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Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own

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Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 70
Page: 144
Difficulty:

Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year. This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms. Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide. Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions. So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

In evaluating the argument, which of the following would be most useful to establish?

A. Whether corn could be bioengineered to produce the insecticide
B. Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year
C. Whether other crops that have been bioengineered to produce their own insecticide successfully resist the pests against which the insecticide was to protect them
D. Whether plantings of bioengineered cotton are frequently damaged by insect pests other than bollworms
E. Whether there are insecticides that can be used against bollworms that have developed resistance to the insecticide produced by the bioengineered cotton
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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Going with B
I think B supports the overwhelm theory.

Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year.

Last edited by anindyat on 13 Dec 2006, 10:03, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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I will go with B. B clearly establishes that it is not just the resistant cotton that are getting affected and that bio engineering had nothing to do with how much they were affected by the bollworms.

imaru wrote:
Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year. This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms. Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton’s insecticide. Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions. So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

In evaluating the argument, which of the following would be most useful to establish?

A. Whether corn could be bioengineered to produce the insecticide
This will not tell us why the plantings were affected this year.
B. Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year

C. Whether other crops that have been bioengineered to produce their own insecticide successfully resist the pests against which the insecticide was to protect them
The effect of bio engineering on other crops may be different from that on cotton, so cannot establish anything by knowing this

D. Whether plantings of bioengineered cotton are frequently damaged by insect pests other than bollworms
The argument is about bollworms specifically, this is out of scope
E. Whether there are insecticides that can be used against bollworms that have developed resistance to the insecticide produced by the bioengineered cotton
they could again get resistant to the new insecticide, not really solving the problem of why the plantings were so affected this year

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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What is the conclusion here?

It is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

Lets take B. It says "Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year". Lets say the damage is high for cotton plants that do not produce insecticide. What can we conclude out of that? The damage could be because of high infestation of bollworms in that particular region, or because of natural occurence, or the artificial insecticide used was not good enough. Based on this information, how can we evaluate the conclusion reached in the argument?

What if the damage is low. Does that mean cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms? It could also mean bioengineered cotton is not producing isecticide and also there are corn-bred bollworms.

I think B is not a perfect option. Seems to be the best among worst.

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New post 16 Dec 2006, 15:39
So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

this conclusion talks about COTTON in general, whereas argument only accounted for bio^(&*@%$ one... therefore, we must know something about non-bio%*&^& one to evaluate the conclusion. B does that.

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2011, 13:58
I picked B...because it will indicate that the study of the bollworm infestation in cotton is relevant enough by looking at all data samples.

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New post 20 Jul 2013, 10:27
bagdbmba wrote:
Is there any expert's analysis for this question?

e-GMAT- can you please help?

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Why is D wrong??

We need to evaluate the argument..
We can either strengthen or weaken the argument. D states that something else could have caused to for the effect.

Need experts opinion...
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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2013, 10:46
jaituteja wrote:

Why is D wrong??

We need to evaluate the argument..
We can either strengthen or weaken the argument. D states that something else could have caused to for the effect.

Need experts opinion...


I)The argument talks about "this year".
II)We know what is causing all the damage.
This year (I) the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms (II).

D. Whether plantings of bio engineered cotton are frequently damaged by insect pests other than boll worms.

D has two problems:
I)Does not have a time frame. Are "frequently damaged"... we cannot infere that this is happening this year as well nor that the damage of the past years has some reflection on this year's cotton.
II)Since we already know what is causing the damage, the info abut other pests is not relevant.

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2013, 10:49
Yes, evaluate argument can be strengthen or weakener. But here the other insects are irrelevant since the argument talks about insecticide for bollworms. The core of argument to focus on
Quote:
it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms
The strengthener or weakener should support or disprove this statement. Answer choice B strengthens this by stating that non genetically engineered cotton also has excessive damage.. While answer choice D talks about insects, which doesn't help evaluate the effects of bollworms.

Hope this is clear.
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Found a good explanation on the beatthegmat from a gmat expert:
First, identify the conclusion: it is likely that the genetically-engineered cotton is being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms instead of being attacked by bollworms that are developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide.

