixth of the human race at that timeтАФand the few million full-blooded native americans alive at the end of the nineteenth century. there is no doubt that chronic disease was an important factor in the precipi- tous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest <b>(10)</b> killer was epidemic disease, especially as manifested in virgin-soil epidemics.

virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the popula- tions at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi-<b>(15)</b> cally almost defenseless. that virgin-soil epidemics were important in american history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladiesтАФsmall- pox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several moreтАФwere unknown in the pre-columbian <b>(20)</b> new world. the effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of america, which contain reports of orrendous epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative analyses of spanish tribute records and <b>(25)</b> other sources. the evidence provided by the documents of british and french colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century, by which time the <b>(30)</b> worst epidemics had probably already taken place. furthermore, the british tended to drive the native populations away, rather than enslaving them as the spaniards did, so that the epidemics of british america occurred beyond the range of colonists' direct <b>(35)</b> observation. even so, the surviving records of north america do contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige nous population. in 1616-1619 an epidemic, possibly of bubonic or pneumonic plague, swept coastal new <b>(40)</b> england, killing as many as nine out of ten. during the 1630's smallpox, the disease most fatal to the native american people, eliminated half the population of the huron and iroquois confederations. in the 1820's fever devastated the people of the columbia river area,<b>(45)</b> killing eight out of ten of them. unfortunately, the documentation of these and other epidemics is slight and frequently nreliable, and it is ecessary to supplement what little we do know with evidence from recent epidemics among native ameri<b>(50)</b> cans. for example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles among the native american inhabitants of ungava bay. quebec, affected 99 percent of the population and killed 7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern medicine. cases such as this demonstrate that even <b>(55)</b> diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating consequences when they strike an immunologically defenseless community.

1. the primary purpose of the passage is to
(a) refute a common misconception
(b) provide support for a hypothesis
(c) analyze an argument
(d) suggest a solution to a dilemma
(e) reconcile opposing viewpoints

2. according to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics
(a) recur more frequently than other chronic diseases
(b) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population
(c) involve populations with no prior exposure to a disease
(d) usually involve a number of interacting diseases
(e) are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases

3. according to the passage, the british colonists wereunlike the spanish colonists in that the british colonists
(a) collected tribute from the native population
(b) kept records from a very early date
(c) drove native americans off the land
(d) were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease
(e) enslaved the native populations in america

4. which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning spanish tribute records?
(a) they mention only epidemics of smallpox.
(b) they were instituted in 1492.
(c) they were being kept prior to the seventeenth century.
(d) they provide quantitative and qualitative evidence about native american populations.
(e) they prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-columbian new world.

5. the author implies which of the following about measles?
(a) it is not usually a fatal disease.
(b) it ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.
(c) it is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-soil epidemics.
(d) it was not a significant problem in spanish colonies.
(e) it affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it.

6. which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the native american inhabitants of ungava bay?
(a) they were almost all killed by the 1952 epidemic.
(b) they were immunologically defenseless against measles.
(c) they were the last native people to be struck by a virgin-soil epidemic.
(d) they did not come into frequent contact with white americans until the twentieth century.
(e) they had been inoculated against measles.

7. the author mentions the 1952 measles outbreak most probably in order to
(a) demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on epidemic disease
(b) corroborate the documentary evidence of epidemic disease in colonial america
(c) refute allegations of unreliability made against the historical record of colonial america
(d) advocate new research into the continuing problem of epidemic disease
(e) challenge assumptions about how the statistical evidence of epidemics should be interpreted

8. which of the following, if newly discovered, would most seriously weaken the author's argument concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in the depopulation of native americans?
(a) evidence setting the pre-columbian population of the new world at only 80 million
(b) spanish tribute records showing periodic population fluctuations
(c) documents detailing sophisticated native american medical procedures
(d) fossils indicating native american cortact with smallpox prior to 1492
(e) remains of french settlements dating back to the sixteenth century

I'll comment on my answers shortly, stay tuned
SVP
Joined: 06 Sep 2013
Posts: 1694
Concentration: Finance
Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2013, 06:03
Hey Surat, too many RC without OA's.
Would you kindly let us know the answer for this one

Folks, FYI I got
BCCCABEA

Cheers
J
Intern
Joined: 07 Dec 2013
Posts: 5
Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2014, 06:31
i need explanation for question 4,5,8
Manager
Status: A mind once opened never loses..!
Joined: 05 Mar 2015
Posts: 204
Location: India
MISSION : 800
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Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2015, 23:08
1. It is to propose a Native American historian who disappeared reason why so fast is that it may be infectious , after author is through the various examples prove most likely to be infectious , so the text is to provide support for this hypothesis , the election B.

2. Consistent with item C of the meaning , not exposed too early in the crowd , that is, before people had any contact .

3. the British tended to drive the native populations away, rather than enslaving them as the Spaniards did C

4. Why it is not important because they are not continuous recording colonists these circumstances , and continuous recording time in the 17th century when the Spaniards . So choose C.

5. Because of this disease in the past people have not been exposed . B This disease is stopped in the 17th century , is wrong , the paper did not mention when the end . C This disease is very often involved in the virgin epidemic , the disease should be is subordinate to the Virgin epidemic at that time. D it's not very important in Spain chronic in error, it is very high due to the virgin epidemic mortality rate , then the disease should be more important . E There are only, too definitely , it should be excluded . By process of elimination , the election A.

6. Since before the disease does not happen here too , people have no immunity to measles , so should choose B.

7. For example 1952 it was to prove a rare pathogen on virgin epidemiological evidence in the United States. So you should choose B.

8. It is to find out the cause of death can not prove cause epidemics virgin. D entry in 1492 before fossil prove Native American people have already contacted the disease, and contrary to the concept of virgin epidemic. Therefore, the election D.
_________________

Thank you

+KUDOS

> I CAN, I WILL <

Intern
Joined: 08 Jan 2017
Posts: 15
Location: India
GMAT 1: 630 Q45 V31
GPA: 4
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Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases  [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2019, 23:53
What is the difficulty level of the given passage?

Thank you
Re: passage 32 increasingly, historians are blaming diseases   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2019, 23:53
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