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Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began...

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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2017, 00:40
Hi mikemcgarry ,

Could you explain me the answer choice of question 1 that is A . I marked answer choice C and would like to know that why is it wrong ?
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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2017, 20:50
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Kritesh wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry,

Could you explain me the answer choice of question 1 that is A . I marked answer choice C and would like to know that why is it wrong ?

Dear Kritesh,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's Question #1 with answer (A) & (C):
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) qualify an established scholarly viewpoint regarding a certain issue
(C) delineate the historical events that led to a change in scholarly opinion


What, in the passage, is the "scholarly viewpoint" or "scholarly opinion"? This is the view stated at the beginning:
Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began with the great achievements of the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
That is the "scholarly viewpoint". The author does not entirely agree with this--in other word, he "qualifies" it. In effect, he says, "It's true in this respect, but not in that respect."

Much of the argument does "delineate the historical events," but the author is not doing this to to demonstrate what lead to a change in that view. Quite the opposite, that scholarly view is already well-established and presented as a fait accompli at the beginning. The list of historical event is part of this authors attempt, not refute the scholarly view, but to "qualify" it.

Choice (A) involves a very tricky secondary meaning of the verb "to qualify." In this sense, it means "to limit or modify the truth, power, or meaning of"

Suppose someone says, "Candidate J is the best candidate ever! He will save the world!" That's whole-hearted support. This first speaker is 100% behind candidate J.
Suppose someone else say, "Candidate J is overall a good candidate. He is strong on issues A, B, and C, but weaker on issues X, Y, and Z." This is qualified support. This second speaker is still behind Candidate J, but less than 100%.

Suppose someone make an argument: "X always leads to Y." This first speaker presents the argument as 100% true.
If someone else shows the argument is 100% false, he has refuted the argument. That's hard to do.
If yet someone else demonstrates that the argument is usually true, say 85% of the time, but that sometimes it's not true under certain conditions, then this person has qualified the argument.

To refute an argument is extreme: that is to go from white to black.
To qualify an argument is to introduce nuance--to offset the white with shades of gray.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2017, 01:30
Imo A E D
All correct .
Question 1 was bit difficult and i reached the answer only by means of POE.
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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 08:03
The original topic is missing a question from this passage, which felippemed posted:

3) It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning modem science?

A) The use of experiments is the crucial factor enabling scientists to engage in what can properly be described as modem science.
B) A certain set of scientific achievements had to be accomplished before scientists could engage in modem science.
C) The scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks the beginning of what should be considered modem science.
D) The origins of modern science can be traced back to the articulation of a particular approach to the study of nature.
E) Any scientific experiments conducted before the sixteenth century were unlikely to reflect a focus on modem science

OA is D, but I chose A.

In the passage, it says: The one important ingredient of modern science that was missing prior to the sixteenth century was the widespread use of experiments, and the scientific revolution of the sixteenth century began when scientists started to use experiments to discover new answers to questions that had already been pondered for several centuries.

Seems like A would be pretty straight-forward?

Can someone please explain why D is correct / why A is incorrect? mikemcgarry
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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2017, 11:59
okay wrote:
The original topic is missing a question from this passage, which felippemed posted:

3) It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning modem science?

A) The use of experiments is the crucial factor enabling scientists to engage in what can properly be described as modem science.
B) A certain set of scientific achievements had to be accomplished before scientists could engage in modem science.
C) The scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks the beginning of what should be considered modem science.
D) The origins of modern science can be traced back to the articulation of a particular approach to the study of nature.
E) Any scientific experiments conducted before the sixteenth century were unlikely to reflect a focus on modem science

OA is D, but I chose A.

In the passage, it says: The one important ingredient of modern science that was missing prior to the sixteenth century was the widespread use of experiments, and the scientific revolution of the sixteenth century began when scientists started to use experiments to discover new answers to questions that had already been pondered for several centuries.

Seems like A would be pretty straight-forward?

Can someone please explain why D is correct / why A is incorrect? mikemcgarry

Dear okay,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

Choice (A) is a brilliant trap answer and choice (D) is correct.

The wording of (A) is tricky. If (A) had been, "The use of experiments is crucial in modern science as we now understand it," then that would be slam-dunk correct, although a little outside of the content of the passage. The passage is about when the worldview known as modern science can into being. The author begins by saying, "Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began with the great achievements of the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries." In the very next sentence, though, we get "however," a big logical shift. The author things modern scientific thought began earlier, and he cites Jean Buridan (1295-1363) as an example of someone who understood an important part of modern scientific thought. The author make clear that the emphasis on experiments came a few centuries later, so Buridan was an example of someone who was able, at least to some extent, to "engage in what can properly be described as modem science" without the experimental perspective. Thus, the author actually would disagree with (A)--it contradicts the main argument he makes in the passage!

The author says that the origins of science can be traced back to the 14th century, and again, he cites Jean Buridan as someone who "argued that science is predicated on the assumption of the 'common course of nature.'” The author goes on: "This profound assumption represented a major shift in scholarly focus from the theological investigation of the uncommon or miraculous to the attempted explanation of the regular structure and operation of the world in purely rational and secular terms." Thus, according to the author, the origin of science began when people started talking about looking at nature differently than anyone had before. In other words,
"The origins of modern science can be traced back to the articulation of a particular approach to the study of nature."

Thus, (A) is a tempting trap, but (D) is the best answer.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began... [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 10:26
what is the problem with choice E in the question 2?


I cannot figure out why A is correct.

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Re: Prevailing scholarly opinion holds that modern science began...   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2017, 10:26

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