Evidence: More corn than usual was planted, and bollworms breed on corn.

The argument is not very convincing, as the reader is not given enough evidence to decide which of the two possible reasons for the damage (resistance or abundance of corn) is the actual reason. It may well be that both are contributing factors, nor can we be sure that there is no other factors.

Look for evidence that favors one reason over the other.

A is irrelevant
B is very helpful, for if the answer is 'yes', the corn explanation seems more plausible. If the answer is 'no', the corn explanation loses all credibility: if other cotton is not damaged to an unusual extent, then it seems unlikely that they are more worms.
C is irrelevant
D is irrelevant
E is irrelevant
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New post 25 May 2015, 18:49
I think non are relevant answers.
This is y I think B is irelevant:
First the argument talk about cotton that is self producing insecticide plus as stated in the argument " Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide", so B talks about other type of cotton. how we can confirm or not confirm if the more than usual presence of corn affects the self producing cotton if we evaluate what happens with other type of cotton, it is purely irrelevant. Second thing since the argument talks about position of corn to cotton filed and that is what we need to evaluate, we don't know the position of any corn in B and how this affects the non self producing cotton. On these 2 lines I think B is not correct and at least not convincing argument to evaluate it the more than usual corn presence is the culprit. Maybe there was some mutation of the worm, or weather issues that led the cotton not to develop enough pesticide, or at least to say that there is certain amount of how much the cotton can defense itself from the worm, but comparing that to other group that we know noting about it is not giving enough evidence to confirm or deflect the presence of the corn.

I think CR can be very subjective, it really depends on the assumption of the author and to think and to reason the same way how the author thinks in ordered to get correct solution in their terms.

And how the GMAC protect itself from this claim, Well they will say chose the best answer not the perfect one or teh best from all worst answers, this is where GMAC has place for manipulation.

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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year. This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms. Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide. Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions. So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

Conclusion : . So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.
Premise : This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms


In evaluating the argument, which of the following would be most useful to establish?

A. Whether corn could be bioengineered to produce the insecticide
This option doesn't add any value as we are discussing cotton plantings

B. Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year
The conclusion states that cotton plantings are overwhelmed by the bollworms.
cotton plantings is summation of :
1) Cotton Plantings bio-engineered to produce insecticides
2) Cotton plantings without the feature to produce insecticides.

As cotton plantings which can produce insecticides are not effected as "Bollworms are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide",
So the other plantings should be affected so that total plantings of cotton are affected.

Hence option B) makes proper sense.

Application of variance Test.

Answer the question posted by option B is
Yes, plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year.
Then conclusion holds

No, plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are not suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year.
Then conclusion breaks.


C. Whether other crops that have been bioengineered to produce their own insecticide successfully resist the pests against which the insecticide was to protect them
We are not discussing other crops.

D. Whether plantings of bioengineered cotton are frequently damaged by insect pests other than bollworms
We are not discussing insect pests other than bollworms

E. Whether there are insecticides that can be used against bollworms that have developed resistance to the insecticide produced by the bioengineered cotton
How can that explain this? This option is essentially saying insecticide X is developed resistance against the insecticide by bioengineered cotton.
So Insecticide X is used against bollworms.


Hence B) . Do note the distracting introduced by GMAT "Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions". It gives an idea that corn is somehow responsible.
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New post 20 Jul 2015, 04:26
i chose b
i think b is correct because if bollworms are damaging non pesticide producing cotton as well as the pesticide producing then the initial experiment of pesticide producing cotton is a failure and bollworms are just eating into all types of cotton crops, then these bollworms are cotton fed or corn fed does not make a difference.

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New post 20 Aug 2016, 05:08
The author has clearly mentioned that
Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year.
"Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide". A second entity, corn is brought into the picture only to confuse us and choose point A.

Since worms have not gained any resistance to cottons insecticide, the only option for heavy damage to the cotton crops would be because, farmers would have planted cotton which are not able to produce insecticide. Hence the cause of heavy damage.

