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Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of

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Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of  [#permalink]

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Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of exalting motherhood at the expense of fatherhood. Sigmund Freud considered the mother, but not the father, to have a prominent role in infant development. Gadpaille argues that maternalism is instinctual to females, not only in the species but in mammals generally. He warns that anyone advocating ―male mothering may bring harm to everyone concerned.‖ Strongly influenced by such psychological theory, our culture has been taken in by the ―"superiority of mother" theory.

Benjamin Spock, in a six-hundred-page book on child care, devotes just three pages to the role of fathers. While he admits that a man does not sacrifice his masculinity, Spock thinks child care is something the father should do only occasionally—just to help the mother out. Fathers who win custody of children in divorce proceedings are often advised that they should immediately hire full-time housekeepers to function as surrogate mothers.

But, alas, mothers who win custody are not told to provide surrogate fathers for them. Margaret Mead, the famous anthropologist, once remarked that ―"fathers are a biological necessity but a social accident" Throughout the nineteenth and much of the twentieth century, our culture has been quite comfortable with this stereotypical view of fathers. ―"Less than ten percent of the scientific studies of parents have taken the father‘s role into account, in spite of the fact that half of all parents are fathers" Society has not yet changed in any major ways with regard to fathers as nonparents. However, researchers have finally realized that ―"the motherhood role is not an inherited behaviour pattern, but a learned set of social skills."

Female children begin learning these social skills at a very early age; society makes no effort to see that boys learn these same social skills. Theories of ―maternal instinct‖ and attachment or bonding as being exclusively maternal are now being called into question. Infants bond with both the mother and the father. A growing body of literature now reveals that fathers do have potential nurturance just as mothers do. Men are increasingly demanding to be accepted as nurturant parents rather than just the provider and protector.

Young men are beginning to reject the models of parenting provided by their fathers and are searching for ways to become parents as well as fathers. A radical restructuring of maleness and fatherhood is currently under way. Fathering and mothering are two distinct parental roles. When a male is nurturant, he is fathering, not mothering. Both mothering and fathering are valid roles, but they are by no means identical.

1. Fathers who exhibit which of the following actions could count on the author of this passage to give them his greatest support?

A. Buying educational toys for their children
B. Reading bedtime stories to their children
C. Leaving their children with female babysitters
D. Working in order to pay for family expenses
E. Being nice to their wives


2. What is the primary aim of the passage?

A. To argue that women are more important than men
B. To assert that men lack in maternal instinct
C. To criticize men for neglecting their children
D. To describe the changing role of men in modern examples of parenthood
E. To decry the concept of motherhood


3. The existence of which of these findings would most strongly challenge Sigmund Freud‘s opinion as it is presented in the passage?

A. The personality of infants is strongly influenced by their mothers
B. The personality of infants is strongly influenced by their fathers
C. The personality of infants is weakly influenced by their siblings
D. The personality of infants is weakly influenced by their grandparents
E. The personality of infants is affected by many factors


4. Based on information provided by the author in the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. The author contends that both males and females should participate in raising children.
B. Gadpaille asserts that females do not have to learn about raising children.
C. Benjamin Spock argues that males should not be heavily involved in raising children.
D. Margaret Mead believed that males have a major role to play in raising children.
E. Freud argues that women are more important than men when it comes


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Originally posted by sandysilva on 25 Jan 2018, 09:43.
Last edited by broall on 25 Jan 2018, 23:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2018, 18:12

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Re: Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2018, 04:19

Topic and Scope

- The author argues for an expanded idea of the role of fatherhood.

Mapping the Passage


¶1 introduces society's focus on maternalism (Freud, Gadpaille).
¶2 describes the lack of focus on fatherhood (Spock).
¶3 describes scientific and societal bias against the role of the father (Mead)
¶4 suggests that the motherhood role is learned rather than biological.
¶5 argues that fatherhood is a unique and necessary role.
Strategy Points: Move quickly through long paragraphs filled with examples. Passages will often include multiple examples to illustrate the same basic point. Remember to note key people (i.e. Freud) mentioned. Questions will often contrast the author's opinions with the opinions of people mentioned within the passage.
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Re: Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2018, 04:21

Answers and Explanations OE


1)

The author only makes two major points in the passage: fatherhood should get more respect, and fathers should play more of a role in raising their children. The passage states that a father should be more than "the provider and protector." Only B goes beyond those roles.
(A): Opposite. This fits the "provider" role.
(B): The Correct Answer
(C): Opposite. This is almost identical to the situation outlined at the end of ¶2, of which the author clearly disapproves.
(D): Opposite. This also fits the "provider" role.
(E): Out of scope

2)

The passage is mainly concerned with demonstration how men are taking more and more interest in bringing up children. ‗D‘ sums this up very nicely.
(A): Out of scope. The author makes no such comparison.
(B): Opposite. The passage provides information contrary to this.
(C): Opposite. This was the case earlier.
(D): The correct answer
(E): Out of scope. ‗Decry‘ means to criticise. The author never criticises motherhood.

3)

Paraphrase Freud‘s opinion, as stated in ¶1: mothers have a major role in infant development; father‘s don‘t. We‘re looking for the opposite. With the paraphrase and careful thought beforehand, (B) yields instant points.
(A): Opposite. This would support Dr Freud.
(B): The Correct Answer
(C): Out of Scope. The passage doesn‘t deal with siblings.
(D): Out of Scope.
(E): Does not challenge Freud

4)

The author is big on fatherhood; look for an answer choice that either disputes this or would challenge a claim made in the passage. Alternatively, you can eliminate the three statements that fit with the author‘s goals. (D) runs directly counter to the point of the Margaret Mead quote.
(A): Opposite. The passage‘s main point.
(B): Opposite. Mentioned in ¶1.
(C): Opposite. Also in ¶2.
(D): The Correct answer
(E): Opposite. Mentioned in ¶1.
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Re: Psychology has reflected and contributed to the cultural bias of &nbs [#permalink] 26 Oct 2018, 04:21
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