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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average

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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.

Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2015, 23:08
Quite a simple one imho.

What would most seriously weaken the statement that people who do a lot of volunteer work also tend to live longer based on the fact that they are subject to higher endorphine levels?

-> If those people that are engaged in volunteer work already belong to a group that is on average more healthy and fitter than others. If that is the case the objected group is not a good picture of the total population.

-> As a result one can assume that these people would live longer any way, no matter if they do volunteer work or not.

Answer Choice D

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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vikasbansal227 wrote:
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer. on average, than people who do not. It has
been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.
Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

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Argument Analysis :
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer.
volunteer work, releases endorphins and Endo Makes people feel well.
Conclusion : Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives
In other word, Endo -> well being -> Live long

We need to find the weakener for this cause effect argument.
Weakener can be
1. Alternate cause
2. Cause happened before effect or cause caused effect.

Only Option D says, Effect is cause. Hence Option D is good weakener Rest are out of scope.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2015, 21:11
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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer. on average, than people who do not. It has
been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.
Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

Type: Weaken
Boil It Down: Volunteer -> Endorphins -> Live longer
Missing Information: There are no other factors causing these people to live longer
Goal: Find the option that exposes another reason why these people are living longer other than endorphins

Whether the people “doing good” are or are not aware that it would be classified as “doing good” is entirely irrelevant. What is relevant is whether “doing good” is responsible.

Out of Focus. Are EXTREMELY high endorphin levels within the focus of discussion in this prompt? No. Boot it.

The fraction of people who do this kind of work is also outside of the logical focus of this argument. This argument deals with people who do volunteer, not what fraction of people in general volunteer.

Yes! This option exposes that the people who volunteer tend to be healthier and energetic to begin with. Therefore maybe their greater longevity has nothing to do with the volunteerism, but rather they’re predisposition to longer lives anyhow.

Are we at all concerned with the sensation that runners feel? Mind-bogglingly out of focus. This option takes us on a total tangent.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 13:03
This is a Cause and Effect relationship. A reverse relationship will undermine the statement and that's what we get from option

D This tells us that healthy people tend to get involved in voluntary work and not the vice cersa.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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Different reasoning!!

As per my understanding for option D:

It provides an alternate cause for the Effect ( Endo-->Longevity ). As per option D people are healthier and energetic and therefore will have longevity. It provides an alternate cause ( not endo...) for longevity of people. People are healthier and energetic ( reason for longevity ) and joins volunteer work . Clearly states Endo..is not the reason for longevity.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 21:07
People who do volunteering tend to live longer because they feel happy because of the endorphin release.
Conclusion:Volunteering work extend's people's lives.

We need to weaken this conclusion.

1. What if something else increases the lives?
2. What if the persons are already healthy?
In these cases, we cannot conclude that endorphins released as a result of volunteering increase lives

Of the given option, option D resonates with point 2

Correct Option: D

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 22:57
WillGetIt wrote:
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.

Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

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One way to undermine A --> B, is to somehow show that infact B --> A.

The argument says that Volunteering --> Feeling of well being.

If somehow we can show that a healthy lifestyle / feeling of well being infact promotes volunteering, the argument will be undermined.

Option D does that.

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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 04:43
ANSWER IS D

The statement commits the logical fallacy of "Non Causa Pro causa" Which when translated in English means .. It is not the cause, but it is the effect.
The same mistaken reversal is happening in the question.

Voltuneer work -->Felling good-->release of Endopherenin are cited as the reason for living longer BUT in reality people who are already healthy and energetic and are thus already likely to live longer are the ones who are doing volunteer work.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.
THUS D IS THE ANSWER

WillGetIt wrote:
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.

Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2017, 10:46
in the statement, X causes Y.

If we find a choice that Y causes X, it is the answer, which is D.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2017, 04:50
X(working as volunteers leads to endorphines release) ===> causes Y(life extension)
Assumptions:
1. Working as volunteers doesn't itself requires for good physical condition
2. Any other cause doesn't make those people who are engaged in volunteerism to live longer

Option D clearly undermines the conclusion.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2017, 08:43
WillGetIt wrote:
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.

Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

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I agree with all that correct answer is D, but I am not able to justify the reasoning to reject E.

As the evidence says " People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not ". These words in bold can be weakened by evidence provided in Option E.
As per my understanding of the question only those people will live longer who do volunteer work. Option E defies it saying that you do not have to be voluteer worked to live long. You can also be a long distance runner to live long.

Experts /friends please help!!!
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People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 09:11
Clear D
Because it says the ones who get involved with volunteer work are ones who are healthy to beging with and therefore it is not the volunteer work that is responsible for their long life (because they were already healthy before startomg volunteer work) -> cause (volunteer work) and effect (longer life) relationship in the questions stem does not hold in this option and hence it weakens the argument
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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2017, 00:18
282552 wrote:
WillGetIt wrote:
People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that ‘doing good.’ a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain's natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people's lives.

Which of the following, it true most seriously undermine the force of the evidence given as support the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity

(A) People who do regular volunteer work are only somewhat more likely than others to characterize the work they do for as a ‘doing good.’

(B) Although extremely high levels of endorphins could be harmful to health, such levels are never reached as a result of the natural release of endorphins.

(C) There are many people who have done some volunteer work but who do not do such work regularly.

(D) People tend not to become involved in regular volunteer work unless they are healthy and energetic to begin with.

(E) Releases of endorphins are responsible for the sense of well-being experienced by many long-distance runners while running.

"Please hit "+1 kudos" to appreciate, if you like this post"


I agree with all that correct answer is D, but I am not able to justify the reasoning to reject E.

As the evidence says " People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not ". These words in bold can be weakened by evidence provided in Option E.
As per my understanding of the question only those people will live longer who do volunteer work. Option E defies it saying that you do not have to be voluteer worked to live long. You can also be a long distance runner to live long.

Experts /friends please help!!!


Hi,

I had similar thoughts initially. But on finer inspection, you will see that answer choice E is giving a cause (i.e., running) for our stated cause (i.e., release of endorphins).

It then goes on to say that the release of endorphins (cause) leads to a sense of well-being (effect). Does it talk about LONGEVITY? As the effect we are looking for is longevity, answer choice E is incomplete; hence, it is incorrect.

I hope that this helps.

Regards,

Aiena.

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Re: People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer on average   [#permalink] 10 Nov 2017, 00:18
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