Answer is B.

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Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year. This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms. Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide. Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions. So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

In evaluating the argument, which of the following would be most useful to establish?


Type - Evaluate
Boil it down -it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

A. Whether corn could be bioengineered to produce the insecticide - This statement fails to address the issue
B. Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year - Correct
Applying variance test - If the answer to this statement is Yes , then bollworms have affected all types of cotton . Then conclusion is valid
On the other hand , if the answer to this statement is No , then bollworms have inflicted extensive damage only on cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms.

C. Whether other crops that have been bioengineered to produce their own insecticide successfully resist the pests against which the insecticide was to protect them - Out of scope
D. Whether plantings of bioengineered cotton are frequently damaged by insect pests other than bollworms - Out of scope
E. Whether there are insecticides that can be used against bollworms that have developed resistance to the insecticide produced by the bioengineered cotton - Irrelevant

Answer B
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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2017, 06:01
bagdbmba wrote:
Is there any expert's analysis for this question?

e-GMAT- can you please help?

Much thanks.


Hi,

Here is the awesome analysis of e-gmat by CJ

http://www.beatthegmat.com/cr-cotton-ballworm-question-t276390.html#718967

Happy Prepping
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Re: Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2017, 04:24
CLEARLY THIS ANSWER HAS TO DO WITH THE GMAT PREFERENCE FOR NO OVER YES IN TERMS OF YES NO QUESTIONS. SINCE B DOESN'T REALLY WORK IF YOU SAY YES BUT WORKS WELL IF YOU SAY NO AND E DOESN'T REALLY WORK IF YOU SAY NO BUT WORKS IF YOU SAY YES.

I love how you guys just dismiss the other answer choices. let's look at the questions again:

Plantings of cotton bioengineered to produce its own insecticide against bollworms, a major cause of crop failure, sustained little bollworm damage until this year. This year the plantings are being seriously damaged by bollworms. Bollworms, however, are not necessarily developing resistance to the cotton's insecticide. Bollworms breed on corn, and last year more corn than usual was planted throughout cotton-growing regions. So it is likely that the cotton is simply being overwhelmed by corn-bred bollworms.

In evaluating the argument, which of the following would be most useful to establish?


B. Whether plantings of cotton that does not produce the insecticide are suffering unusually extensive damage from bollworms this year



I think the GMAT likes us to ask YES NO questions. So Let's say YES that this corn has suffered extensive damage. THEN

*is a really really really really really really crappy answer. Literally the question said that cotton that was bioengineered to protect against bullworm suffered extensive damage this year. So who the hell cares if the cotton that isn't bionengineered suffered more extensive damage. The last line of the question is awful GMAT writing because it says corn which can be deduced to mean either all corn or only the corn that is bioengineered. Since the GMAT only talks about this type of corn it would be unfair to look at the other type. Therefore B is almost irrelevant. If we did know non bio-engineered cotton suffered extensive damage this year. We could agree that the bullworm was more active than last year but really the answer is supposed to be discussing cotton that has developed a resistance.

Now if we answered NO

If we answered no then we could conclude that the bullworm is unlikely overwhelming it and there is some other reason the cotton plant struggled so this would help us evaluate the argument. So a NO answer is kind of good.

So B is perhaps so so so so smally marginally better than E. Both you have to use a YES/NO spread and evaluate.

E. Whether there are insecticides that can be used against bollworms that have developed resistance to the insecticide produced by the bioengineered cotton

This answer is also terrible. If we answered YES to this question then we could see if the cotton is being overwhelmed by bullworms because they would have resistance to them. If we answered NO then it doesn't help the question. Since if there is a NO then we are just back where we started. Also yes is kind of flaky as it doesn't say it will be used. I guess B is the right answer. It shows the GMAT has a preference for negating arguments rather than making them. In the real world assuming YES/NO is a 50/50 chance than both E and B would be used.

A farmer would want to know right away if there was an insecticide that had resistance to the bullworm and see if it was actually overwhelmed or if it was that a super large amount of bullworms now had resistance.

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